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TitleThe Palgrave Handbook of Asian Cinema
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan UK
ISBN 139781349958221
CategoryArts - Film
File Size10.3 MB
Total Pages742
Table of Contents
Notes on Contributors
List of Figures
List of Tables
“Asia” and Asian Cinema
	Overview of The Palgrave Handbook of Asian Cinema
Part I Defining Asian Cinema in the 21st Century
The Desire for a Poly-Asian Continental Film Movement
	The Desire for a Poly-Asian Continental Film Movement
	Historical Impediments for a Unified Continental Asia
	Asians Imagining a Continental Asia
	Pan-Asian Cinema’s Cold War Regional Genesis
	Breaking the Cold War Impasse
	European Art Cinema
	European Coproductions
		la politique des auteurs
	International Film Festivals
	Author’s Rights
	New Latin American Cinema
	Latin American Film Festivals
	The Cuban Institute of Film Art and Industry (ICAIC)
	Three Manifestos
	Pan-African Cinema
	Two Entrepreneurial Individuals
	Pan-African Organizations and Joint Declarations
	Concluding Notes for a Poly-Asian Continental Film Movement
Cinema and Development: Towards an Ideological History of Asian Cinema as “World Cinema”
Theorizing Other Asian Cinemas: The Sensorium of Transcaucasia
	The Cultural Logic of Apricots and Pomegranates
	Asia in/and World Cinema: Armenia and “Other” Questions
	Ravished Armenia and the Sensational American Imperium
	Conclusion: Armenasia and the Multidimensional Cinema of Attractions
East Asia’s Film Business
	East Asia and Media Capitals: Definitions and Conceptualization
	Film Policies and Film Business Network in Twenty-First-Century East Asia
		A Logic of Accumulation
		Trajectories of Creative Migration
		Forces of Sociocultural Variation
Alibaba Goes to the Movies
	Alibaba Emerges
	See You Tomorrow and Chinese Cosmopolitanism
	Chinese Cinema’s Accents and Interstitiality
	English-Language Trade Discourse and East Asian Cinema
New Media/New Asia: From Dominant to Residual Geographies of Emergent Video, Screen, and Media Arts
	Dominant Assemblages of Emergent Asian Media, Screen, and Video Arts
	Residual Geographies of Emergent Asian Media, Screen, and Video Arts
	Residual Regional Assemblages: Technological Shadows, Ghosts, Ephemera
	Locating Tokyo’s Place in Emergent Media, Screen, and Video Arts
Part II Locating the New Asian Cinema: Changing Aesthetics, Distribution Networks, and Global Connections
Locating Turkish Cinema Between Populist Tendencies and Art Cinema
	Ottoman Period 1896–1923
	Republican Era/Muhsin Ertugrul’s Cinema (1923–1946)
	Early Yeşilçam Cinema (1946–1960)
	The National Cinema Movement (1960–1967)
	Late Yeşilçam Cinema/Political Cinema (1967–1981)
	Art Cinema and Death of Yeşilçam (1981–1996)
	New Turkish Cinema (1996–Present)
Asian Documentary Connections and “The International Film Festival Short Circuit”: Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival (YIDFF) as a Case Study
	The “International Film Festival Short Circuit”: An Overview
	The YIDFF’s Asian Project: Towards Asian Documentary Connections
	The Ogawa Legacy
	Programming Asia at Yamagata
	“Inter-Asian Referencing”: AND–YIDFF–Yunfest
Small Asias in the West—Asian Film Festivals Inside and Outside of Asia
	Asian Cinema and Festivals
	Asian or Japanese Film Festival?
	Asia or Japan?
	Film Festival Ranking
	Film Festivals as Exhibitors
Distributing Asian Cinema, Past and Present: Definitions from DVD Labels
	Arrow—Reviving Extreme Perceptions of Asian Cinema
	Terracotta—Broadening the Remit of Asian Cinema and Extreme Trends
	Third Window—Moving Past the Extreme: Reappraising Japanese Cinema
	Defining DVD Labels Actions = Defining Asian Cinema
Alternative Viewership Practices in Kyoto, Japan
	Japanese Cinema in Context
	Japanese Cinema on the World Stage
	Japanese Cinema at Home: From the “Golden Age” to Decline
	Has the Audience “Vanished Forever”?
	Case Study 1: Kyoto Bunka Hakubutsukan (Kyoto Culture Museum)
	Case Study 2: The Rissei “Squatter” Cinema
	Conclusion: Asia Returning to the Cinema
Part III Asian History in the Making
Peace Before Storm: The Concept of Trans-Asian Cinema and Peace After Storm (Yuguo Tianqing, 1931)
	The Film
Reframing Loss: Japanese Cinematic Melancholia in Inter-Asian Contexts
	A Technician of the Memory Machine
	A Letter Always Reaches Its Destination…
	Remember (for) Me
	The Camera as Instrument of Concealing Revelation
	Memento Mori
	Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through
	Nostalgia: You Can’t Go Home Again
	Foster Homes
	Thanks for the Memories: Dead or Alive Final
Mao and Gandhi in the Fight Against Corruption: Popular Film and Social Change in China and India
	Social Action in the Fight Against Corruption
	Gandhian Violence, Maoist Confucianism
	Back to the Village
Censorship and the Cinematic Politics of the Chinese Cultural Revolution in the Cold War
