Download The Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach PDF

TitleThe Meaning of the Built Environment: A Nonverbal Communication Approach
ISBN 139780816511761
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.1 MB
Total Pages251
Table of Contents
                            00000255.tif
00000001.tif
00000003.tif
00000004.tif
00000005.tif
00000007.tif
00000009.tif
00000010.tif
00000011.tif
00000012.tif
00000013.tif
00000014.tif
00000015.tif
00000016.tif
00000017.tif
00000018.tif
00000019.tif
00000020.tif
00000021.tif
00000022.tif
00000023.tif
00000024.tif
00000025.tif
00000026.tif
00000027.tif
00000028.tif
00000029.tif
00000030.tif
00000031.tif
00000032.tif
00000033.tif
00000034.tif
00000035.tif
00000036.tif
00000037.tif
00000038.tif
00000039.tif
00000040.tif
00000041.tif
00000042.tif
00000043.tif
00000044.tif
00000045.tif
00000046.tif
00000047.tif
00000048.tif
00000049.tif
00000050.tif
00000051.tif
00000052.tif
00000053.tif
00000054.tif
00000055.tif
00000056.tif
00000057.tif
00000058.tif
00000059.tif
00000060.tif
00000061.tif
00000062.tif
00000063.tif
00000064.tif
00000065.tif
00000066.tif
00000067.tif
00000068.tif
00000069.tif
00000070.tif
00000071.tif
00000072.tif
00000073.tif
00000074.tif
00000075.tif
00000076.tif
00000077.tif
00000078.tif
00000079.tif
00000080.tif
00000081.tif
00000082.tif
00000083.tif
00000084.tif
00000085.tif
00000086.tif
00000087.tif
00000088.tif
00000089.tif
00000090.tif
00000091.tif
00000092.tif
00000093.tif
00000094.tif
00000095.tif
00000096.tif
00000097.tif
00000098.tif
00000099.tif
00000100.tif
00000101.tif
00000102.tif
00000103.tif
00000104.tif
00000105.tif
00000106.tif
00000107.tif
00000108.tif
00000109.tif
00000110.tif
00000111.tif
00000112.tif
00000113.tif
00000114.tif
00000115.tif
00000116.tif
00000117.tif
00000118.tif
00000119.tif
00000120.tif
00000121.tif
00000122.tif
00000123.tif
00000124.tif
00000125.tif
00000126.tif
00000127.tif
00000128.tif
00000129.tif
00000130.tif
00000131.tif
00000132.tif
00000133.tif
00000134.tif
00000135.tif
00000136.tif
00000137.tif
00000138.tif
00000139.tif
00000140.tif
00000141.tif
00000142.tif
00000143.tif
00000144.tif
00000145.tif
00000146.tif
00000147.tif
00000148.tif
00000149.tif
00000150.tif
00000151.tif
00000152.tif
00000153.tif
00000154.tif
00000155.tif
00000156.tif
00000157.tif
00000158.tif
00000159.tif
00000160.tif
00000161.tif
00000162.tif
00000163.tif
00000164.tif
00000165.tif
00000166.tif
00000167.tif
00000168.tif
00000169.tif
00000170.tif
00000171.tif
00000172.tif
00000173.tif
00000174.tif
00000175.tif
00000176.tif
00000177.tif
00000178.tif
00000179.tif
00000180.tif
00000181.tif
00000182.tif
00000183.tif
00000184.tif
00000185.tif
00000186.tif
00000187.tif
00000188.tif
00000189.tif
00000190.tif
00000191.tif
00000192.tif
00000193.tif
00000194.tif
00000195.tif
00000196.tif
00000197.tif
00000198.tif
00000199.tif
00000200.tif
00000201.tif
00000202.tif
00000203.tif
00000204.tif
00000205.tif
00000206.tif
00000207.tif
00000208.tif
00000209.tif
00000210.tif
00000211.tif
00000212.tif
00000213.tif
00000214.tif
00000215.tif
00000216.tif
00000217.tif
00000218.tif
00000219.tif
00000220.tif
00000221.tif
00000222.tif
00000223.tif
00000224.tif
00000225.tif
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Amos Rapoport is Distinguished Professor in the School of Architecture and
Urban Planning at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He has taught at
the Universities of Melbourne and Sydney in Australia, at the University of
California, Berkeley, and at University College, London, and has held visiting
appointments in Israel, Turkey, Great Britain, Argentina, Brazil, Canada,
India, and elsewhere. He has also lectured by invitation and been a Visiting
Fellow in many countries.

