Download The Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion (Blackwell Companions to Religion) PDF

TitleThe Blackwell Companion to the Study of Religion (Blackwell Companions to Religion)
Author
TagsBlackwell
LanguageEnglish
File Size4.4 MB
Total Pages492
Document Text Contents
Page 1







Page 2




The Blackwell
Companion to the
Study of Religion



Page 246




BODY
225Buddhist
Perspectives
on the Body,fl
in Coakley
1997, p.
214). Buddhist
somatic
realism can be summed up as follows:
fiThe body
is your
enemy,
for the body
can make
you
constantly
miserable
and ˜nally
kills you,fl
and desire for a person
of the opposite sex
is pointless, merely
fia particularly
time-consuming and destructively
absurd
version
of the general
desire for the bodyfl
(Williams,
in Coakley
1997, p.
209).Suicidal renunciation
rightly
made for the bene˜t of others
may
be valuable
and justi˜able
in Buddhist
terms
of compassion. Williams
expounds
tradition
with forceful insight and proceeds to develop
in outline a doctrine of concern
for the other:Compassion requires some sort
of active
embodiment; embodiment is an expression
of spiritual attainment,
the spontaneous over˚ow
of enlightenment which
necessarily
˚ows
for the bene˜t of all sentient beings precisely
because it is enlightenment. For
both Buddha
and bod-hisattva
in their different
ways
the body
is an expression
of their spiritual being.
Their body
is their Being-for-others.
(Williams,
in Coakley
1997, p.
228)As regards
the Far
East, in his study
on the Taoist
body
and cosmic prayer
Michael Saso claims that
there is a unique conjoining of body,
mind, heart,
and belly
in Taoist
and Tantric
Buddhist
practice.
He also makes
the possibly
more contentious claim that
the practice
of Taoist
or Zen meditation
is compatible
with the maintenance of belief systems other than the traditional
partner
of Confucianism and that
Christians and Muslims can therefore share in the practice
(see Saso,
fiThe Taoist
Body
and Cosmic Prayer,fl
in Coakley
1997, p.
233; Schipper 1993). As regards
the migration
and inculturation
of spiritual body
practices
under global
-ized
conditions, some are more capable
of undergoing
cultural
translation
than others,
but the explanation
of these differences
in af˜nity is a com-plex
task.Taoist
and other Chinese spiritual body
practices
have
proved
to be highly
mobile and adaptable
in the process of fiEasternization.fl
The migra
-tion and global
dissemination
of Far
Eastern
practices
in the martial
and healing arts
raise
important
issues (see Ryan
2002). Similarly,
dif˜culties of cultural
translation
occur in the diffusion
and differentiation
of Neo-Tantra
in Western
contexts
by,
for example,
fiSanyasinsfl
Πso-called firenunciatesfl
trained
at
the Rajneesh
ashrams
at
Poona
and elsewhere.
These cases range
in style from the extreme
regime of the fiOsho
Multiversityfl
in the Netherlands to more gentle
esoteric teachers
who
guide their followers
toward
the achievement
of erotically
aware
union with the Divine.



Page 247




226 RICHARD H.
ROBERTS
The Somatic Complex and the Re-composition of
the Religious Field
Contemporary
research on the body
in religion takes
at
least ˜ve
basic directions. First,
largely
but not exclusively
under the in˚uence of second- and third-wave
feminism,
the body
now
enjoys
a central
place in contem-porary
cultural
theory
and in the decipherment
of the politics of individual
identity (see Butler 1993). Second, phenomenological
theory
has evolved
in ways
potentially
capable
of providing
a basis in the interdisciplinary
˜eld of religious studies for more effective
research into the body
(see Waaijman
1993). Third, anthropologists
such as the Tibetologist
Geoffrey
Samuel
have
developed
the Batesonian
tradition
in ways
that
allow
for a more effective
understanding
of the relationship
between
anthropology
and biology.
Samuel
has applied
his fimultimodal
frameworkfl
theory
to the interface
between
shamanic phenomena and institutionalized
tradi
-tions (see Samuel
1990). Fourth,
ritual and performance
theory
has pro-vided a forum
for the study
of body/mind
connection and the association
of gesture
and movement
with altered states
of consciousness eminently
applicable
to the contemporary
popular resurgence
of ritual activity
(see Schechner 1996). Fifth, the investigation
of the interface
between
spiritu-alities and the varied
˜elds of psychotherapy
has provided
indispensable
insight into the role of the body
in psycho-spiritual
healing processes (see Csordas 1997; West
2000). Finally,
the manipulation
and managerial
fitransformationfl
of the identities and fispiritualityfl of employees
in managed
organizations
have
become a signi˜cant feature
of organiza
-tional development
(see Roberts
2001, pp.
62Œ85).Conclusion: Religious Salience and the
Return of the Body
The history
of the body
in religion is characterized
by
complex
dichoto-mies in both religions themselves
and the methods used to study
them. The study
of religion today
focuses on processes of fire-traditionalizationfl
that
can no longer
be understood
as marginal or peripheral
but instead are a function of core processes in the world
system, of which
the fireturn
of the bodyfl
is but one aspect. The full analysis
of this situation
lie be- yond
the scope of this chapter.
Religious
bodies and their representations
encode cultural
transformations
that
can only
be fully
understood
through a renewed
encounter between
mainstream social theory
and the contem-porary
transformations
of religion. As the anthropologist
Mary
Douglas
once observed,
fiJust
as it is true
that
everything
symbolises the body,
so it


