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TitleVirtual Reality and the Built Environment
PublisherArchitectural Press
ISBN 139780080520667
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.8 MB
Total Pages165
Table of Contents
                            Virtual Reality and the Built Environment
Copyright Page
Contents
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
Picture credits
Chapter 1. Using virtual reality
	What is virtual reality?
	Historical context
	Focus on applications
Chapter 2. Maps, models and virtual reality
	Representations
	Maps and models
	Understanding virtual reality
	Revealing hidden structure
Chapter 3. Building prototypes
	Simulating dynamic operation
	Co-ordinating detail design
	Scheduling construction
	Drivers, barriers and issues
Chapter 4. Design and wider involvement
	New markets
	Demonstrating technical competence
	Design review
	Marketing
	Generating design?
	Drivers, barriers and issues
Chapter 5. Revisiting the urban map
	Urban management and use
	Drivers, barriers and issues
Chapter 6. Practical implications
	Design visualization in the project-based firm
	Industrial context and issues
	Reorganizing practice
	Concluding remarks
References
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Virtual Reality and the
Built Environment

Page 82

project. Disney Imagineering worked with Stanford
University on this project (Bonsang and Fischer, 2000) and
felt that Stanford modelling expertise was a good fit with
their expertise in high-end visualization solutions and finan-
cial rigour. Paradise Pier covers one-third of the total
Disneyland Park at Anaheim, California, and was opened in
January 2001. The 4D-CAD package enabled CAD data to
be linked with scheduling information and viewed in a real-
time environment.

Virtual Reality Modelling Language was used, and the
model was created by first importing geometric data from
the CAD package. This geometric data was then linked with
process data for each activity, which was obtained from
scheduling packages such as Primavera. These links were
made manually, as the process involved making complex
decisions that could not be automated. Activity types need
to be created and planners and architects needed to agree
on a terminology for the different activities. The 4D-CAD
model used in the construction of Paradise Pier consists
of about 500 000 polygons, 380 CAD shapes and 1000
links to the schedule.

The model allowed Disney Imagineering Research and
Development to save money and orchestrate manpower as
it enables the general contractor to say things such as ‘I
can’t put this in here as that is in the way’. As well as
simple clash detection the model allowed visual analysis
of the suitability of lay down areas, which are temporary
areas used to prepare the next job and can cause conflicts.
Disney Imagineering used a large screen to display the
models. They felt that a key lesson was that presence

3.9
Packages such as NavisWorks
can be used to dynamically
assess construction sequences.
This image is of a gatehouse
project by the engineering
consultancy Taylor Woodrow

Building prototypes 67

Page 83

within a virtual environment was useful for creating connec-
tions between people, rather than just enhancing under-
standing of the data. One engineer summed this up as
�Problems found together are solved together�.

Disney Imagineering Research and Development looked at
4D-CAD as a tool to improve engineering sensibility and
construction management. The Walt Disney Company
designs, builds, owns and operates a vast amount of real
estate across the globe, in the form of various Disneyland
theme parks and other retail outlets. Disney Imagineering
Research and Development was interested in what made
most sense for Disney companies, and they found 4D-CAD
a good match with their needs. The tool provides an inter-
active visualization in which spatial and temporal data
regarding the construction process are linked. They felt
that by investing capital in this they could save on construc-
tion costs.

Disney Imagineering Research and Development is inter-
ested in using a simulation-based approach to design.
Eventually they would like tools that have embedded within
them an appreciation of the physical engineering process,
and that look at life cycle costing and building perfor-
mance issues. In this regard they find 4D-CAD a good
place to tackle quantitative analytical approach to
construction. As they own and operate the buildings they
can choose to spend more in capital at the design and
build stages rather than spending on running costs in
operation. They want to connect data in a meaningful way
and link this back to design choices. They would like to
measure and monitor everything, achieving a demand-
driven approach to maintenance, by knowing details such
as how many people have walked on this carpet. A longer-
term goal would be to use virtual reality to visualize this
type of life cycle information.

