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TitleStructure As Architecture: A Source Book For Architects And Structural Engineers
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Table of Contents
                            Structure as architecture: A source book for architects and structural engineers
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 Introduction
	The potential for structure to enrich architecture
	Experiencing and reading structure
	Structure and its degree of exposure
	Book outline
	References and notes
2 Two building studies
	British Record Industry Trust (BRIT) School
	Baumschulenweg Crematorium
	Summary
	References and notes
3 Relationships between architectural and structural form
	Introduction
	Synthesis of architectural and structural form
		Shell structures
		Fabric structures
		Catenaries
		Ribbed structures
		Arches
		Framed structures
		Walls
	Consonant forms
	Contrasting forms
	Summary
	References and notes
4 Building exterior
	Introduction
	Aesthetic qualities
		Modulation
		Depth and texture
		Screening and filtering
		Structural scale
	Connecting the exterior to the interior
	Entry
	Expressive roles
	Summary
	References and notes
5 Building function
	Introduction
	Maximizing functional flexibility
	Subdividing space
	Articulating circulation
	Disrupting function
	Summary
	References and notes
6 Interior structure
	Introduction
	Surface structure
	Spatial structure
	Expressive structure
	Summary
	References and notes
7 Structural detailing
	Introduction
	Expressive and responsive detailing
		Architectural form
		Building function
		Materiality and construction
		Structural actions
		Other sources of inspiration
	Aesthetic qualities of detailing
		Introduction
		Refined to utilitarian
		Simple to complex
		Lightness to heaviness
		Plain to decorative
	Summary
	References and notes
8 Structure and light
	Introduction
	Source of light
	Maximizing light
		Detailing to minimize structural size
		Penetrations in structural members
		Transparent structure
	Modifier of light
		Filtering
		Reflecting
	Modified by light
	Summary
	References and notes
9 Representation and symbolism
	Introduction
	Representation
		Natural world
		Artifacts
	Symbolism
	Summary
	References and notes
10 Conclusions
	Introduction
	Transformative power of structure
	Structural diversity
	Implications for the architectural and structural engineering professions
Index of buildings and references
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Y
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

STRUCTURE AS ARCHITECTURE

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Page 120

contribute significantly to the simple beauty of the exquisite interior
structure.

At the FDA Laboratory, Irvine, California, surface modulation is taken
to another degree of intensity in the library. Not only does structure
modulate the interior wall areas, but due to its considerable depth it
also plays a spatial subdivisional role around the perimeter of the
space. The library is semi-circular in plan, essentially enclosed within
reinforced concrete walls. Supporting the ends of beams that radiate
from the centre of the semi-circle, deep cast-in-place buttresses project
into the room (Fig. 6.6). They subdivide the wall circumference into six
equal segments, each of which has its own sense of partial enclosure. A
desk placed in each segment benefits from natural light through a cen-
tral slit window and a perimeter skylight above whose width matches
the increased depth of the buttresses at roof level.

Ceiling structure, together with inclined columns, considerably enriches
the interior space of the Güell Colony Crypt, Barcelona. Rough hewn
stone columns, precisely angled in accordance with Gaudí’s catenary
analytical study, form an inner semi-circular arcade around the sanctu-
ary.3 This centralized structure focuses attention on the sanctuary and
the particularly richly textured ceiling above it (Fig. 6.7). Shallow and
audaciously thin brick arches support a brick soffit. The construction
method, more common in timber than brick, has secondary members
bearing on top of, rather than in the same plane as, the primary members.

INTERIOR STRUCTURE 107

▲ 6.6 FDA Laboratory, Irvine, California, USA, Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership + HDR,
2003. The perimeter wall of the library with its internal buttresses.

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Page 121

Secondary ribs generally radiate toward the perimeter of the crypt from
two circular nodes in front of the altar.

Westminster Lodge, Dorset, is one of several experimental timber
buildings at Hooke Park that explores environmental architecture. It
consists of eight single-bedrooms gathered around a central 8 m by 8 m
living space. Roundwood thinnings, not normally considered of struc-
tural value, comprise its structure. Extensive research and development
of pole-splices and other connection details confirmed the structural
adequacy of this form of pole construction. After poles were spliced,
they were bent to form a grillage of interlocking beams that span the
main space and form the shallow curved roof (Fig. 6.8). The beams con-
sist of two pole-chords spaced apart by timber blocks. Diagonal timber
sarking that bears on the upper level of the poles, carries the weight of
a turf roof.

