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TitleUniversal design: a manual of practical guidance for architects
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Total Pages129
Table of Contents
                            UNIVERSAL DESIGN
Copyright Page
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1. Universal design, buildings and architects
	The bottom-up route to universal design
	The Part M building regulation
	Alterations to existing buildings
	Populations of building users
	The path to universal design: public buildings
	New housing
Chapter 2. Building users: mobility equipment
	Commentary
	Ambulant disabled people’s aids
	Wheelchairs
	Electric scooters
	Child pushchairs
Chapter 3. Anthropometrics
	Commentary
	Ambulant people
	Wheelchair users
	Seated women
Chapter 4. Heights of fixtures and fittings
	Commentary
	Doors and windows
	Mirrors
	Wcs and urinals
	Wash basins and hand dryers
	Lift controls
	Shelves
	Work surfaces and tables
	Coded access panels
	Socket outlets
Chapter 5. Horizontal circulation
	Commentary
	Passing spaces
	Straight approaches through openings
	Doors and door openings
	Turning to pass through door openings
	Entrance lobbies and internal lobbies
	Wheelchair users, movement through door openings
	Housing, passageway spaces
	Thresholds
Chapter 6. Vertical circulation
	Commentary
	Steps and stairs
	Handrails
	Ramps
	Entrances to buildings
	Lifts
	Escalators
	Refuge spaces
Chapter 7. Sanitary facilities
	Commentary
	Wc facilities: general provision
	Transfers to and from wc
	Wc facilities: limited wheelchair access
	Wc facilities: wheelchair-accessible provision
	Cloakroom lobbies
	Wash basins
	Baths and bathrooms
	Shower rooms
	Urinals
Chapter 8. Tiered seating, hotel guestrooms, car Parking
	Commentary
	Tiered seating and wheelchair spaces
	Hotel guestrooms
	Car parking spaces
Chapter 9. Housing
	Commentary
	Ground floor flats
	Houses to Part M standard
	Lifetime Homes
	Two-storey wheelchair houses
References
Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

UNIVERSAL DESIGN

Page 64

Horizontal circulation 51

5.33 Independent wheelchair user passing from 1200 mm passageway through 900 mm door with 300 mm clear space to
the side

a b c d e

a b c d

5.34 Independent wheelchair user passing from 1500 mm passageway through 900 mm door with 600 mm clear space to
the side

5.35 Assistant pulling person in wheelchair backwards through door

a From 900 mm passageway
through door

b From 1200 mm
passageway through door

c Turning from 1200 mm passageway
through door

Page 65

52 Horizontal circulation

5.36 Wheelchair turn from 900 mm passageway through
900 mm door, clear opening width 770 mm

5.37 Guidance in 1999 Part M Approved Document for
passageways in Part M housing

5.38 Examples of difficulty turning wheelchair in arrangement advised for Part M purposes

a b c

5.39 Part M housing, example of low threshold

Housing, passageway spaces
Commentary page 43

Thresholds
Commentary page 43

Page 128

Alterations to existing buildings, 6, 55, 62
Ambulant disabled people, 7, 9, 17, 19, 24, 78
American access standard A117.1, 5, 11

Bathrooms, baths, 75, 86–7, 93
Blind people, 12
British Museum, 6
British Standard BS5810, 5
British Standard CP96, 5

Car parking spaces, 94, 100�1
Carports, 101
Children, 27, 30, 36�7
Cinemas, 97
Coded access panels, 33, 40
Cognitive disabilities, 4

Disability Discrimination Act, 8–9, 11
Disability Rights Commission, 8
Disabled people, populations, 9
Doors, 7, 34, 41–3, 45�6
Dressing cubicles, 76, 89
Dreyfuss, Henry, 22

Elderly women, 27
Electric scooter users, 44, 47, 63, 84
Electric scooters, 18, 21
Entrances to buildings, 55–6, 61�2
Escalators, 57, 66

Garages, 101
Grab rails, 72, 73, 78

Hand dryers, 32, 37
Handrails, 6, 54, 59
Hotels, 91–4, 98�9

Housing:
ground floor flats, 103, 106
Lifetime Homes, 104, 108�9
Part M provision, 14–15, 55, 74, 103, 107
passageway spaces, 43, 52
stairs, 53, 58
through-floor lifts, 57, 64
visitability, 14
wheelchair houses, 105, 110

Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 15

Lifetime Homes, 15, 57, 64, 104, 108�9
Lift controls, 13, 32, 38
Lifts, 32, 63�4
Liverpool Street station, 6
Lobbies:

cloakrooms, 75, 84�5
entrance/internal lobbies, 42, 48�9
unisex toilets, 75, 83

Mirrors, 31, 35

National House-Building Council, 15
National Theatre, 6
Nugent, Tim, 4

Part M building regulation, discriminatory
effects, 2, 4–6, 8, 13

Pheasant, Stephen, 23
Platform lifts, 13, 57, 65
Populations of building users, 9
Powered wheelchairs, 17, 20
Prince of Wales’ Advisory Group on

Disability, 15
Pushchair users, 9, 18, 42, 44, 46�7, 63, 77,

80, 84

115

Index

Page references in bold are to pages showing diagrams

Page 129

Pushchairs, 18, 21

Rainsford, Nick, 15
Ramps, 9, 54, 60, 62
Refuge spaces, 57, 66
Robert Feeney Associates, 25
Royal Festival Hall, 6

Sensory disabilities, 4
Shelves, 32, 39
Shopping centre users, 9
Shower rooms, 76, 81, 88�9, 94
Socket outlets, 33, 40
Stairlifts, 13, 57, 65
Steps and stairs, gradients, 53, 58
Steps versus ramps, 8, 55–6, 62
Swimming pool steps, 54, 60

Tables, wheelchair access, 33, 39
Tactile pavings, 13
Thresholds, 43, 52
Tiered seating, 12, 90, 96

Unisex toilets, 5, 12, 70�71
Universal design:

planning controls, 14
special versus normal provision, 12
versus for-the-disabled design, 4, 11

Urinals, 31, 36, 76, 89

Wash basins, 4, 32, 37, 75, 86
Wc compartments:

ambulant disabled people, 78
general provision, 69, 77, 80
grab rails, 72, 73, 78
Part M housing, 74, 81
Part M unisex facilities, 70�72, 73, 82�3
peninsular layouts, 75, 82
sanitary bins, 69, 77
wash basins, 69
wheelchair access, 74, 80�2

Wcs, 31, 35, 69
Wheelchair users:

anthropometrics, 24–5, 28�30
approaches to doors, 42–3, 46�52
bathrooms, 76, 87, 93
in paid employment, 11
independent wheelchair users, 2, 4, 8, 10, 25
manoeuvring spaces, 44, 46�52, 61, 90–92
reaching to shelves, 32, 39
seating spaces in cinemas, etc., 91–2, 96�7
transfer to wcs, 72, 79
variability of wheelchair users, 24
walking ability, 10

Wheelchairs, 17, 19�20,
Windows, 34
Women, public toilets discrimination, 2, 6,

67–9, 68
Work surfaces, 33, 39

116 Index

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