The 4D-CAD tool that has been developed in conjunction
with Stanford University is being spun out of Disney
Imagineering Research and Development into a separate
company that will license or sell the software to other
construction companies.

Drivers, barriers and issues

In this chapter we have seen that virtual reality can be
used as an interface to data. Again and again the profes-
sionals interviewed stressed that virtual reality is not of

68 Virtual Reality and the Built Environment

Page 164

London, UK, see City models,
London

Los Angeles, USA, see City
models, Los Angeles

710 Freeway, 57, Plate 8
West Coast Gateway project -

Steel Cloud, 33, 38, 75
Lynch, Kevin, 106–7

McLuhan, Marshall, 77
Management, 1, 73, 124,

126–7, 133–4
urban, see Urban management
virtual reality, see Virtual

reality, implementation
Maps, 35–7, 100

the size of the Empire, 25,
46, 121

Marketing, 90–2, 96, 113, 116
Matsushita Electric, 48, 83–4
Media:

digital, for design, 33, 93–4
rich environments, 74, 75–6

Medium, virtual reality as a,
3–4, 8–12, 41, 50–1, 52,
73, 121

Metaphor, 11–12, 46–7, 132
image, 10, 12, 41, 47, 132
prototype, 47, 53–72, 132
reality 11, 25, 29, 43, 45,

46, 52, 132
Mirror, 8
Mitsui Home, 78–9, 84
Models, 16–18, 19–22, 38–40,

83, 105–6
categorization, 38–9
computer, 38, 39
creation, 19–20, 25, 105–6
dynamic, 39, 40
interaction with, 27, 28
interactive, see Interactive 3D
online, see Online models
ownership of, 118–20
physical, 38, 39
reuse of, 90, 123, 125, 133
scale, 39–40
scenarios for, 130–1
static, 39

Modelling, 20–2

Narrative, 10, 48, 51, 84–6,
110, 133

Navigation:
aids, 47–50
modes, 41–4, 47

New markets, 74–8
New York, USA, see also City

models, New York
base map, 103, 105
Department of Environmental

Protection (DEP), 103
Internet presence, 99
Police Department, 103
Stock Exchange, 75–6, 77
Times Square, 75, Plate 17

Non-immersive system, 4–5, 6,
41

Novak, Marcos, 10, 46, 78
Northwestwind Mild Turbulence,

Plate 3

Oil and Gas sector, learning
from

Forcados Crude Loading
Platform, 62

ICI/Fluor Daniel Petrochemical
plant project, 61

Online models, 5, 13, 16–17,
83

Open Graphics Library (Open
GL), 13, 16

Open Inventor, 13, 16
Open Systems for CONstruction

(OSCON), 23
Operational logistics, 59–60
Optimization techniques, 20–2,

102
Organization, use within, 1–2,

130–2
OSCON, see Open Systems for

CONstruction
Outsourced use, 131–2

Paradise Pier, USA, 66–7
Parametric modelling, 18
People movement, 56–7
Performance aids, 43, 47–50,

52, 129, 133
Persimmon Homes, 90, 91
Photogrammetry, 7, 18
Photography, 28–9
Piaget and Inhelder 34
Planning

approvals, 116–18

community planning, 110–13
policy, 110–13
use, 1, 2, 100, 106–10, 121,

126–7
Position tracking and control, 7
Precedent, understanding of,

10–11
Primitive solids, 20, 22
Princeton Junction, USA,

109–10
Professional use, 1, 54, 122–3
Project based organization, use

of virtual reality within
122–5, 131–2

Projects, 123–5
small unique projects, 84–6,

123–5
small with design reuse,

86–90, 123–5
large complex buildings, 53,

74, 79, 124
Project SAGE, 12
Prototypes, see Metaphor,

prototype

Rashid, Hani, 33, 75, 77
Reality:

alternative, 46–7
differences, 25–9, 43, 45–6,

129–30
lived-in, see Lived-in reality
virtual, see Virtual reality

Realism, 19–20, 25, 29, 30,
87, 95, 96, 97, 106, 122,
133

Regeneration, 113–15
Regulators, 126–7
Representations:

abstractions, as, 29
function, 30
iconic, 31–2
landmark/route/survey

knowledge, 34–5
problem-solving, in, 31–3, 52
symbolic, 31–2
virtual space, of, 74

