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TitleThe Architecture of Modern Italy, Volume I: The Challenge of Tradition 1750-1900
PublisherPrinceton Architectural Press
ISBN 139781568984209
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size10.1 MB
Total Pages280
Table of Contents
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Page 2

The Architecture of Modern Italy

Page 140

the architecture of modern italy

3.7 Giuseppe Valadier, then Giovanni Battista Caretti, then Giuseppe Jappelli,Villa Torlonia, Rome,
1802–42. Engraving by Gaetano Cottafavi, 1842

Page 141

the Torlonia pool. By 1832, Caretti had added a monumental Ionic
portico to Valadier’s villa structure, and the interiors were done up in
a variety of alternative historical styles.To allude to another namesake
from history, and to amplify his self-image,Alessandro had a chamber
decorated with a relief showing the life of Alexander the Great.

On several trips to Britain and on a tour of gardens in Italy,
including Saonara,Torlonia had seen the best his era could offer in
landscape design and wanted to outdo the Borghese with Rome’s
most genuinely picturesque garden. In response, Caretti supplied a
temple to Saturn, a caffèaus, sham ruins, and an amphitheater—a
panorama of structures explicitly inspired by Hadrian’s Villa. Even the
boundary wall with its teetering pile of counterfeit antiquities,
broken columns, and statues is a simulated stratification.The noble
portico of the enlarged palazzo lords over the scene.“With a single
sweep of his gaze,” writes Giuseppe Checchetelli, an observant if
sycophantic contemporary,Torlonia “could enjoy the product of his
greatness . . . just as Hadrian who from a single point in his villa took
in all the monuments of various styles his powerful will had
collected.” Piranesi’s influence can be detected here in an assemblage
of symbolic elements drawn from an array of historical materials.To
continue the works,Torlonia sought out top names, like Giovanni
Antolini, whom he unsuccessfully tried to coax down from Bologna.
He settled for Quintiliano Raimondi, who constructed a theater to
draw the public onto the villa grounds. Raimondi demonstrated little
sensibility for landscape, so Torlonia purchased the expertise of
Giuseppe Jappelli, who was tempted by the enormous amounts of
cash Torlonia was prepared to spend on the project.The rear parts of
the Villa Torlonia are Jappelli’s only creation outside his native Veneto
region, though he came to regret taking it on.

Jappelli introduced accidents of terrain to isolate the small area
he had to work with.A little Mount Olympus sprang up behind
Caretti’s temples, and its spiraling paths took one into secluded forest
valleys behind. Jappelli tucked into his fantastical landscape a Gothic
ruin, a secret grotto of sylvan nymphs, an arena for medieval jousts, a
Moorish pavilion of exotic pleasures, and a rustic farmstead.As at
Saonara, Jappelli’s garden is essentially a literary inspiration, his

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the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900

Page 279

o
ornato boards, local, 96, 180, 190

p
Pacca Edict (1820), 123
Paestum, 64
Palais imperiale, Rome, 113
Palazzo Belgioso, Milan, 80
Palazzo Belloni (now Rocca Saporiti), Milan, 97
Palazzo Braschi, Rome, 75, 76
Palazzo della Ragione, Padua, 126
Palazzo delle Debite, Padua, 181, 182
Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 251
Palazzo di Giustizia, Rome, 247
Palazzo Ducale, Milan, 77–78, 177
Palazzo Nuovo, Rome, 66
Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 110–112, 111
Palazzo Pubblico, San Marino, 215, 216
Palazzo Quirinale, Rome, 42, 110–112, 226–227
Palermo, city plan, 217
Panini, Giovanni Paolo, 15–16, 62
Panini, Giuseppe, 25, 27
Pantheon degli Uomini illustri, Pistoia, 159
Pantheon (The), Rome, 14, 15–19, 16; decorated for state

funeral, 232; design for attic of, 19;“progeny”
of, 153

Pantheonic chapel. See cemeteries:“monumental”
Perego, Giovanni, 97, 98
periods, architectural, 11
Perosini, Scipione, 113
Pertinchamp, Claude La Remée, 102, 103
Pertsch, Matthaus, 107–108
Piacentini, Marcello, 258
Piacentini, Pio, 234, 251
Pianta Guida della Città di Roma, (city plan, 1884),

