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TitleUnderstanding Metropolitan Landscapes
ISBN 139781138600874
File Size16.2 MB
Total Pages227
Table of Contents
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
Part I: Metropolitan trajectories
	1 Understanding metropolitan landscapes
		Why landscapes?
		Why metropolitan?
	2 Co-evolution of the landscape and the metropolis
		The utopian vision
		The plan
		The first metropolitan landscapes
		The garden city
		The suburban landscape
		Case study – London
	3 Landscapes and the contemporary metropolis
		The Anthropocene and the decline of neoliberalism
		The compact city agenda
		The green city agenda
		Green infrastructure
		Case study – Singapore
	4 Sustainability
		History of sustainability
		Interpreting sustainable development goals
		Challenges for metropolitan landscape planning and sustainable development
		Case study – Canberra and Ottawa
Part II: Metropolitan strategies
	5 Conceptualising and valuing metropolitan landscapes
		Question of scale
		Ecosystem services
		Case study – Milan
	6 The role of governance
		Ecosystems management
		Ecological footprint
		Urban metabolism
		Ecological wisdom
		Landscape urbanism
		Modes of governance
		Adaptive governance
		Case study – Greater Copenhagen
	7 Regulating metropolitan landscapes
		Regulating behaviour
		Determining the appropriate mix of regulation
		Applying the externality principle to developing landscape policy
		Mobilising ecosystem services in metropolitan landscapes
		Scenarios where excludability and rivalry are applied
		Case study – New York City
Part III: Metropolitan imaginaries
	8 Landscapes and health
		Environmental triggers
		Policy approaches
		Applying a framework
		Case study – Beijing
	9 Landscapes and decarbonising the metropolis
		Urban greening and urban cooling
		Urban heat island effect (UHI)
		Case study – Masdar City
	10 New concepts of a sustainable metropolis
		Imagining a resilient metropolitan system
		From mitigating impacts to progressing a positive agenda
		A landscape led approach to metropolitan policy
		Embracing adaptive governance to transform the metropolis
Document Text Contents
Page 2


Understanding Metropolitan Landscapes considers and reflects on the fundamental rela-
tionships between metropolitan regions and their landscapes. It investigates how
planning and policy help to protect, manage and enhance the landscapes that sustain
our urban settlements. As global populations become more metropolitan, land-
scapes evolve to become increasingly dynamic and entropic; and the distinction
between urban and non- urban is further fragmented and yet these spaces play an
increasingly important role in sustainable development.
This book opens a key critical discussion into the relational aspects of city and
landscape and how each element shapes the boundaries of the other, covering
topics such as material natures, governance systems, processes and policy. It presents
a compendium of concepts and ideas that have emerged from landscape architec-
ture, planning, and environmental policy and landscape management.
Using a range of illustrated case studies, it provokes discussions on the major
themes driving the growth of cities by exploring the underlying tensions around
notions of sustainable settlement, climate change adaption, urban migration, new
modes of governance and the role of landscape in policy and decision making at
national, provincial and municipal levels.

Andrew MacKenzie is a registered landscape architect and honorary senior lec-
turer at the Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National
University, Australia (ANU). Andrew has a Master of Public Policy (specialising in
Environmental Law) and a Doctor of Philosophy from ANU. He is the co-chair of
the National Advocacy Committee for the Australian Institute of Landscape