	The Chairman: Anglo-American (Hollywood) and Asian Cold War Cultural Politics
	Michelangelo Antonioni: Avant-Garde Cinematography in Revolutionary China
The Long Road to Global Hollywood: Shaw Brothers, Golden Harvest, and Dalian Wanda
	Chinese Film Industry Background 1: Contemporary China
	Chinese Film Industry Background 2: Shaw Brothers’ Pioneering Efforts
	Chinese Film Industry Background 3: Enter Golden Harvest
	The Great Wall: Walls and Ceilings
Part IV Remaking Asia and the Asian Diaspora—New Tales of an (Un) Common Past
Martial Arts Fantasies in a Globalized Age: Kung Fu Hustle and Kung Fu Panda
	Martial Arts Cinema
	Artistic Hybridity
	The Digitalized Body
Taipei and Tokyo: Turf Wars and Taiwanese Identity
	The Rise of Taiwan Gangs and Their Projection in Films
		A Brighter Summer Day
	Marking Territory in Tokyo
		Shinjuku Triad Society
		Shinjuku Incident
Aspirationally Yours: Pan-Asian Cinematic Convergence
	Types of Cinematic Convergence
	History’s Bromances
	Women and “New Men”
	Men and the Work of Care in Japanese Cinema
		Bunny Drop
	The “Far East Movement”: Asian America Claiming the Space
“Why So Wong”: Transnational Asian Cinema Through the Lens of Cinephiles and Transmedia Fans
	Approaching Transnational Asian Cinema Through Network Metaphors
	Self-Reflexivity and the Transmedia Generation of Asian Filmmakers
	Connected Citizens Through Network Aesthetics
	Auteurism and the Off-Screen Commerce
Two “Asian” Stories in New Zealand Cinema
	Setting up the Scene: New Zealand(ers) and Others
	A Few Remarks About New Zealand National Cinema
		Illustrious Energy
		Memory and Desire
Part V Questioning Asian Bodies
The Asian Wave: Three Asian Male Superstars in Hollywood
	The Coolest Actor in the World
	Shah Rukh Khan Sells
	Twenty-First Century Man
	An Expanded Vision
Staging Masculinity in Iran–Iraq War Movies
	The Fracturing of Warrior Masculinity
	The Art of Government at Moments of Crisis
	Born into the War
	Love, Sin, and the Death Drive
	The Rule of the Father and the “Regime of the Brother”
	The Melodramatization of the Sacred Defense
	In the Land of Landmines
Reconfiguring Confucianism and Filial Piety in Contemporary Korean Cinema: Mother–Son Bonding in Mother and The Peter Pan Formula
	Korea: The New Confucian Center
	Mad Motherhood in Mother
	Acupuncture, Killing, and Forgetting
	A New Discursive Space: Confucianism and Feminism
	From Being Fatherless to Parentless: The Korean Peter Pan
	Confucianism Reconfigured: Filial Piety and Licentiousness
Unbecomings in East Asian Women’s Cinema: Naomi Kawase, Yim Soon-rye, and Li Yu
	Naomi Kawase: Artist of Melancholic Difficulty
	Yim Soon-rye and Comic Unruliness
	Li Yu: Dancing in Generic Handcuffs
	Coda: Unbecoming Women Becoming
Between Real and Unreal: Representability and Auteurship in Queer Hong Kong Cinema
	The Real and the Unreal in Amphetamine (2010)
	Soundless Wind Chime (2009): Synthesizing Sinophone Cinemas
Exploring the Dolphy Bakla: Queerness in Philippine Cinema
	Dolphy as Bakla: Cross-Dressing, Effeminacy, and Interiorized Femininity
	The Conversion Trope
	Melodrama  and Spectacle
	Disappearing Tropes
	Looking at Southeast Asia
Part VI Politics in Asian Film
From Film Stories to National Soft Power: Policies and Film Content of South Korea, Japan, and China
	National Film and Soft Power
	The Rise of Hallyu and the Advancement of South Korea’s Film Industry
	The Cooling of Japanese Cool: Looking Back on the “Lost Decade”
	Chinese Film and Cultural Specificity
	Concluding Remarks
Recalibrating Modernity: East Asian Socially Engaged Documentary and the Evocation of Another World
	What Is the East Asian Socially Engaged Mode of Documentary?
	East Asian Modernity and the Experience of Expropriation
A Star Is Branded and the Fan Is Dead: Neoliberal Time-Consciousness and the Strange Obsession of Shah Rukh Khan with His Fans
	Three Films, Three Refrains on Time
	Time as an Investment and the “Rising” Indian Middle Class
	Stardom/Work as Self-Commodification
	Time and the Pleasures of Popular Bombay Cinema
	Fandom as Time-Consciousness
	The Repressions of a Brand
Local Stories, Global Catastrophe: Reconstructing Nation, Asian Cinema, and Asian Eco-consciousness in Japan’s 3.11 Films
	The Tsunami and the Cherry Blossom: Nature, Culture, and Catastrophe as Historical Rupture
	Understanding Nature as a Source of Knowledge
	Understanding Nature as a Cultural and National Symbol
	Understanding Nature and Technology
	Understanding Nature as Uncanny
	The Land of Hope: Everyday Life and the Catastrophic Condition
	Beyond Hope and Despair: The Uncanny in Everyday Life
	Representing the Uncanny in Dissonance and Interconnectedness
Clara Law, Asia, and World Cinema: Letters to Ali (2004)
	Putting Hong Kong, Afghanistan, and Australia on the Map
	Letters Across Asia—Essays and Correspondence
	“Mum” and the Ancestors
	Postfeminism and an Anti-imperial Turn Across Asia
Document Text Contents
Page 1


