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TitleThe Film Book
PublisherDK ADULT
ISBN 139780756686765
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size29.8 MB
Total Pages354
Table of Contents
                            Contents 5
Introduction 6
The Story of Film 10
1895–1919 The Birth of Film 12
1920–1929 Silence is Golden 16
1930–1939 Film Comes of Age 22
1940–1949 Film Goes to War 26
1950–1959 Film Fights Back 32
1960–1969 The New Wave 38
1970–1979 Independence Days 44
1980–1989 The International Years 48
1990–Present Celluloid to Digital 54
How Movies Are Made 60
Pre-production 64
Production 68
Post-production 73
Movie Genres 76
Action-adventure 80
Animation 82
Avant-Garde 85
Biopic 86
Comedy 87
Costume Drama 91
Cult 92
Disaster 93
Documentary 94
Epic 96
Film Noir 98
Gangster 100
Horror 102
Martial Arts 104
Melodrama 105
Musical 106
Propaganda 110
Science Fiction and Fantasy 112
Serial 115
Series 116
Teen 117
Thriller 118
Underground 119
War 120
Western 122
World Film 126
Africa 132
The Middle East 134
Iran 135
Eastern Europe 136
The Balkans 140
Russia 142
The Nordic Countries 145
Germany 148
France 151
Italy 154
United Kingdom 156
Spain 158
Portugal 160
Canada 161
Central America 162
South America 164
China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan 167
Korea 170
Japan 171
India 174
Australia and New Zealand 176
A–Z of Directors 178
Top 100 Movies 254
Glossary 344
Index 346
Acknowledgments 351
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Content previously published in Eyewitness Companions: Film

Page 177

175INDIA

Chanda Sharma as
Sweet Sixteen, plays a
beautiful Nepali virgin
who has been sold into
prostitution in Mira
Nair’s realistic drama
Salaam Bombay! (1988).

Influence on world film
When Jean Renoir came to Kolkata (formerly
Calcutta) in 1950 to shoot The River (1951), he was
assisted by Satyajit Ray. Renoir encouraged Ray to
fulfil his dream of making a film based on Pather
Panchali, a novel by Bibhutibhushan Banerjee that
deals with Bengali village life. With the majority of
money coming from the West Bengal government,
Ray was able to make Pather Panchali in 1955, the
first film in his Apu trilogy. Aside from Renoir’s
importance to Ray, the influence of The River cannot
be overestimated. It was one of the first films from
the West to show India other than as an exotic
background to Kipling-style colonial adventures.
It was only after this film that Fritz Lang visited
India in 1956 to make Taj Mahal, later abandoned.
James Ivory also made several films there, including
Shakespeare-Wallah (1965) and Heat and Dust
(1983). Another European director to be influenced
was Louis Malle (Phantom India, 1969).
The success of Ray’s films proved that it was
possible to work outside the commercial system.
Those who benefited from this newly independent
film included Marxists Mrinal Sen and Ritwik
Ghatak, who developed a new kind of social film
in opposition to Ray’s European humanism.
Sen, often called the “Bengali Godard,” attacked
poverty and exploitation in Indian society. “I wanted
to make disturbing and annoying films, not artistic
ones,” he said. His The Royal Hunt (1976) and And
Quiet Rolls the Dawn (1979) are powerful political
parables that look at the complexities of the country.
Meanwhile, Ghatak’s best-known films—Meghe
Dhaka Tara (1960), Komal Gandhar (1961), and
Subarnarekha (1965)—make up a trilogy based in
Kolkata that addresses the subject of refugees.
In contrast, in Mumbai, Hrishikesh Mukherjee
laid the foundation of genuine middle-class films,
with Anand (1970). The film tells the story of a
terminally ill man who, determined to remain
cheerful, brings about positive changes in the lives
of those around him. Meanwhile, Bollywood movies
were improving in quality, both technically and
artistically. Ramesh Sippy’s Sholay (1975), starring
one of the greatest Bollywood actors, Amitabh
Bachchan, is one of the most successful Hindi
films of the 1970s.
In the 1980s, Indian “art film” was not so
visible. However, in 1988, Mira Nair’s Salaam
Bombay!, became a huge international success.

