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TitleThe Architects' Handbook
ISBN 139780632039258
File Size42.4 MB
Total Pages464
Table of Contents
Bibliography and References
Conversion of Units
Document Text Contents
Page 2

The Architects’ Handbook

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Page 232

These are the link between production or storage
process and the distribution system. Much effort to
reduce production costs can be wasted through
delayed vehicle turn-round and increased manning
if loading areas are not carefully designed.
Particularly in mixed developments (e.g. shops,
offices and small factory units), careful planning is
needed to prevent delays in finding the correct
delivery location; for instance, the provision of an
internal phone in the loading bay area can save
considerable time.

Purpose-designed bays are not required for some
vehicles (e.g. containers or swap-bodies, aggregate
lorries top-loaded from hoppers or dump trucks, and
Generally, for end-loading containers and box-
bodies vehicles, as in retail distribution, raised decks
are preferred. For side-loading curtain-sided and
flat-bed vehicles, a covered, ground level dock is
suitable; specific bays are not usually required -
loadinghnloading is by fork-lift truck, and a
working clearance around the vehicle of 2.5-3m is
required. Long loads, such as pipes, need special
consideration. Wheeled pallets are sometimes used,
in which case the layout must therefore avoid any
stairs. Doorways should be 1.5m wide; internal
passages should be 2.0m wide. Floors, walls and
corners need to be hard-wearing.
Layout criteria include

pre-assembly of loads
load units (e.g. pallets, bins, cages)
unloading procedure (e.g. roll-in, roll-out or fork-
lift truck)
loading to sedaircraftlrail containers
timing of dispatch
type of packing required (and storage of pallets
etc., and waste)
any specific environmental conditions
any special security or legal requirements.

Separate loading bays Should be provided for
incoming and dispatch (see 94). Separate bays,
together with vehicle marshalling areas, are
required where the manufacturing system involves
different characteristics between raw materials and
finished products - raw materials needing side-
handling at ground level, and palletisation for
dispatch needing end-loading. It is similar for a
large distribution warehouse (e.g. bulk loads of a
single product are delivered and mixed loads of
orders are dispatched, in distributors’ own
vehicles) so segregation is needed for traffic
management and materials flow in the warehouse,
particularly as vehicle handling peaks may
coincide. Traditionally, income and dispatch were
located at opposite ends of buildings, but modern
layouts may need loading bays a t strategic
locations around the building. This results in
higher construction costs, but should mean lower
production costs in the long-term, and is worth
careful examination at the design stage.

Number of bays, spacing and layout Loading
bays must never be considered in isolation; they
must be related to the circulation and check-off area
behind them. Decision on numbers is a question of
throughput patterns and available area next to the
dock for load preparation (see 95). Clearly if
vehicles can be handled faster with pre-assembled
loads, less loading docks are required than for
slower turn-round with material being assembled as
loading operation continues.

Loading bay spacing and layout are influenced by
the depth of the manoeuvring area available and
depth of the load accumulation space behind the
dock (see 97).

0 50m --- U --!----- !
goods inward: suppliers’
bulk loads
high-bay bulk stock pallet
pallet breakdown and
order selection and load
dispatch loading bay: users’
distribution vehicles
one-way traffic flow
long-term truck parking and
users‘ maintenance area

94 Large retail distribution centre with separate goods inward
and dispatch loading bays

95 Many warehouses can use dock for incoming and dispatch
goods; in factories, sharing type of loading bay may not be
possible but goods vehicle manoeuvring area can be common

225 clearance 41

mil level

96 Rail gauge (container outline dotted)

Page 233

Vehicle spacing
Spacing is directly related to yard depth (frontal
clearance). The conditioning factor is the distance
that closely parked vehicles have to pull out before
turning (see 97). Angled (usually 45" or 60°), raised
docks reduce yard depth at expense of the number of
vehicles handled at one time; drive-through bays
reduce circulation width but increase length. Angled
docks increase construction costs, complicate the
internal layout, and require a one-way traffic system
as the driver should not reverse blind. The finger
dock (10' angle) is a compromise for side- and end-
loading where the manoeuvring area is limited.