Edited by
Aaron Han Joon Magnan-Park,

Gina Marchetti and See Kam Tan

Page 2

The Palgrave Handbook of Asian Cinema

Page 371


December 2016, Wanda’s overseas debt exposure, like other private conglomer-
ates with extensive outbound investments, faced increasingly stringent scrutiny
from China’s financial regulators. The Great Wall’s international commercial
failure in the following year, together with the difficulties Wanda had in luring
both domestic and foreign, especially Hollywood, film projects to the Metrop-
olis shores, despite the carrot of a 40% production subsidy, (Faughnder and
Pierson 2017) exacerbated the conglomerate’s deleveraging problems. In June
2017, China’s banking regulators ordered loan checks on Wanda, which some
four weeks later, then blocked the country’s banks from making loans to Wanda
to service its foreign acquisitions (Wei and Ma 2017; Xie 2017a, b). As a result,
Wanda sold its stakes in hotels and resorts, including the Metropolis but retain-
ing a 9% interest in the studio business, to Sunac China for USD 9.3 billion
(Faughnder and Pierson 2017). That Wanda sold not its overseas but domestic
assets first showed where its priorities laid. In August, the Chinese government
announced that it would limit overseas investments in real estate, hotels, enter-
tainment, and sports clubs (Pham 2017a). In early September, the loan checks
on Wanda spread to Hong Kong (Liu 2017). on September 15, a new football
stadium opened in Spain to house the Atlético Madrid Soccer Club into which
Wang Jianlin had bought a 20% stake for USD 52 million some three years
before; the stadium, the “best in Europe,” which cost about USD 385 million
to build, is called Wanda Metropolitano (Lowe 2017). The next month, Chinese
authorities shut down Wanda’s two high-end golf courses at a resort in north-
eastern China as golf had become “a symbol of the political corruption against
which President Xi Jinping has been waging a massive, high-profile campaign”
(Pham 2017b). At the time of writing this chapter, Wang Jianlin, once China’s
richest man, has gone down the Forbes rungs to become number four (China’s
Rich List 2017). He has now decided to deleverage Wanda’s foreign debts by
selling half of its overseas assets whose estimated total value is more than USD
40 billion. For the time being, the overseas sell-off has begun with stakes and
interests in luxury apartment projects in London as well as in Australia’s Sydney
and Gold Coast which are worth some USD 1.8 billion (de Morel et al. 2018;
Needham 2018). Sherisse Pham of CNN Money (2018) thus concludes,

The striking U-turn is the result of pressure from the Chinese government and
the need to pay off debts amassed during years of overseas expansion.

