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TitleSustainable Landscape Construction: A Guide to Green Building Outdoors
File Size19.9 MB
Total Pages506
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
About Island Press
Title Page
Copyright Page
List of Figures
List of Tables
Preface to the Third Edition
	Authorship Changes
	Why a New Edition?
	What's New in This Edition?
	Who Should Use This Book?
	How to Use This Book
	Finding Landscapes Along the Information Highway
	Contacting the Author
Basic Principles: "Sustainability" in Context
	What Is Sustainability? Politics, Ethics, and Semantics
	Sustainability: Convention, Tradition, and Innovation
	Landscapes Against Climate Change
	Sustainability, Substance, and Style
	Rethinking Special Landscape Types for Sustainability
Principle 1: Keep Healthy Sites Healthy
	What Is a Healthy Site?
	Take a Role in "Pre-construction"
	Do Your Homework First: Knowledge as Sustainability
	Avoid Survey Damage
	Minimize Utility Damage
	Physically Protect Sites During Construction
	Preserve Healthy Topsoil
	Save Every Possible Existing Tree- Even Just One
	Use Appropriate Construction Machinery
	Related Design and Planning Issues
	Coordination and Follow-up
Principle 2: Heal Injured Soils and Sites
	Turn Wastelands to Gardens
	Balance the Environmental Costs and Benefits of Restoration
	Involve the Community in Site Restoration
	Make a Virtue of the Necessity for Landfills
	Recognize Agricultural and Rural Restoration
	Restore Landscapes Structurally
	Restore Damaged Soils On-site
	Restore Regionally Appropriate Vegetation
	Restore Forests and Coexist with Wildfire
Principle 3: Favor Living, Flexible Materials
	Highlight the Benefits of Vegetation
	Hold Slopes in Place with BTEC-- Biotechnical Erosion Control
	Make Vertical Structures "Habitat-able" with Greenwalls
	Turn Barren Roof Spaces into "Greenroofs"
	Construct for and with Plants
	Evaluate Turf: The Green, the Bad, and the Ugly
	Count on Plants to Sustain
Principle 4: Respect the Waters of Life
	Work with the Site's Water Regime
	Understand, Protect, and Restore Natural Wetlands
	Know the Issues Before Working in or near Wetlands
	Restore Rivers and Streams to Full Health
	Collect and Conserve Water
	Irrigate Intelligently and Sparingly
	Reuse Graywater
	Purify Water at Every Opportunity
	Test Modern Hardware for Cleaner Piped Stormwater
	Let Constructed Wetlands Treat Water
Principle 5: Pave Less
	Plan and Design to Reduce Paving
	Take Advantage of Context-sensitive Road Design
	Use Techniques That Reduce Runoff from Paving
	Use Porous Paving Materials
	Cool Asphalt with Planting and Albedo
Principle 6: Consider Origin and Fate of Materials
	The Devil is in the Details
	Recall Some Simple Guidelines
	Let Reuse Be Re-inspiration
	Use Local, Salvaged, or Recycled Materials
	Evaluate Environmental Costs When Choosing Suppliers
	Use Sustainably Harvested Renewables
	Use Nonrenewable Materials Sparingly
	Avoid Toxic Materials
	Know General Toxicity Issues by Material Type
	Avoid Three Controversial Materials
	Prioritize Hazard-reductions Efforts
Principle 7: Know the Costs of Energy over Time
	Understand How Landscape Energy Use Is Different
	Manage Energy for Machines, Tools, and Labor
	Embodied Energy-- Why Do We Care?
	Use Life-cycle Costing to Justify Sustainable Design
	Apply Guidelines for Landscape Energy Conservation
Principle 8: Celebrate Light, Respect Darkness
	Respect the Need for Darkness
	Talk Lighting-- a Brief Glossary
	Use Lighting Efficiently
	Try Low-voltage Lighting for Flexibility
	Use Solar Lighting
	Evaluate Lamp Performance
	Join the LED Lighting Revolution
Priciple 9: Quietly Defend Silence
	Understand Noise Terminology
	Be Aware of Damaged Caused by Noise
	Don't Rely on Noise "Barriers" in Most Landscapes
	Try Noise-absorbing Materials
	Modify Pavement to Reduce Road Noise
	Make Noise Invisible
	Fight Noise with Noise
	Push for Quieter Landscape Tools
	Protect "Soundscapes" Through Planning
Principle 10: Maintain to Sustain
	Know the Resource Costs of Conventional Landscape M
	Plan for Maintainable Spaces
	Expect Change
	Evauate Bio-based Maintenance Products with Care
	Apply Intregrated Pest Management
	Use Fertilizers Sustainably
	Don't Waste On-site Resources
	Consider Alernatives to Mowing
	Adapt to Using Native Plants
	Manage Large Public Landscapes Holistically, Too
	Evaluate Life-cycle Costs of Maintenance Options
	Use Innovative Funding
	Coordinate Design, Construction, and Maintenance
Principle 11: Demonstrate Performance, Learn from Failure
	Anatomy of a Certification System
	Landscape Certification Programs
	Better Measures
	Landscape Forensics and Learning (or Not) from Failure
Sustaining Principles, Evolving Efforts
	Learning from the Landscape: Themes and Strategies
	Green Education in Design and Construction
	Landscapes as Public Environmental Education
	Thinking One Hundred Years Ahead
IP Board of Directors
Document Text Contents
Page 1