90" enclosed bay (flat floordeck)
(note that specific vehicle bays
are not required)

I 0 I

unloading bvffer

0 ,
I , 1' 15.5m ' 0 I
; I side-(un)loading:

a = 5.5m for hondling two
, vehicles at same time
: = 3.0m for one vehicle

ccess road

1 1 I 90" end-loading raised docks

- leveller plate

lo' =draw-fonvord distance
to clear adjoining
(conditioning factor)

, , end-loading angled raised docks
* I .

leveller plate

I Ib) = for 60" dock angle

97 Loading dock layouts

A bay width of 3.5m is usually sufficient, but the
width of the bays is also directly related to frontal

bay width frontal clearance (min)
( 4 for 15.5 m articulated vehicle (m)



(NB 2.0m should be added to frontal clearonce if adjacent to wall)

load check-off/accumulation space
This should be located behind the cross-circulation
aisle load handling zone and should have a capacity
of 1.5 vehicle loads. Allow space of at least one load
area for broken pallets, rejected loads and rubbish.
A cross-circulation aisle 4 m wide allows space for
two fork-lifts to pass and for turnout from dock
Raised docks
These should be equipped with dock leveller plates
to accommodate both changes in vehicle bed height
as they are loaded and different types of vehicle (see
98). The standard loading dock height is 1.2m, but
medium-size vans require 1 m and refrigerated
vehicles may require 1.35m; the highest can be
1.65m. The dock should preferably be slightly lower
than the vehicle platform (to prevent a moving load
trapping anyone inside the vehicle).
Dock levellers These are usually built into the
dock, with a length between 2 and 4.5 m, and giving
height adjustments of approximately 0.5 m above
and below the dock level; the gradient should not
exceed 1 in 10. Straight lifts are rarely a suitable
alternative. Note that many vehicles are now fitted
with tail lifts.
Dock shelters
Dock shelters form a hermetic seal between the
vehicle and building; a segmental or roller shutter
door closes onto the leveller when the vehicle leaves.
Dock shelters may be essential for cold store
transfers. Ground level or finger docks can be
completely enclosed (straight through flow or tail
in). Alternatively, hot or cold air curtains can be used
but these are not a substitute for enclosure. Bay
widths need to be wider when shelters are used: 3.7
to 4.5m wide.
Security/health and safety
Drivers should not be able gain access beyond the
dock, except in some distribution operations with the
company's own vehicles where the driver arranges the
order of loading. Generally, raised docks with dock
shelters provide inherent security: separate lavatories
and access to traffic office should be provided for
visiting drivers. A high percentage of accidents occur
in the loading area: careful design is crucial.
Weather protection
If dock shelters or an enclosed dock cannot be
installed, a canopy is required over the loading
area: allow at least 4.5m clear height (see 98);
sometimes 5 m may be required (note that there is

Page 463

signage cont.
youth hostels 388, 390
zoos 395

Sikh temples 321
silo towers 75
Sir Alfred McAlpine Stadium,

Huddersfield 345, 346, 350,

Tamworth, Birmingham 240

see also universities and colleges

expressing 41 7
presenting 417-1 8

Sir Robert Peel Hospital,

sixth form education 59, 60

sizes in drawings

sleeping accommodation, boarding
schools 38

Slimbridge Wetlands Conservation
Centre 264,265

slurry storage 82
smokers, facilities for

hospitals 123
offices 289

Snape Maltings Concert Hall 401
snooker 352
social housing 156-7
softball 357
soft play rooms, special schools 60
soil preparation, landscape works 233
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum,

sound factors see acoustic issues;