But Wanda seems to have held on to its overseas film assets firmly—at least
for now. Can it endure the heat of “political China”? or is it too big to fall?
And if it should fall, will another rise from the ashes?

Acknowledgement This essay grows out my MYGR project funded by the Research
& Development Administrative office, University of Macau. My heart-felt gratitude
goes to Professor Rui Martins, Vice-Rector of Research, and his team for their
unstinting support.

Page 372

362 s. K. tan

1. My percentile calculation is based on the cumulative total for the first 175 of

355 films (both foreign and domestic) released in mainland China in the year
2015. Here I use the box-office receipt of at least RMB 10 million (USD 1.54
million) as the cut-off point. These 175 films yielded a cumulative total of RMB
432.3 billion (USD 6.7 billion). That same year, Wanda Pictures produced and
released 10 films. All hit the RMB 10 million mark with a total gross of some
RMB 62.14 billion (USD 957.3 million) (Ranking the 2015 Chinese Box-of-
fice Grosses 2015).

2. Unless otherwise stated, all box-office figures of Wanda Pictures’ 2015 produc-
tions are taken from the Chinese webpage: Ranking the 2015 Chinese Box-of-
fice Grosses [2015 Zhongguo neidi piaofang nian du zhong paihang].

3. In 2014, Wanda secured a 20% stake in the Spanish soccer club Atlético Madrid
for USD 52 million, while spending yet another USD 2.1 billion to acquire
Swiss Infront Sports and Media, the sales rep for broadcast rights to the 2018
and 2022 World Cups (Coonan 2013).

4. In 2013, Wanda paid USD 1.6 billion for a 92% stake in Sunseeker Interna-
tional (UK), the maker of luxury yachts (BBC News 2013).

5. Unless otherwise stated, production budget and box-office figures, including a
film’s particular ranking on the box-office chart of a particular country, are cited
from the relevant pages at the,, www., and Retrieved June 20, 2017.

6. The State Council of the People’s Republic of China, “Chinese Enterprises
Enter ‘Go Global’ Era 4.0,” Xinhua (April 11, 2016),
news/top_news/2016/04/11/content_281475325205328.htm. Retrieved
July 15, 2017. Initiated as early as 1999, the “go global” strategy, also known
as the “go out” (zuochuquzhanlue) policy, has long encouraged Chinese firms,
state-owned or otherwise, to, among other things, seek outbound invest-
ments, pursue product diversification, and advance Chinese brand recognition

7. As Michael Keane emphasizes, “The hybrid term ‘cultural creative industries’
responded to reservations among national Ministry of Culture officials in Bei-
jing, who had invested resources in fostering ‘cultural industries’ (wenhua cha-
nye).” He then elaborates:

The creative industries discourse in China should not be evaluated through
the same ideological lenses as in the West where creative expression is a
given. Nonetheless, its uptake is shaped by Western influences. Many of the
scholar-consultants who advise propaganda officials in municipal and local
governments present a case for creative communities, greater tolerance and
more business transparency. These arguments about tolerance and trans-
parency are more difficult to prosecute to the supporters of the cultural
industries in Beijing. Proximity to Tiananmen conjures up memories of
Western-influenced democracy supporters. However, the Western discourse
of creativity is central to the ‘creative industries package’ in China. The
future will tell if creativity is harmonious or destructive.

Keane 2013, 55, 179.

Page 741


Way We Are, The (Hui), 62
Weber, Max, 61
Website, 206, 208, 210
wen and wu, 483
western culture, 624
Western Electric (WE), 246, 250, 251,

Western Europe, 38
Westernization, 22, 154, 160, 161
Western modernity, 55
Westerns, 378, 380
West, Simon, 334
whitewashing, 478
Wile E. Coyote, 380
Willeman, Paul, 295
Williams, Raymond, 55, 491
Wilson, owen, 356
Wilson Yip, 379
Winston, Brian, 640
Winston Chao, 337
The Winter Sleep (Nuri Bilge Ceylan,