Although exposed poles and lintels modulate the interior painted plas-
terboard walls and further express the roundwood framing system, the
roof structure has a greater aesthetic presence in the interior space.
The following factors combine to achieve a most visually satisfying roof
structure – the close 600 mm grillage module, the gentle roof curvature
that reflects the relative ease of bending small-diameter green poles, the
depth and stratification of the five horizontal layers of structural mem-
bers including the sarking, a level of structural complexity that can be
comprehended, and finally, a natural peeled and trimmed pole finish.

108 STRUCTURE AS ARCHITECTURE

▲ 6.7 Güell Colony Crypt, Barcelona, Spain, Antonio Gaudí, 1917. Columns support an
inner arcade ring and the textured ceiling above.

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Ridge-beam, 3, 200–1
Rivet, 59, 96
Rossi, Aldo, 32, 94
Roundwood, 108

Saarinen (Eero) and Associates, 27,
58

Sáenzde Oiza Arquitectos, 67, 89
Samyn et Associés, 182
Scale:

building, 14
structure, 16, 52–3, 55, 63–5, 74,

85, 114, 119, 157, 209
Scarpa, Carlo, 96
Scharoun, Hans, 118
Sears Roebuck Store, 30
Seismic retrofitting, 99
Sendai Mediatheque, 169
Services, 177

integration with structure, 84, 148,
161, 193

Shade, 172, 182
Shear force (or stress), 16, 145,

148
Shell structure, 23, 83, 198

grid-, 162, 174
ribbed, 59, 196

Ship, 36, 86, 196–7
Silcher, Werner � Partners, 25, 169
Siza, Alvaro, 27, 172
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 41–2,

64, 89, 170, 197
Sliding, 16
Slot see Light slot
Smell, 208
SNCF/Jean-Marie Duthilleul, 43
Soufflot, 144
Space-craft, 198
Springs, 47, 126
Stanley Saitowitz Office/Natoma

Architects, 55
Stirling and Wilford, 99, 149
Structural actions, 174

expression of, 17, 52, 144–49
see also Bending moments, Shear

force
Structural form, 20

synthesis of, 23
Structural detailing, 131–164, 174

variety of quality, 10

Structural (and architectural) qualities
and characteristics:

aeronautical engineering, 151
ambiguity, 125–6
anarchy, 203
anchoring, 10, 86
artistry, 137
asymmetry, 32
awkward, 10, 81
calm, 16, 72
chaotic, 40, 91, 154, 202–3
clamping, 147–8
clasping, 148–9
complexity, 32, 41, 108, 126–7,

154–5, 158, 191
confining, 10
confusing, 155
craft, 75
creativity, 137
crude, 72, 135–6, 142, 154
damage, 150
dangerous, 97
decorative, 161–2
delicate, 49, 106, 115, 127, 147,

163, 179, 192
depth, 54, 57–9
diaphanous, 63
dramatic, 199
dynamism, 74, 146
dysfunctional, 202
elegance, 75, 83–4, 143, 151, 173,

180
embrace, 128
enclosure, 28, 71–2, 120, 127, 198
eroded, 194
excitement, 58, 72
exuberant, 7, 94
filigree, 43, 64
filtering, 59–63

see also Light
fineness, 12, 35, 57, 61, 170
flamboyant, 203
flimsy, 64
floating, 44–5, 47, 49, 76, 86, 98,

185, 196
formality, 94
fractured, 154, 202
fragility, 45, 150
fragmented, 72, 117, 202–3
fragrant, 208
freedom, 16

furniture, 135, 151
graceful, 74
grounded, 47, 55, 76
haphazard, 72, 73, 150
harshness, 202
heaviness, 156, 160
hierarchy, 41, 53, 59, 64, 80, 85,

120, 138
hollowness, 31
hovering, 45, 47, 76, 105, 121
iconic, 51
inconsistent, 137
industrial, 153
innovative, 10
instability, 45, 150
intimate, 80, 92, 115, 117, 128
intricate, 115, 158, 163, 191
introverted, 80
invisible, 121
irregular, 74, 118, 154
jewellery, 110, 149, 163
joylessness, 94
layered, 38, 72, 87, 96, 108, 117,