sound systems, cinemas 21,22
Southampton University, halls of

South Bank Technopark, London 12
special educational needs (SEN),

New York 267

noise abatement

residence 99

pupils with 47
in mainstream schools 36, 38,49
see also special schools

specialist schools 34
special schools 34, 36, 59-60

boarding 38,39
speech and language therapy 122
sports facilities 344-67

athletics 351
community centres 28
equestrian 366-7
pitches and courts 352-7
schools 55
stadiums 344-50
swimming 358-63
tennis 364-5

squash 357
Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart 266, 267
stacks, crematoria 31
stadiums 344-50
stages, theatre 369, 375-6
stairlifts 404
stairs and steps

car parks 382
disabilities, people with 402,

flats 183, 185
housing 179,183,185
landscape works 234
libraries 256
theatres and arts centres 370

Stansted Airport, Essex 1, 2, 4, 9
steps see stairs and steps


Stockton, University of 65, 66, 68
Stockton Sixth Form College 65
storage space/areas

art, design and media studios 71,

community centres 28
farm buildings 87, 90-1
hostels 105
housing 189, 193-5
kitchens 189
laboratories 227
libraries 258
museums and art galleries 265-6
offices 285, 289, 294
petrol stations 384
restaurants 331-2
schools 36,40,46, 60
warehouses 207-8,211
youth hostels 389-90

Stratford East Picture House,
London 21

street furniture 242-3
studies, house 187
studios see art, design and media

studio theatres 376
Stuttgart Airport, Germany 3,4,5,11
supermarkets and superstores 336,

Sussex, University of 71
swimming pools 358-63

changing rooms 362
competition 360
diving 361
gardens 238
private indoor 238
leisure 359
special schools 60



Sydney Airport, Australia 11
synagogues 3 16-1 9

tables, school 39-40
table tennis 357
Tate Modern 262-3,267,269,275
Tate Museum 266,273
Techniquest Science museum,

Cardiff Bay 273
technology parks 12-13
Teesside Crematorium 32
Teesside University Learning

Resources Centre,
Middlesbrough 259

telemedicine 113

disabilities, people with 403
offices 290

houses 166
sports facilities 345

templates, drawing 409
tennis courts 364-5
tertiary education see universities

theatres and arts centres 368-78


and colleges

auditorium 373-5
organisation 369-70
receptiodfront of house 370-2
regulations 378
stage/backstage 375-6
supporting areas 377-8

thermal insulation, farm buildings 80

Thomas Cook Call Centre,
Falkirk 302

thrust stages 375
Tipton Green Junior School,

title panels 410
toilets see WCs
topsoil 233
Tower of London 261
trade mart concept 14
traffic calming measures 379-80
Trafford Centre, Manchester 343
Trafford Park, Manchester 12
trampolines 357
transport infrastructure

airports 2, 3
business parks 12
community centres 26
crematoria 31
hospitals 129
hostels 106
housing 160
shops 336, 341

Sandwell 50

transport interchanges 386
trap doors 376
trauma centres (accident and emergency

travellators 9
tree grids 243
triple jump 351
tug-of-war 357
Turnhouse Airport, Edinburgh 1
tying-in 41 8
Tyrone Guthrie Theatre,

departments) 110,120

Minneapolis 377

Uffizi Gallery, Florence 261, 267
United Synagogue 3 17
universities and colleges 61-70

changing educational needs 64-6
changing social expectations 66
halls of residence 99-103
libraries and learning resource

centres 253,258-9
planning new facilities 67-8
schedules of accommodation 63-4

University College, London (UCL) 61
museum 271

University of East Anglia 67
University of East London 66, 70
University of Lincoln 66
University of Stockton 65, 66, 68
University of Sussex 71
urban villages 160
utility spaces, housing 191