Professor Rapoport is one of the founders of the new field of Environment-
Behavior Studies. His work has focused mainly on the role of cultural vari-
ables, cross-cultural studies, and theory development and synthesis. In addi-
tion to the present book, he is the author of House Form and Culture (origi-
nally published in 1969 and translated into five languages), Human Aspects

I of Urban Form (19771, and History and Precedent in Environmental Design
(1990). In addition, he has published over two hundred papers, chapters, and
essays, many of them invited, and is the editor or coeditor of four books.

He has been the editor in chief of Urban Ecology and associate editor of
Environment and Behavior, and he has been on the editorial boards of many
professional journals. In 1980 the Environmental Design Research Associa-
tion honored him with its Distinguished Career Award. Professor Rapoport
has been the recipient of a Senior Fellowship from the National Endowment
for the Arts and a Graham Foundation Fellowship. During the academic year
1982-83 he was a Visiting Fellow of Clare Hall, Cambridge University, of
which he is now a Life Member. He has also been a member of the program
committee (1987-1988) and the jury (1989) for the International City Design
competition.

Page 125

Small-Scale Examples of Applications 127

through the architectural quality of the dwellings and overall character
of the area that attracted people there in the first place and that would
be damaged by major changes in the semifixed elements Was the
location of the area and residence in it sufficient to communicate a
particular social identity that, on the South side, needed to be achieved
through personalization? These questions, too, could be answered
relatively easily.

It was also not too difficult for a student to begin to list the elements
to be examined (that is, the palette):

external materials
colors
fences
planting and landscaping
visibility of house from street
visibility into house
shutters
awnings and decorations on them
mailboxes
street numbers
newspaper holders
external lights
handrail:;
signs on front of house
flagpoles and their location
air conditioners
storm doors
other objects

For each of these elements, many specific questions can easily be
listed.

Similar questions and approaches can be used to study frontjback
distinctions. Thus lists of noticeable differences can be noted among
fixed and semifixed (and even nonfixed) features that are used to
indicate front or back. These can be, and have been, applied easily in
the field by researchers, practitioners, and students One can look
at

the state of lawns
maintenance of houses
colors
presence and absence of porches

Page 126

128 THE MEANING OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

locat~on of garages and cars
varlous uses and how treated
various objects
locatlon of paths
landscaping
absence or presence of people, the~r dress, and behav~or
presence, absence, or treatment of fences

and many others. (Inventories of this kind can also be used, both ex-
ternally and internally, for many other studies.)

An example of one such study done by students examined the
object language in two subculturally different residential areas in
Urbana, Illinois (Anderson and Moore, 1972). The study investigated
the demarcation of space through planting and fences, and began by
observing and recording objects; a classification and typology easily
followed. Then, qualitative evaluations and quantitative differences
were studied. The process was direct, straightforward, and easy, and
results were enlightening. The elements constitutingthe message con-
tent of the barriers used to demarcate space were also quite easily
derived: location, materials, type, size, continuity. Other forms of
boundary phenomena, such as markers (equivalent to point barriers),
are quickly noted (even if not studied); they can then quickly be seen to
relate to other studies of such markers. The presence or absence of
semifixed-feature elements such as other planting, chairs, tables, sun
umbrellas, or barbecues, and nonfixed-feature elements such as people
and their activities could also be observed and used to clarify the issue.
The study, like the Milwaukee example above, was done as project for
a term paper and would hardly have been possible with more "sophis-
ticated" means.

Another advantage of this approach is that many studies exist that
can be interpreted in these terms: These begin to show patterns and
exhibit relationships, enabling one to work in the manner described in
the preface, that is, relating many disparate studies and integrating
them into larger conceptual systems. An example is provided by a
comparison of houses in some parts of Africa with those in the Sudan.
In the former case, one finds granaries as major elements-in size,
shape, color, decoration, location, and so on. These clearly are impor-
tant in the meanings they have for people. In the Sudan, because of
Islam, it is God who is honored ratherthan grain. Hence grain is stored
in simple and unobtrusive granaries; it is mosques and tombs of saints
that, in form, size, color, and so on, dominate the mud-brick villages

Page 250

252 THE MEANING OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

Personalization, 21, 22, 23, 24, 45,
56, 89, 93, 94, 126-127, 194

Peru,40,41,66,81, 114, 131, 142
Phenomenology, 35
Place, 26, 35, 39, 40, 121, 185, 186
Plants (includes planting), 21, 23, 63,