Page 491




470 INDEXRawls, John, 143, 247, 249, 250Œ1
Reed, Ralph, 259
Reichenbach, Bruce, 137
Reines, Isaac Jacob, 262
Rémy, Jean, ŁŁ
Ricoeur, Paul, 346
Rivers, W. H. R., 10
Riza Shah Pahlavi, 360
Rizzuto, Ana-Maria, 159
Robbins, Thomas, 373, 374
Robbins, Tony, 353Œ4
Roberts, Oral, 423
Robertson, Pat, 259Œ60, 364
Robinson, John, 98, 99, 100
Rolland, Romain, 326
Rosenzweig, Franz, 221
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 249
Rowe, William, 137, 142
Ryan, John A., 241Œ2
Saler, Benson, 26Œ7
Sallnow, Michael, 393Œ4
Samuel, Geoffrey, 215, 226
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 345
Saso, Michael, 225
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 11, 87, 117
Scharfstein, Ben-Ami, 53Œ4
Schechner, Richard, 405
Schelling, Friedrich, 75
Schilling, Chris, 219Œ20
Schimmel, Annemarie, 222Œ3
Schlegel, Friedrich, 73ff.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 72ff., 85,
198, 323, 326, 330
Schlesinger, George, 139
Scholem, Gershom, 324
Schulte-Sasse, Jochen, 311
Schuon, Frithjof, 324
Schweitzer, Albert, 324
Segal, Robert A., 25, 42
Segovia, Fernando, 205Œ6
Sells, Michael, 326, 330
Sidgwick, Henry, 240
Simmel, Georg, 310
Singer, Peter, 247, 248
Sivan, Emmanuel, 256
Smith, Adam, 47, 48
Smith, Gerald L. K., 257
Smith, Huston, 324
Smith, Jonathan Z., 402, 403
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, 20
Smith, William Robertson, 25, 400,
401Sobel, Howard, 137
Spencer, Baldwin, 16
Spencer, Herbert, 7, 8, 17
Spiegelberg, Herman, 101
Staal, Frits, 401
Stace, Walter, 324
Starbuck, Edwin, 149, 150, 151,
152, 327
Stark, Rodney, 47Œ67, 177, 373,
374, 381, 382
Steedly, Mary, 20
Steiner, George, 87Œ8
Steuco, Agostino, 324
Stirrat, Richard, 388
Stoller, Paul, 14Œ15
Stott, John, 207Œ8
Strenski, Ivan, 115
Stuart, Elizabeth, 206
Swinburne, Richard, 126, 131,
137, 139, 141, 203
Synott, Anthony, 214
Tapper, Nancy, 394
Tatian, 217
Taylor, Charles, 167
Taylor, Richard, 137
Teresa of Avila, 95, 323
Terreniore, JeanŒPaul, 178
Tertullian, 217
Thurston, Herbert, 330, 331
Tieck, Ludwig, 76Œ7
Tiele, Cornelius, 106Œ8
Tilghman, B. R., 126
Tillich, Paul, 59, 165Œ6
Tönnies, Ferdinand, 310, 418
Tracy, David, 206
Tripp, David, 219, 220
Troeltsch, Ernst, 371
Turner, Bryan, 214Œ15
Turner, Edith, 15, 16, 388, 389,
390Œ4Turner, Victor, 15, 388, 389, 390Œ
4, 403Œ4



Page 492




INDEX 471Tuzin, Donald, 26
Tweed, Thomas, 394, 395
Tylor, Edward Burnett, 4Œ5, 7Œ8,
17, 18, 22, 28, 29, 35, 42,
230, 339Œ41, 343, 344, 346,
348, 350, 351
Tyrrell, George, 85
Underhill, Evelyn, 324
Van der Leeuw, Gerardus, 110Œ11
Van Inwagen, Peter, 141
Vernant, Jean-Pierre, 352
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre, 352
Von Balthasar, Hans Urs, 85, 87
Waardenburg, Jacques, 105
Wallis, Roy, 180, 372Œ3, 374
Walter, Tony, 188
Ward, Keith, 197Œ8, 207
Ware, Kallistos, 219
Weaver, Mary Jo, 260
Weber, Max, 30, 172, 173Œ4, 175,
176, 177, 214, 247, 310, 371,
414Œ16, 422
West, Cornel, 205
Westermarck, Edward, 32
Wheelwright, Philip, 346
Whewell, William, 98, 99, 100,
105, 114Œ15
Whiting, Beatrice, 36
Whiting, John, 28Œ9
Wieland, Christoph Martin, 76
Wilbur, Ken, 167, 168
Willaime, Jean-Paul, 175Œ6, 178
Williams, Bernard, 248
Williams, Paul, 224Œ5
Wilson, Bryan R., 180, 418,
423Œ4Wilson, Edward O., 115
Winch, Peter, 126, 197
Winnicott, Donald W., 158Œ9, 160,
352Œ4Winrod, Gerald B., 257
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 126Œ7, 193
Wolfe, Alvin, 39
Woodhead, Linda, 187
Wordsworth, William, 74, 82, 83
Wundt, Wilhelm, 149, 150
Wykstra, Steve, 142
Yamba, Bawa, 387, 392
Yandell, Keith, 135, 143
Yoder, John Howard, 246
Zaehner, R. C., 324

Similer Documents