Rome, 225
Piazza Belgioso, Milan, 80
Piazza Carlo Felice,Turin, 188
Piazza Cesare Beccaria, Florence, 193
Piazza del Duomo, Milan, 199, 201
Piazza del Plebiscito, Naples, 104, 105, 196
Piazza del Popolo, Rome, 115–120, 117, 118; gardens at,

116–119
Piazza dell’Esedra, Rome, 251
Piazza di San Marco,Venice, 99
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele I,Turin, 102, 103
piazzas. See names of individual piazzas
Piermarini, Giuseppe, 77–83, 91, 177
Pieroni, Francesco, 228, 230
Pincian Hill gardens. See garden design
Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, 14, 18–19, 47–59, 62, 122;

publications of, 51–52; vedute (urban views),
48–49

Pius IX, Pope, 219–222
Pius VI, Pope, 71–73, 73–76

Pius VII, Pope, 113–114
Poccianti, Pasquale, 158, 159
Poggi, Giuseppe, 192–194; stylistic contributions, 194
Poletti, Luigi, 173–174, 175
Pompeii, 63
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele I,Turin, 102
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II, Rome, 245
Pontine Marshes, 75–76
Porta Pia (gate), Rome, 223
Posi, Paolo, 17–18
Presenti, Enrico, 191
Promis, Carlo, 186–187, 188
public buildings. See also individual building name: city

halls, 216; Palermo, 217
public space, 114, 194, 259; palazzo comunale concept of,

216; in Venice, 101

q
Quarenghi, Giacomo, 59–62, 70

r
railroad construction, 168
railroad stations, 186–189; Stazione Porta Nuova,Turin,

188, 189; Stazione Termini, Rome, 221, 222
Receuil des décorations intérieures (publication), 100
reconstruction. See restoration (architectural)
Reggia (palace) at Caserta, 28–39, 33, 34, 37
Reishammer, Carlo, 167–168
restoration (architectural), 169–174. See also antiquities;

archaeology; Boito’s contribution to, 182
Rettifilo (urban renewal project), Naples, 196–198, 197
revivalism, 176–182. See also specific style name
Rezzonico, Giovanni Battista, 54, 55
risanamento (urban renewal), 199; Florence, 195
Risorgimento (national resurgence), 12, 84, 222–224;

Canova’s importance in, 148
roads: Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Rome, 245
Rocco, Emanuelle, 202, 203
“Roma Capitale d’Italia,” (engraving), 225
Roman ruins. See antiquities; archaeology
Romantic era: historical implications of, 182–183; and

Verdi’s opera, 147
romanticism, 128–130, 134–135; exploratory, 150; in

Tuscany, 156–158
Rome: city plan (1748) by Nolli, 21; city plans (1884),

225; effects of government installation,
222–223, 226; final years of papal reign,
220–221; Napoleonic influence on, 112–120;
Nolli plan for, 21; plans under Mayor Nathan,
255;World’s fair, 1911, 255–257

Rossi-Melocchi, Cosimo, 159
Rosso, Luigi, 232
Rubbiani,Alfonso, 214, 215
ruins. See antiquities; restoration (architectural)

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the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900

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s
Sacconi, Giuseppe, 235, 236–237
Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome, 73–74; sacristy of, 75
Saint Peter’s Square, Rome: Festa della Federazione, 86
Salone delle Feste, 258
Salvi, Nicola, 24–28
San Francesco di Paola, Naples, 105, 106
San Gaudenzio, Novara, 160, 161, 163
San Giovanni Laterano, 22, 23–24, 25, 52, 53; facade, 25
San Leopoldo, Follonica, 167, 168
San Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome, 220
San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, 172–175; restoration of,

