Download The Filmmaker’s Handbook PDF

TitleThe Filmmaker’s Handbook
PublisherPenguin Group
ISBN 139781101613801
CategoryArts - Film
File Size18.4 MB
Total Pages1054
Table of Contents
                            Title Page
1. Introduction to Digital and Film Systems
	Digital Video Systems
	The Video Format
	What Is Compression?
	Comparing Video Formats
	High Definition Digital Formats
	Digital Cinematography Systems
	Standard Definition Digital Formats
	Standard Definition Analog Formats
	Recording to Memory Cards, Drives, and Discs
	Sound Recording for Video
	Video Editing
	Film Systems
	Comparing Film Formats
	Sound Recording for Film
	Film Editing
	Shooting Digital Versus Shooting Film
2. Before You Begin Production
	Getting Your Movie Off the Ground
	Formats for the Big Screen and the Small(er) Screen
	The “Look” of the Movie
	The Impact of Sensor Size and Film Gauge
	Color and Sensitivity to Light
	Sharpness and Focus
	Aspect Ratio Choices
	Frame Rate and Scanning Choices
	Choosing a Camera
	Planning Your Workflow
	Managing Data in Production and Post
	The Importance of Sound
	Coping with Technology
3. The Video Camcorder
	Initial Settings
	Viewfinder and Monitor Setup
	Picture Controls
	Recording to Cards, Drives, and Optical Discs
	Types of Media
	Managing Data on the Shoot
	Recording to Digital Tape
	Operating the Camcorder
	Batteries and Power Supplies
	Camera Sensitivity
	Other Camera Features
4. The Lens
	Focal Length and Perspective
	The Light-Gathering Power of the Lens
	Focusing the Image
	Choosing a Zoom Lens
	Prime Lenses
	Close Focusing
	Lens Quality and Condition
	The Lens Mount
	Lens Seating Problems
	Care of the Lens
5. The Video Image
	Forming the Video Image
	The Digital Video Camera’s Response to Light
	Understanding and Controlling Contrast
	What Is Gamma?
	Gamma Options When Shooting
	Video Color Systems
	Some Image Manipulations and Artifacts
	Video Monitors and Projectors
	Digital Video Recording—How It Works
	Pixels and Resolution
	Working with Digital Data
	Digital Connections
	Hard Drive Storage
	File Formats and Data Exchange
	Digital Compression
	Compression Methods
	A Few Common Codecs
6. The Film Camera
	The Film Gate and Shutter
	Camera Speed and Motors
	Viewing Systems
	The Reflex Viewfinder
	Camera Film Capacity
	Other Camera Features
	Camera Tests and Maintenance
7. The Film Image
	Properties of the Film Stock
	Contrast of the Image
	Choosing a Raw Stock
	Packaging, Handling, and Purchasing
	The Light Meter and Exposure Control
	Light Meters
	Taking Readings
	Exposure and Film Stocks
	The Film Lab During Production
	Screening the Rushes
8. Color and Filters
	Color Temperature
	Matte Boxes and Lens Shades
9. Shooting the Movie
	The Goals of Production
	Composition and Shot Selection
	The Moving Camera
	Style and Direction
	Dramatic Films
	Preparing for Production
	Preparing the Script and Approach
	Scheduling and Planning
	Organizing the Production
	The Equipment Package
	In Production
	Supporting the Camera
	Slow Motion, Fast Motion, and Judder
	Slow Motion
	Fast Motion
	Judder or Strobing
	Shooting TVs and Video Monitors
	Shooting in 3D
10. Sound Recording Systems
	How Audio Is Recorded
	Analog Audio Recording
	Digital Audio Recording
	Types of Audio Recorders
	Digital Audio Recorders
	Audio in the Video Camera
	The Analog Tape Recorder
	The Microphone
	Audio Connections
11. Sound Recording Techniques
	Preparing for a Shoot
	Gathering Gear
	The Sound Recordist’s Role
	Recording Technique
	Setting the Recording Level
	Music, Narration, and Effects
	Other Recording Issues
	Recording Double System for Video and Film
	Syncing Audio and Picture
	Operating a Double-System Recorder
12. Lighting
	Lighting Equipment
	Types of Lighting Instruments
	Lighting Technique
	Lighting Styles
	Positioning Lights
	Controlling Lighting Contrast
	Lighting and Color
	Special Lighting Effects
	Location Lighting
13. Picture and Dialogue Editing
	Some Film Theory
	Approaches to Editing
	Dialogue Editing
	The Editing Process
14. Editing Digital Video
	Components of a Nonlinear Editing System
	How the NLE Plays and Edits Media
	Postproduction Workflow
	What Format or Resolution to Edit In?
	Importing and Organizing Your Material
	Importing Files
	Capturing from Tape
	Creating and Editing Sequences
	Basic Sound Editing
	Working with Double-System Sound
	Basic Video Effects
	Titles, Graphics, and Stills
	Mixing and Converting Formats
	Working with 24p and Pulldown
	Editing 24p Footage
	Finishing and Output
	Managing Media
	Exporting a File
	Output to Tape
	Creating a DVD or Blu-ray
	Creating a Digital Cinema Package
	Color Correction
	Tape Editing
	The EDL and Online Editing
15. Sound Editing and Mixing
	The Sound Editing Process
	Sound Editing Tools
	Sound Editing Technique
	Some Sound Editing Issues
	Preparing for the Mix
	The Sound Mix
	Level and Dynamic Range
	Frequency Range and EQ
	Other Sound Processing
	Mix Formats
16. Working with Film in Postproduction
	Overview of Film-Video Transfers
	Some Film-Digital Workflows
	Film-to-Digital Transfer Devices
	Telecine Options and Controls
	Recording Format and Scanning Options
	Image Control
	Audio Options
	Film Transfer Data
	Booking a Transfer
	Editing Film Digitally
	Preparing to Edit
	Editing Considerations for Traditional Film Finish
	When You’re Done with the Offline Edit
	From Digital to Film
	Preparing for the Digital-to-Film Transfer
	Traditional Film Conforming and Blowups
	Preparing the Original for Printing
	Making Film Prints
	Printing Basics
	Answer Prints
	Release Prints
	Sound for Film Prints
	Analog Optical Tracks
	Digital Sound Tracks
	Film Projection
17. Producing and Distributing the Movie
	Developing the Project
	Funding Sources
	Business Arrangements
	Legal and Copyright Issues
	Protecting Your Work
	Releases for Real People, Places, and Things
	Using Copyrighted Material
	Distribution and Marketing
	A Last Word
	A. Adjusting a Video Monitor
	B. Data Rates and Storage Needs for Various Digital Formats
	C. Depth of Field Tables
	D. Hyperfocal Distance Table
	E. Angle of View in Different Formats
Document Text Contents
Page 2