89, 107, 127, 132, 133, 141, 144-
145, 152, 154, 156-157, 158

Popular design, 9, 45-46
Pragmatics, 39, 43, 50, 52, 69, 75, 99,

177
Preliterate, 9, 26, 27, 28, 29, 150
Private, 23, 56, 77, 91, 118, 147, 188,

193; see also Public
Psychology, 35, 36, 48, 73, 139
Public, 56, 77, 91, 118, 147, 188; see

also Private
Pueblos, 40, 41, 88, 114

Quebec, 76, 148

Recreation, 14, 34, 156, 159, 167,
173, 185, 194

Redundancy, 40 ,5 1, 84, 100, 1 17,
138, 141, 145, 147, 149-152, 162,
174, 187

Relationships, 9, 124, 177, 178
Renaissance church, 28, 43
Repertory grid, 36
Rules, 56, 62, 65, 67, 78, 119, 147,

171, 191
Rural, 14, 32, 157, 159, 172

Sacred, 27, 28, 29, 30, 39, 40, 43, 75,
92, 95, 116, 118, 119, 158, 181,
186

Schema, 15,25,28,29,41,43,44,
46, 47, 83, 89, 92, 118, 120, 137,
139, 150, 155, 159, 171

Semantic differential, 35
Semantics, 38, 52
Semifixed-feature elements, 87. 89-96,

124, 126, 127, 132, 136, 137, 139,
141, 170, 181

Semiotics, 36-43, 84, 96, 118, 121,
133,145

Setting, 34, 47, 50, 56, 57, 61, 64, 66,
67, 73, 77-79, 85-86, 95, 97, 124,
180, 185, 191, 198

Shops (includes shopping), 85, 93, 94,
99, 144, 152, 153, 154, 159, 162,
173, 174, 175, 185

Sign, 35, 37, 46, 133
Signal detection theory, 5 1, 73
Situation, definition and interpretation

of, 56, 57, 59, 62, 63, 65, 80, 181
South Africa, 24
South America, 28, 90, 115, 140
Space organization, 27,50, 80,84-85,

88, 92,94, 116-117, 124, 129,
134, 136, 140, 142, 144-145, 178-
179, 188, 193

Standards, 26
Status, 22, 48, 56, 57, 68-69, 70, 71,

90, 98, 99, 116, 132, 139, 141,
144, 145, 172, 183, 184, 194

Street, 15, 77, 78, 88, 93-94, 141,
145, 150, 152, 153, 156, 162, 169,
170,173, 174,187, 193

Stress, 19, 26, 191
Structuralism, 35, 37, 96, 118, 121,

133
Suburb (includes suburban), 30, 32,

89, 99, 121, 142, 152, 156, 157,
162-168, 172-173

Symbol (includes symbolism), 26, 27,
32, 33, 35, 36, 37,43-48, 66, 69,
115, 118, 121, 145, 169, 181

Symbolic interactionism, 59-61, 80
Syntactics, 38, 43, 50, 52, 75

Taxonomy, 15, 56, 67, 118
Temple, 27, 43, 90, 91, 107, 116, 175
Territory, 152, 169, 171, 191
Thailand, 43, 11 1
Theory, 9, 32, 36, 37, 61, 197, 198
Time, 65, 80, 105, 164, 178, 179-180
Tombs, 79-80, 128, 141, 190-191
Trees, 14, 29, 39-40, 107, 152, 154,

158, 162,167,168

United States, 9, 14, 16, 28, 30, 32,
40, 89, 94-95, 99, 11 1, 112, 115,
117, 128, 130-131, 134, 141, 144,
149, 151-153, 155, 156, 157, 158,
159, 169, 170, 175-176, 179, 184,
186, 187

Page 251

Index 253

Urban, 9, 27,28-29, 34 ,40, 43 ,70,
89, 90, 98, 99, 134, 141, 137-176

Users, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 34, 76,
92, 188

Values, 21, 40, 88, 89, 141, 142, 179
Vegetation; see Plants
Vernacular, 9, 22, 24, 27, 28, 29-30,

43, 44 ,45, 64, 76 ,80, 141, 150,
198

Village, 27, 30, 70, 117, 119, 139,
141-142, 145, 157, 158, 159, 183,
189

Wilderness, 14 ,40 , 115, 1 17, 1 19,
121, 158, 159

Yoruba, 26, 117, 149

Similer Documents