2011), 163
Winter Sonata, 280
wire work, 377
Wise, Robert, 325
“witnessing public”, 81
Wolf Totem (2015 film), 120, 122
Wolof language, 42
women, 689, 690, 695–697, 699,

roles of and representation in cinema,

working class vs. middle class, 58

Wong Fei-hong, 383
Wong, Joshua, 439. See also Umbrella

Wong, Kar-wai, 109–113, 115, 117, 119,

120, 123, 193, 427, 428, 430, 431,
433–436, 438–443, 445, 564

Chungking Express, 428, 431, 433,

In the Mood for Love, 427, 429, 431,
433, 437, 438, 441, 442

Wood, Natalie, 346
Woo, John, 29, 61, 65, 193, 470, 471,

world cinema, 78, 79, 82, 689
World Festival of Black Arts, 43

World of Suzie Wong, The, 325
“world republic of letters,” the (Casa-

nova), 66
World War II, 19, 23, 24, 31, 43, 619
Wu, Wenguang, 180, 181, 634, 635

and 1966, My Time in the Red
Guards, 181

and Bumming in Beijing—The Last
Dreamers, 181

and China Village Self-Governance
Film Project, 181

and Folk Memory Project, the, 181
Wu’er Shan, 336
wuxia, 614, 622, 623, 625
Wyckoff, Alvin, 252

Xala (1974), 42
Xi Jinping’s, 340, 414
Xin Hua Film, 330
Xinjiang, 692
Xinke Group, 332

Yakuza, 392, 400–406
Yakuza film, the, 61, 197
Yam, Simon, 336
Yamagata International Documentary

Film Festival (YIDFF), the, 171,
192, 197, 634, 635

and Asian Documentary Filmmaker’s
Manifesto, the, 174

and Asia Program, the, 179, 180
and Asia Symposium, the, 171, 174
and Tohoku, 174–176
and Yamagata, 173–176, 178, 179,

Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, 92. See also Inter-

national relations
Yan Fei, 336
Yang, Edward, 392–396
Yang Shu-shi, 345
Yang Ying, 335
Yasujiro, ozu, 284, 535, 536
Yau, Herman, 62
Yeh, Emily Yueh-yu, 28

Page 742


Yellow peril, 469, 473
Yemen, 79
Yen, Donnie, 484
Yerevan, Armenia, 74, 77, 78, 82–85
Yeşilçam (Green Pine), 155, 157, 163

genres, 163
Yi, Won Kon, 143
YIDFF. See Yamagata International Doc-

umentary Film Festival (YIDFF), the
Yimou, Zhang, 623
yiqi (brotherly bond), 400
Yoda, Tomiko, 290
Yol (Serif Goren, 1981), 162, 164
Yonfan, 560, 579
Yong Wah Studio, 330
Yoon Jin-yi, 336
Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro, 245, 246
Yoshitaka, Mouri, 290
You Are the Apple of My Eye (2011), 412
Youth culture, 378
Youth gang, 391, 392, 396
YouTube, 205–208
You Were Like a Wild Chrysanthemum,

269, 270, 279, 289
Yuan Jun, 330
Yuan Yang’an, 330
Yubari Fantastic Film Festival, 192
Yu Benzhong, 293
Yuen, Woo-ping, 350, 378
Yugoslavia, 80
Yu Hyun-Mok, 23, 59
Yu, Li, 530, 533, 546, 550, 552
Yukio, Mishima, 281
Yun-fat Chow, 378
Yunfest, 182–185

Yunnan Multi Culture Visual Festival,
183. See also Yunfest

Yuukoku 憂国, 281

Zanan magazine, 503
Zanryuu koji, 283
Zatoichi and the One-Armed Swordsman,

Zedong, Mao, 533, 549
Zhang, Dali, 141
Zhang Hanyu, 357
Zhang, Jiajia, 110, 111, 119
Zhang Jinli, 631, 644, 645
Zhang, Taiyan (AKA Zhang Binglin), 21
Zhang Shankun, 330, 331, 343
Zhang, Yimou, 331, 357, 359, 379
Zhang Zhen, 336
Zhang Ziyi, 338
Zhao Tianyu, 336
Zhao-Zhen, Yang, 285
Zhejiang Satellite Television’s (ZST),

335, 336
Zhong Kui Snow Girl and the Dark Crys-

tal, 336
Zhou Enlai, 314
Zhu Shilin, 330
zhuxuanlü (main melody), 546
Zimmermann, Patricia, 689
Zinn, Howard, 60
Zipangu Festival, 191
Zu Warriors, 379
Zwart, Harald, 339

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