Reproduction, 11
Retail:

Sainsbury's supermarket
chain, 59

Office Depot, 83
Route knowledge, 34–5

Index 149

Page 165

SAGE, see Project SAGE
Santa Fe, USA, 112–13
Scales, use of different, 35, 36,

39–40
Scheduling, see Construction

scheduling
Sculptor, 95
Sekisui House, 51, 78
Siegel and White, 34
SimCity, 9–10, 106
Simulation, 3, 54–5, 69–70,

80–1, 101, 121
Simulation of Transient

Evacuation and Pedestrian
(STEPS), 56–57, Plate 7

Sketchpad, 12–14
Software, 6–7
Software suppliers, see

Suppliers and modellers
Spatial knowledge, 34–36
Standards, see Graphics

standards
Standard/customized

housing/interiors, design
review, 83–4

STEPS, see Simulation of
Transient Evacuation and
Pedestrian

Supermarket layout/logistics,
see Retail

Suppliers, construction, 1,
126–7

Suppliers and modellers, virtual
reality, 1, 121, 134

Arcus Software, 49, 105
Artemedia, 113, 118
Environmental Simulation

Center, 107–12
Infrasoft, 65
IT Spatial, 110
Mirage 3D, 96
MultiGen-Paradigm, 57
NavisWorks, 64
Parallel Graphics, 43
Skyscraper Digital, 90–1, 119

Silicon Graphics (SGI), 16
U-Data Solutions, 105
Virtual Presence, 59
Zegelaar & Onnekes, 91

Survey knowledge, 34–5
Sutherland, Ivan, 41
System, virtual reality as a, 4–7,

12–18
classification, 4–5
components of, 6–7
development, 12–18

Task 43, 44, 48–50, 52, 129,
133

Technical competence,
demonstrating, 78–9, 92, 121

Technologies, advances in
underlying, 15–18

Television, 8, 10
Texture maps, 20
Thorndyke and Hayes Roth, 37,

40, 48
Three dimensional, see Models
Translation of data:

strategies, 22–4
database, 23
library based, 22
simple, 23

Transport:
National Gauging Project, 106
Proof House Junction, UK, 58,

59
Railtrack, 58, 65, 106
Thameslink 2000, UK, 65–6,

Plate 13–16
UK Highway Agency, 57
Vehicle movement, 57–9
VRail, 57, 58, 59

Tokyo, Japan, see City models,
Tokyo

Urban data-sets, 99–104
Urban management, 101–6
Urban simulation, 3, 99–120,

see also City models

model creation, 102
photo-realistic, 8–9

Venturi, Scott Brown and
Izenour, 32

Viewing perspectives 41–4, 122,
133, Plate 4

Virtual environments, see Virtual
reality

Virtual reality (VR):
cognitive issues, 128–9
development, 8–12
implementation, 130–4
medium, as a, see Medium,

virtual reality as a
meaning, 2–7

organizational issues, 129
other media compared, 29–52
reality and, 25–9, 43, 45–6,

129–30
role, 11–12
structured use, 133
system, as a, see System,

technical issues, 129
term, 2–3, 15, 30–1, 107
tool within a tool kit, 133
understanding, 41–51
urban scale, 99–120
utopian, 130

Virtual Reality Modelling
Language (VRML), 16–17,
67, 77, 102

Virtual space, 76–8
Visibility sensors, 22
Visual, 7
Visualization, 3, 8, 19–20,

123–5

Westeinde hospital, Netherlands,
95–6, Plate 20–21

Wire frame, 20, 75
Wheelchair users, 80
Whirlwind, 12, 13
Wolfenstein 3D, 10, 15

150 Index

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