Made in record time and for little money, it was
an impressively assembled mosaic of Mumbai’s
street life, its harsh cruelties and fleeting pleasures.
Other critically acclaimed Indian films in recent
years have been Shekhar Kapur’s Bandit Queen
(1994), an examination of caste discrimination,
human suffering, and the role of women in India’s
changing culture; Deepa Mehta’s Fire (1996), which
references Indian mysticism and the epic poetry
of the Ramayana as well as late-20th-century
feminism; and Sudhir Mishra’s hard-hitting
Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi (2005), about three college
students in the 1970s, and how the political and
social upheaval of the times changes their lives.
India is the world’s largest producer of feature
films, most of them musicals, the soundtracks
of which are released before the movie is. Since
the 1980s, the sale of music rights has generated
income for the film industry equivalent to the
distribution revenues.

Satyajit Ray (center),
worked extensively
with cinematographer
Subrata Mitra on
ten films.

Page 178

176 WORLD FILM

Australia has been making homegrown movies ever
since The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), believed to
be the world’s first feature-length film at 66 minutes.
However, in the beginning there was little incentive
to make Australian movies because of the American
and British exports. When World War I cut Australia
off from European film imports, it began to turn out
its own cheap productions, melodramas, and “black
blocks farces”—broad comedies of rural families.

There was little attempt at art film, an exception
being Raymond Longford’s The Sentimental Bloke
(1919), Australian film’s first international success.
Most other films transplanted Hollywood formulas,
particularly the Western, to Australia.
By 1936, only four countries in the world
were entirely “wired for sound:” the US, the
UK, Australia, and New Zealand. The best-known
Australian director from the early sound era
was Charles Chauvel (1897–1959), who made
two successful war films: 40,000 Horsemen (1941)
and The Rats of Tobruk (1944). Ken G. Hall’s wartime
documentary, Kokoda Front Line! (1942), brought
Australia its first Oscar. However, until the 1970s,
Australian films meant films made in Australia
by foreigners. For Ealing Studios, Harry Watt
made Aussie Westerns such as The Overlanders
(1946) and Eureka Stockade (1949), which began
the trend for making British films in Australia.
Among these directors were Stanley Kramer (On
the Beach, 1959), Fred Zinnemann (The Sundowners,
1960), and Tony Richardson (Ned Kelly, 1970).

Australia and New Zealand
Since the 1970s, Australian films have increasingly come to the
world’s attention, while Peter Jackson, director of The Lord of
the Rings, put New Zealand and its beautiful scenery on the
map with his big-budget trilogy.

Phillip Noyce’s
Rabbit-Proof Fence
(2002) follows three
young aboriginal girls
in 1931 attempting to
make a 1,500 mile
trek home.

Mel Gibson continues
in his role as a vengeful
futuristic cop in Mad
Max 2 (1981).

Page 353

351INDEX

Twist 161
2001: A Space Odyssey 113
2046 252
Two Women 154
Tykwer, Tom 150

U
UK 103, 109, 110, 116, 156–57
“angry young men” 41–42
directors 193, 210, 230, 250
early films 23
Free Cinema 95
quota system 156
and WWII 26, 30, 313
Ulmer, Edgar 98
Umberto D. 199
Underground 140
underground 119, 183
Unforgiven 125, 200, 333
United Artists Corporation 15, 38,
48, 97
United Productions of America 83
Universal Studios 15, 23, 24, 44, 49,
102
Uno, Misako 103
UPA see United Productions
of America
Uruguay 166

V
Va Savoir 234
Vagabond 245
Valentino, Rudolph 16, 17, 120
Van Damme, Jean-Claude 104
Van Sant, Gus 57
Vanity Fair 91
Varda, Agnès 153, 163, 245
Vasilyev, Dmitri 96
Ventura, Lino 221
Verhoeven, Paul 52, 131