A Guide to
Green Building Outdoors



Page 253

Figure 4.27a, b Centrally located in each irrigation zone, the IrriGreen “Genius” sprinkler is set to variable-length sprays
to fit irregular outlines (top) and varied volumes per jet to achieve even coverage (bottom). (Product and Photos: IrriGreen.)

Page 254

Principle 4: Respect the Waters of Life 223

age by either spray or drip tubing. As for water, tests
at the Center for Irrigation Technology at California
State University, Fresno, showed a minimum savings
of 40 percent, compared to mechanical aboveground
sprinkler systems. This brings the calibrated jet sys-
tem close to the water savings associated with drip ir-
rigation (although no comparative study with drip has
been conducted).

The calibrated jet system is intended for use on
lawns; it can spray around trees in a lawn, but such
obstacles impede even coverage. For watering shrubs,
trees, or flower beds, the controller can also run zones
with conventional irrigation equipment, both drip and
spray. Extra adjustments are needed to water evenly on
slopes. Because IrriGreen zones are fairly small, and
only one zone runs at a time, the system is primar-
ily used for residential and small commercial projects,
though the company is working on larger-capacity
heads and added controller features.

IrriGreen is intended as an evolving platform. At
present, the suppliers recommend connecting a soil
sensor to the controller; they consider ET data (which
can be “cobbled” in) less accurate, but will eventually
add this as a supported function. Calibration is done
by a flow meter, which monitors usage but is not yet
programmed to detect leaks. Settings are done by log-
ging in, via cell phone, to IrriGreen’s site; a more direct
remote control is another future feature. IrriGreen is
also working with OmniEarth toward a mapping ap-
plication that can analyze map data to plan zone irri-
gation and compare costs.

IrriGreen has been called the future of irrigation,
and it is certainly a game-changer for turf areas. It ap-
pears the company recognizes the need to keep in-
novating, especially to add control apps that users,
especially in large installations, have come to rely on.

There have been a number of “contour sprinklers”
for hose-end use that can be set for odd-shaped ar-
eas, but the only apparent competitor for IrriGreen
is the German manufacturer Gardena. It produces the
Vielflächen-Versenkregner (multi-area pop-up) Aqua-
Contour. With a spray pattern resembling the old-
fashioned oscillating lawn sprinkler, the AquaContour
is set similarly to the IrriGreen method. Permanently
installed or portable hose-end units are available; the
portable type uses ground pins to mark its position

when set, and can recall several area shapes, thus cover-
ing many zones by moving one pre-programmed unit.
It is primarily suited to residential use, for the same
reasons affecting IrriGreen.

Remember Other Irrigation Options

Some irrigation suppliers now offer “root-watering”
fixtures,90 primarily for trees and large shrubs. These
are tubes, three or four inches in diameter, run from
the soil surface to root depth, usually a foot or two.
Plain pipes have been used in this way for years, filled
periodically from a hose. The updated version is filled
by the automatic irrigation system. For some species,
and with a separate valve controlling only them, root
waterers may have value and conserve water.

A low-tech option is the Treegator drip irrigation
bag, a heavy fourteen- or twenty-gallon plastic sack
that drip irrigates one tree for up to ten hours. Care-
ful placement of the bag is important: with all but
small trees, it is a mistake to place it next to the trunk.
Compared to hose watering, Treegators reduce evap-
orative loss and runoff. The manufacturer estimates
that this system cuts weekly watering visits from four
to one, and laborer time per tree from fifteen minutes
to two. By this estimate, labor cost is only 3 percent
of that for hose watering, and some fuel costs may be
saved. Average wholesale price is $17.50 per bag. The
manufacturer suggests that landscape contractors save
enough on labor that they can use the bags to establish
plantings, then give them to the client.

Hose watering is an often-overlooked option. Pro-
fessionals profit on irrigation systems, but should not
forget that for some situations (occasional watering of
tough species, or early establishment where a perma-
nent system is not desirable), hose watering is a rea-
sonable, water-conserving alternative.

Use Non-potable Water for Irrigation

Non-potable water can and should be used for irriga-
tion. Very few plants benefit from treated water; chlo-
rine and fluorine harm some species. Infrastructure
and treatment costs are significant. Many manufactur-
ers offer non-potable pipes and fittings (usually color-
coded purple). These are identical to conventional

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