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102 Metropolitan strategies

historically typical pattern of mixed agricultural, forestry and compact traditional
towns that have avoided excessive sprawl. To the south, agriculture is the major
industry and gives the area its distinctive character (Canedoli et al., 2017). This
variegation of landscape patterns has resulted in extraordinary flexibility for future
growth. However, Milan faces significant threats to these landscapes as rural
activities become less productive and encroached upon by expanding lower density
settlements. These developments are beginning to break down the spatial
relationships between these suburban settlements and the surrounding landscape,
undermining the integrity of existing ecological and farming systems.
Despite this uncoordinated approach to urban development for much of the
city’s history, it did not inhibit Milan’s economic prosperity until the 2008 global
financial crisis (Orsini, 2017). In response to the unfolding challenges of structural
changes to the economy, the retraction of the urban environment and the threat to
the region’s landscape character, the Mayor of Milan commissioned a new master
plan called the Piano di Governo del Territorio, or Urban Development Plan
(UDP), in 2011 (Bullivant, 2012). The project was unusual in its process of
development, preferring a co- design approach with stakeholders and the community
and avoiding overtly prescriptive planning, thus allowing flexibility and new
interpretations to occur over time. The UDP was also notable for the spatial strategy
that was substantially driven by the landscape fabric of the city and surrounding
region. The significance of this approach was not only that farming landscapes
could be preserved, but that residual and unproductive landscapes needed to be
managed and incorporated as a land bank for significant infrastructure projects
rather than low cost real estate or mall developments (Bullivant, 2012).
The impulse to plan Milan around its landscape structure has been a feature of a
number of schemes throughout the late twentieth and early twenty- first century.
Although none were implemented in any substantive form they contributed to the
structure of the UDP. The project “nine parks for Milan” carried out in the mid-
1990s proposed to repurpose brownfield sites and disused railway corridors to
introduce pockets of green in outer neighbourhoods that would create biological
and recreational networks. Two significant park projects emerged during this
period of open space development. Parco delle Risaie and Parco Nord created in
the latter part of the twentieth century form key structural elements to the UDP.
Stefano Boeri’s scheme “Metrobosco” proposed a ring of forests around denser
peri- urban settlements and the city, but with new linear developments infilling
spaces expanding into existing forests. This project was influential in catalysing a
reforestation program that has seen the expansion of commercial forestry but at the
expense of farming (Sanesi, Colangelo, Lafortezza, Calvo, & Davies, 2017). Another
scheme by Boeri titled the “Green River”, similar to the nine parks program,
proposed to rewild parts of Milan’s disused railway system to extend ecological
branches into metropolitan areas, creating sequences of fields that could be used for
parks, urban farms, sports fields and informal public spaces (Orsini, 2017). Just prior
to the launch of the UDP project in 2011, landscape architecture firm LAND
conceived a proposal for seven rays of environmental corridors, “Raggi Verdi” as

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Conceptualising and valuing landscapes 103

it was known. The green corridors started at the Spanish walls of the old city and
radiated out through the urban edge to connect future developments with the
centre using cycle and pedestrian pathways (Bullivant, 2012). It seems logical that
the UDP is a continuation of the popularity of comprehensive landscape inspired
masterplans; born out of the circumstances of the 2008 recession and substantially
informed by the landscape projects conceived in the decades before.
In many respects, the UDP is typical of other metropolitan plans existing today.
The UDP’s vision mixes economic opportunity with requirements to achieve
ecological sustainability while improving liveability via a more mixed use compact
urban form developed around infrastructure nodes (Bullivant, 2012). From a built
environment perspective, UDP has attempted to revive a sense of unity with the
deployment of typically Italian compositional elements, such as boulevards, squares
and plazas, but with an uncritical approach. The deployment of these compositional
devices by municipalities without a broader understanding of the landscape character
is a missed opportunitny to engage with the fragmented and diffuse spatial logic of
the city and surrounding metropolitan region (Orsini, 2017). This, however,
doesn’t substantially detract from the primary role that landscapes play in the
formulation of urban spatial strategy.
While the master planning approach taken by the UDP is not substantially
different from other European cities undergoing renewal, the attention paid
achieving social sustainability principles in conjunction with a landscape strategy is
unique to the consultation process. The emphasis on social sustainability is twofold.
The first is the process of building a plan based on a co- creation approach with
citizens and other relevant stakeholders. The second is focussing on the future by
creating structures that plan for current citizens but also guarantee the benefits for
coming generations (Trivellato, 2017). Co- creation here refers to the process of
developing supportive and participative relationships between the public and private
sector and interacting with citizens to bring projects into being (Bullivant, 2012).
This social sustainability emphasis contrasts with many other economically driven
metropoltian greening agendas (see Masdar City, Chapter 9). It is also instructive
because the emphasis on the landscape structure is consistent with the plan’s social
sustainability goals because open spaces are not set apart as a separate land use.
Instead the landscapes have become an integral part of daily encouters with nature,
agriculture and the community. The social sustainability approach to UDP includes
the doubling of urban green space per person and establishing a rebalance between
the historic city centre and the productive peri- urban fringe. The urban development
strategy is to build on the heterogenous nature of the landscape by mixing
commercial and industrial precincts with parks and waterways surrounding clusters
of houses. The forestry and agricultural landscapes will further add to the urban
fabric through new development requirements for inclusion of green space in new
projects (Bullivant, 2012). The challenge for UDP from a master planning
perspective is how far it should go in terms of social engineering to achieve equitable
outcomes without unduly restricting private sector creative input. At a minimum,
the plan’s processes and outcomes are contingent on achieving social sustainability