139
lightness, 49, 84, 139, 147, 156–9,

163, 170, 173, 176, 178–80,
192

liveliness, 139
mechanical engineering, 151
mesh-like, 62, 65
minimalism, 163
monumental, 65, 71
movement, 58, 60, 63, 95, 147
mystery, 204
ornamental, 57
ornate, 158
overwhelming, 52, 119
plain, 161, 202
precision, 133, 152
prestige, 201
protecting, 10, 71–2, 110, 198
purity, 87, 134, 151
quality, 201
random, 7, 15, 74, 96–7, 194, 197
rationality, 34, 48, 73
rawness, 94, 154
refined, 75, 106, 135, 139, 151
restful, 154
restlessness, 49, 112
rhythm, 52–3, 55, 58, 85, 94, 115,

157, 167, 172

INDEX 227

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Structural (and architectural) qualities
and characteristics: (contd)

scaffolding-like, 32, 61, 200
screening, 59–63, 89
sculptural, 57, 116, 162
sensitive, 122
simplicity, 16, 27, 87, 154
skeletal, 27, 32, 57, 80, 126, 141–2
softness, 94, 156, 158
solemnity, 16
sombre, 201
spontaneity, 118
stitching, 136
strength, 13, 16
surprise, 41
symmetry, 72
texture, 23, 53, 57–9, 104
tranquility, 94
transparency, 25, 27–8, 49, 58, 65,

83, 126, 145, 155–8, 174, 176,
179–80

transportable, 76
twisting, 205
unbalance, 150
unexpected, 42, 125, 137
unobtrusive, 163
unrefined, 153
utilitarian, 151
warm, 128
web-like, 63
weighty, 179
welcoming, 195
wrap, 36, 60

Structural Rationalists, 22
Structural systems, 20, 79
Structure:

articulating circulation, 93–6
dangerous, 99
defines space, 91, 93
directionality, 79, 93, 95–6
disrupts, 15, 82, 96–100
diversity of, 208
educates, 143
expressive roles, 70–7, 121–8
functional aspects, 79–101

inhabitation of, 92, 115, 117
modulates, 52–7, 69, 95, 104–7,

117, 120
neutralizes space, 80
ordering space, 3, 120, 179
penetrations through, 11, 69,

177–9
perimeter, 53, 82–4
sagging, 39, 146
spatial, 112–21
subdividing space, 15, 85–93, 179,

191
surface, 49, 104–12
transformative power of, 63, 208
transparent, 179–80
visibility of, 12

‘Structures’, education of, 207, 210
Strut, 57, 68, 89, 91,124, 200

flying, 25, 169
StudioWorks Architects, 196
Sustainable design, 161, 201
Symbolism, 3, 13, 16, 189, 200–5,

208

Tadao Ando & Associates, 139–40
Tanner Leddy Mantum Stacy, 99
Tension

architecture of, 126
cables, 25, 56, 126
hangers, 30, 52
ring, 105
rods, 12, 24, 45, 56, 61, 82, 90
springs, 47
ties, 56

Tent, 26, 199
Terragni, Giuseppe, 34
Thorncrown Chapel, 109
Tokyo International Forum, 185
Torsion, 91, 146
Tree, 42, 66, 180, 190–4, 200
Truss, 35, 40, 48, 52, 65, 68, 84, 96,

98, 143, 145, 158, 174, 197
bowstring, 38
sag, 39

source of light, 169–70
vierendeel, 31, 54, 133, 139, 157,

160
Tschumi, Bernard, 153
Tugendhat House, 81
Tunnel, 31, 123

Underground construction, 123,
139

Ungers, O. M., 88
Usonian House, 177

Van der Rohe, Mies, 81
van Spreckelsen, Johan Otto, 31
Vault, 160, 168, 183, 201,

lamella, 109
Vicens and Ramos, 33
Viollet-le-Duc, 22
von Gerkan �Marg � Partner, 42, 95,

163

Walls, 14, 20, 22, 32–4, 36, 45, 80,
86–8, 91

curved, 58, 71
define interior spaces, 32
modulation of, 17
pierced, 31
subdividing space, 15, 85
textures, 17

Warped surface, 63
Waves, 27, 43
Welding, 59
Wilkinson Eyre, 147
Williams, Stanton, 155
Wilson, Gordon, 32
Wrought-iron, 162

Zehrfuss, Bernard, 122
Zimmer Gunsul Frasca

Partnership � HDR, 107
Zoomorphic, 194–6
Zufferey, André, 40
Zumthor, Peter, 86, 92, 105

228 INDEX

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