175; restoration theory and, 173–174
Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, 204, 205, 208, 211
Santa Maria del Priorato, Rome, 54, 57
Santa Maria della Scala, Milan, 81
Santa Scholastica, Subaico, 59–61, 60
Sant’Antonio Taumaturgo,Trieste, 108, 109
Saonara Gardens, near Padua, 129
scenography, 143–144
sculpture, neoclassical, 147–148
Scuola Carrarese, Padua, 181
Sella, Quintino, 229, 230, 231
Selva, Giannantonio, 83–84, 107
Simonetti, Michaelangelo, 70–72
Soli, Giuseppe Maria, 99, 100
Stazione Porta Nuova,Turin, 187–189, 188
Stazione Termini, Rome, 221, 222
Stern, Raffaele, 112, 123, 124, 169–170, 171
styles (architectural): Classical, 162; Gothic, 162, 176–178;

neo-Renaissance, 192; neo-Romanesque,
179–180; romantic, 128–130, 134–135, 150,
156–158; utilitarian aspects, 180

synagogues, 163, 254, See also “Mole Antonelliana,”Turin

t
Teatro alla Scala, Milan, 80, 81–82
Teatro Carlo Felice, Genoa, 154, 155
Teatro La Fenice,Venice, 83–84, 144–145, 146;

reconstruction after fire, 144
Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele II, Palermo, 218
Teatro San Carlo, Naples, 105, 106
Tempio Canoviano, Possagno, 149–151, 151; as perfect

synthesis of styles, 150
Tempio israelitico, Roma, 254
theater design, 155;Teatro Massimo Vittorio Emanuele II,

Palermo, 217
Thorvaldsen, Bertel, 112
Titus,Arch of, 169–170, 171
Torlonia,Alessandro, 139–141, 142
Torlonia, Giovanni, 138–139
town halls, 214–216
train stations and terminals. See railroad stations

Trevi Fountain, Rome, 24–28, 25, 85
Trieste: Napoleonic influence on, 107–112
Trieste theater, 107
Turin: as capital city, 186–189; city plan, 186, 187; stone

bridge over Po, 103

u
unification, national. See national unification (Italy)
urban planning: Florence, 190–192; industrial aspects

(Milan), 204; infrastructure (roads and bridges),
243–245; Naples, 196; risanamento, 198–199;
public financing for, 243; Rome under Mayor
Nathan, 255;Viviani’s contribution, 244

urban renewal. See risanmento (urban renewal)

v
Valadier, Giuseppe, 114–119, 138–139, 140, 171
Vanvitelli, Carlo, 36, 37
Vanvitelli, Luigi, 25, 28–39, 77–78
Vatican Museums (Braccio Nuovo), Rome, 123, 124
Venice: Napoleonic influence on, 98–101; Ornato Board,

101
Verdi, Giuseppe: effect on scenography, 147
Verri, Pietro, 82
Vescovali,Angelo, 245
Via dei Calziuoli (widening), Florence, 191
Via del Corso, Rome, 254
Via del Rettifilo, Naples, 197, 198
Via del Santo Stefano houses (restoration), Bologna, 215
Via Nazionale, Rome, 227–228, 228
Viale dei Colli, Florence, 194
Vici,Andrea, 86, 88
Villa Albani, Rome, 66–67, 68, 85
Villa Borghese, Rome, 72–73, 136–138; extension to Via

Flaminia, 137
Villa Il Pavone, Siena, 159
Villa Puccini, near Pistoia,Tuscany, 157
Villa Torlonia, Rome, 140
villas, rivalries among, 136–142
“Vittoriano,”The (Monument to Vittorio Emanuelle II),

Rome, 237; designs for, 234; political
significance of, 236, 239

Vittorio Emanuelle II, King: death of, 231; funeral
decorations for, 232

Viviani,Alessandro, 241–244

w
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim, 107
works of art. See antiquities
World’s Fair (1908), Rome, 255–258;“Forum of the

Regions,” 258, 259; Italian pavilion, 256

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the architecture of modern italy

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