Page 226

Index 215

184–5, 186, 188; urban heat island
(UHI) 50, 160, 182–7, 199

Tesla 200
Thwaites, K. 91
Tickell, A. 41
TOD (transit oriented development) 47
tradeable permits 134
tragedy of commons 136
transformability 167, 200
transit oriented development (TOD) 47
transnational governance 126–7
transport: cars 32, 34, 149, 197; and

planning 149–53; and resilience 197;
public transport 32–4, 125–6, 150–1,
197; in suburbs 32–4, 123; transit
oriented development (TOD) 47

trees: carbon sequestering 179; and
co-benefits 98–9; common pool
resources (CPR) 139–40; ecosystem
services 139–40; greening strategy in
Singapore 55–6, 57; Normalised
Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 88,
89; and pollution 173, 179; and
regulation 139–40, 141; and resilience
197; and risk 141; street trees 98, 99,
171, 184, 199; and urban heat island
(UHI) 183, 184

Tri-State Trial Network (US) 150
triple bottom line (TBL) 68–9, 68, 70, 70

undernutrition 160–1
undeveloped landscapes 179–80
United Arab Emirates, decarbonising the

metropolis 188–92
United Nations: and access to open space

161; Conference on Housing and
Sustainable Urban Development 63;
Framework Convention on Climate
Change 63; Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) 63, 177, 204;
World Charter for Nature 63; World
Commission on Environment and
Development 64, 67

United States: Central Park 26, 140–1, 142,
147–8; garden cities 30–1; new urbanism
46–7, 47; regulating behaviour 132,
149–53; suburban landscape 32, 33, 34;
sustainability 62; territorialisation of

Unwin, Raymond 28–30, 31
urban canyon 185–6
urban cooling 178, 181–2, 183, 184–5,

186, 188
urban ecology 49, 50
urban entrepreneurialism 41–2

urban forests 179; see also trees
urban greening 7, 203; biological approach

187–8, 191–2; eco-cities 191–2; and
ecological modernisation 66–7; green
city agenda 48–51; green infrastructure
51–4; greening strategies 179–81;
London Plan 37; Singapore 55–8;
technological approach 187; and urban
cooling 178–85; and urban heat island
(UHI) 183–5; see also decarbonising the
metropolis; sustainability; trees

urban heat island (UHI) 50, 160, 182–7,

urban metabolism 111–12, 202
urban migration 10, 48, 172
urban morphology, and urban heat island

urban sprawl 32, 46, 47, 49, 94, 125, 180
urban village 5
Utopia (More) 20, 21, 23
utopian vision 20–4, 25; garden cities 28–9;

suburban landscape 32

valuing urbanised landscapes 96
vegetation: eco-cities 191–2; Normalised

Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 88,
89; urban heat island (UHI) 183–4; see
also trees

Versailles (Palace and Gardens) 22
vision, concept of 17–18; utopian vision

20–4, 25

Waldheim, C. 49
Walker, B. 6, 67, 92–3, 119, 120, 122,

167, 168, 196, 197
water: consumption of in Abu Dhabi 190;

desalination 190; integrated land–water
landscape management 202–3;
pollution/quality 159–60, 162–3, 173;
and urban heat island (UHI) 183–4, 185

wetlands 52, 207
Wilson, E.O. 51
wind, and urban heat island 185
wind farms 179–80
World Health Organisation (WHO): 2030

Agenda 157; definition of health 157;
and malnutrition 161; and pollution 159

Wright, Henry 28
Wright, T. 152

Xia, Y. 163

zero-carbon approaches see decarbonising
the metropolis

zero-waste 190

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