VDUs 290,293,294
vehicle facilities 379-87

art, design and media studios 73
bus and coach stations 386
business parks 12, 14
crematoria 31
detailed design 379-80
farm buildings 80, 85, 87
fire stations 93, 94
halls of residence 103
hospitals 120
housing 164
industrial buildings 200,210,

mortuaries 127

Page 464

vehicle facilities cont.
petrol stations 384-5
riding schools 366
schools 38
services 385
showrooms 385
transport interchanges 3 86-7
warehouses 210
workshops 213
youth hostels 389
see also car parks and parking

Venkateswara Temple of the United
Kingdom, West Midlands 320

airports 10, 11
catering facilities 331, 332
cinemas 22
farm buildings 81-2, 89
flats 184
garden swimming pools 238
greenhouses 236
hospices 137
hospitals 115, 123, 126, 127
hostels 105
hotels 147, 150
housing 181, 184, 193
industrial buildings 218, 219
laboratories 226,229
law courts 249
libraries 253,259
museums and art galleries 272,

offices 281, 288,289, 290, 291,

schools 42-3, 60
youth hostels 388, 390

Venturi 266
vestries 31
vibration control

catering facilities 332
industrial buildings 218

Victoria and Albert Museum

Victoria Infant School,

Victorian housing 155, 157
video-conferencing 290
visitor centres 264-5
visual display units (VDUs) 290,

volleyball 357

waiting rooms

(V & A), London 269

Sandwell 46-7,49

crematoria 31
hospitals 120

external 79, 232
internal 300, 301, 332


Walsall Art Gallery 262

hotel guest rooms 145,146
houses 194
theatres and arts centres 378

warehouse parks and clubs 337
warehouses 207

building typedhandling 209-1 1
distribution warehouses 342
environment 21 8
fire control 219
layout 207-8
structural options 199

warm water pools, special schools 60
Warrington Library 253

schools 36
youth hostels 390
see also sanitary facilities

waste handling/disposal
catering facilities 332
farm buildings 82-3
hospices 139, 141
housing 194-5
industrial buildings 219
laboratories 229
litter bins, street 242

watchrooms, fire stations 96
water closets see WCs
waterfalls 235
water polo 360
water supplies

aquariums 398
farm buildings 80
housing 192
landscape works 235
offices 293
schools 42

crematoria 31
disabilities, people with 405
flats 184
halls of residence 101
hospitals 116
hostels 105, 106
housing 184, 193
industrial buildings 221
libraries 255
museums and art galleries 268
offices 285,293
restaurants and catering

facilities 332, 334
schools 36, 47, 60
shops 338
youth hostels 388, 390

w c s

Wellcome Trust Genome Campus,
Sanger Centre Courtyard,
Hinxton, Cambridge 237, 241

Wellcome TrusdMedical Research
Council Building,
Cambridge 225

wells 235
Welsh National Stadium, Cardiff 344
Wembley Stadium, London 344
Wessex Water Operations Centre,

Bath 305
West Downs Student Village,

King Alfred’s College,
Winchester 100

wheelchair users, design for 402
see also access issues; disabilities,

people with
‘wheelie bins’ 194, 195
Whitechapel Art Gallery 271
White Rose Centre, Leeds 336, 381
Williams, Sir Owen 197
Wimbledon No 1 Court, London 365
wind direction and housing 162, 169

art, design and media studios 71
disabilities, people with 406
housing 179, 196
libraries 259
museums and art galleries 272
offices 281,291,296
schools 43,46
see also glazing

catering facilities 331-2
houses 194

woodland management 79
workrooms, libraries 258
workshops 212

wine cellars

art, design and media studios 72-3
circulation 213
design and services

requirements 199
equipment space 215
location 212
tenancies 214-17
theatres and arts centres 378

art, design and media studios 73
offices 282,284,287, 293


wrestling 357

X-ray rooms 124

Yeung’s City Bar and Restaurant,

youth hostels 388-91
Clerkenwell, London 325

types 388

ZOOS 392-6
Zurich Airport, Switzerland 3

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