Vertigo 210, 300
Vertov, Dziga 94, 110, 142–143
video recording 44, 48, 49, 53
Vidor, Charles 29
Vidor, King 20, 97, 105, 120, 246
Vietnam 131
Vietnam War 45–46, 95
Vigo, Jean 246, 270
Vinterberg, Thomas 56, 147
violence on screen 46–47
Viridiana 189
Visconti, Luchino 30, 43, 91, 154,
155, 247, 282
Vorkapich, Slavko 85

W
Wachowski brothers 114
Wadleigh, Michael 95
Waiting for Happiness 132
Waits, Tom 49
Wajda, Andrzej 47, 136, 137, 248, 301
Walk the Line 86
Wallace and Gromit 82, 83, 84
Walsh, Raoul 19, 100–01, 112, 120
Walters, Charles 29
war 28, 120–21, 156, 171
Warhol, Andy 119, 312
Warner Bros. 28, 32–33, 38, 46,
49, 83, 100, 101
early years 18, 20, 22, 24
see also individual directors
and films
Washington, Denzel 217
Watanabe, Shinichiro 173
Waters, John 92
Watt, Harry 94, 176
Watts, Naomi 72
Wayne, John 45, 46, 121, 124, 204, 208
Weaver, Sigourney 51
Weerasethakul, Apichatpong 131

Weir, Peter 121, 177
Weissmuller, Johnny 24, 116
Welles, Orson 28, 48, 49, 99, 248,
277, 289
Wellman, William 100, 111,
120–121, 249
Wenders, Wim 47, 49, 53, 148, 150,
163, 249, 325
West, Mae 25, 88
West Side Story 38, 39
Western 16–17, 39, 48, 122–25
Spaghetti Westerns 42, 125, 155
Westfront 1918 110, 227
Whale, James 23, 24, 102, 112,
120, 159, 250
White, Pearl 62-63, 115
Wicker Man, The 92
Widerberg, Bo 145, 146
widescreen 34, 44
Widmark, Richard 100
Wiene, Robert 98, 148, 259
Wild Bunch, The 40, 314
Wild One, The 36–37, 117
Wilde, Cornel 86
Wilder, Billy 21, 31, 38, 98, 130,
250–51, 303
Williams, John 74
Willis, Bruce 80, 81
Wind, The 21
Wind Will Carry Us, The 213
Winger, Debra 187
Wings of Desire 150
Winkler, Irwin 47
Winslet, Kate 57, 343
Winters, Shelley 93
Wise, Robert 39, 40, 113, 310
Wiseman, Fred 95
Wister, Owen 123
Witherspoon, Reese 86, 91
Wizard of Oz, The 25, 65, 112

Women of the Night 223
Women on the Verge of a Nervous
Breakdown 183, 329
Wong, Kar Wai 58, 130, 252, 340
Wood, Edward D. 92
Woodstock 95
Woodward, Edward 92
world film 58–59, 128–79
Worthington, Sam 114
Wright, Basil 94
Wright, Joe 91
Wrong Trousers, The 84
WWII 26–31, 94
post-war boom 30–31
Wyler, William 26, 29, 39, 91, 96,
100, 111, 124, 253, 279

XYZ
Y Tu Mamá También 59, 162–63
Yang, Edward 53
Yordan, Philip 64
Young, Terence 118
youth culture 36, 40–42, 50, 58, 117
Yugoslavia 140
Zannoni, Giovannetta 67
Zanuck, Darryl F. 29
Zatoichi 116
Zeffirelli, Franco 67
Zeman, Karel 84
Zemeckis, Robert 113
Zero for Conduct 246
Zeta Jones, Catherine 109
Zhang, Yimou 8, 53, 128, 129–30,
168, 332
Ziegfeld Follies 107
Zinnemann, Fred 35–36, 124, 176
Zola, Jean-Pierre 153
Zucker Brothers 90
Zukor, Adolphe 25
Zwick, Edward 121

Acknowledgments
The publisher would like to
thank the following for their
kind permission to reproduce
their photographs:

(Key: a-above; b-below/
bottom; c-centre; f-far; l-left;
r-right; t-top)

Aquarius Library: 304br;
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58bl. Corbis: Fabian Cevallos /
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Wing 252t; Columbia / Bray,

Page 354

352 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ken 216bl; Columbia / Caruso,
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