STEVEN ASCHER is an Oscar-nominated filmmaker whose films include
, , and (trilogy codirected

with his wife, Jeanne Jordan). He has taught filmmaking at Harvard University
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and in workshops around the
world. His awards include the Sundance Grand Jury Prize and Audience Award,
the Prix Italia, a George Foster Peabody Award, and an Emmy Award, and he
was nominated for a Directors Guild of America Award. His website is

EDWARD PINCUS’s pioneering work in personal documentary led to
( ). He codirected , , ,

, and . He founded the Film Section at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later taught filmmaking at
Harvard. He has received a Guggenheim Fellowship and National Endowment
for the Arts grants. He is author of the widely used and
grows cut flowers commercially in northern New England.

Pincus and Ascher also codirected .

Page 527

supercardioid microphones (not drawn to the same scale). These indicate each
mic’s response to sound coming from different directions. Imagine the omni mic
at the center of a spherical area of sensitivity; the diaphragm of the cardioid mic
is at about the position of the stem in a pattern that is roughly tomato shaped.
Though the lobes of sensitivity are pictured with a definite border, in fact
sensitivity diminishes gradually with distance. See Fig. 10-20. (Carol Keller)

Fig. 10-18. Sennheiser K6 modular condenser microphone system. The
powering module is at bottom (works with internal batteries or phantom power).
Interchangeable mic heads range in directionality from supercardioid to omni.
(Sennheiser Electronic Corp.)

Boundary microphones (sometimes called PZMs, or pressure zone
microphones) are mounted very close to a flat plate or other flat surface and have
a hemispherical pickup pattern. These are sometimes used for recording a group
of people when the mic can’t be close to each speaker, or when recording music
(mounted on a piano, for instance).

Manufacturers print polar diagrams—graphs that indicate exactly where a
microphone is sensitive and in which directions it favors certain frequencies. It’s
important to know the pickup pattern of the mic you are using. For example,
many people are unaware of the rear lobe of sensitivity in some hyper- and
supercardioid mics, which results in unnecessarily noisy recordings.

Hyper- and supercardioid microphones achieve their directionality by means
of an interference tube. The tube works by making sound waves coming from
the sides or back of the mic strike the front and back of the diaphragm
simultaneously so that they cancel themselves out. In general, the longer the tube
is, the more directional the mic will be. For proper operation, don’t cover the
holes in the tube with your hand or tape. Usually, the more directional a

Page 528

microphone is, the more sensitive it will be to wind noise (see Windscreens and
Microphone Mounts, p. 424).

Contrary to popular belief, most super- and hypercardioid mics are not more
sensitive than cardioid mics to sounds coming from directly ahead; they are not
like zoom lenses; they don’t “magnify” sound.10 However, directional mics do
exclude more of the competing background sound, so that they can produce a
good recording at a greater distance from the sound source—as recordists say,
the “working distance” is greater.

Fig. 10-19. Mounted on a flat surface, a boundary mic uses the surface to boost
its audio response. (Audio-Technica U.S., Inc.)

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