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TitleStructure and Architecture
PublisherArchitectural Press
ISBN 139780080518060
File Size5.9 MB
Total Pages167
Table of Contents
                            Structure and Architecture
Copyright Page
Chapter 1. The relationship of structure to building
Chapter 2. Structural requirements
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Equilibrium
	2.3 Geometric stability
	2.4 Strength and rigidity
	2.5 Conclusion
Chapter 3. Structural materials
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Masonry
	3.3 Timber
	3.4 Steel
	3.5 Concrete
Chapter 4. The relationship between structural form and structural efficiency
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 The effect of form on internal force type
	4.3 The concept of ‘improved’ shapes in cross-section and longitudinal profile
	4.4 Classification of structural elements
Chapter 5. Complete structural arrangements
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Post-and-beam structures
	5.3 Semi-form-active structures
	5.4 Form-active structures
	5.5 Conclusion
Chapter 6. The critical appraisal of structures
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Complexity and efficiency in structural design
	6.3 Reading a building as a structural object
	6.4 Conclusion
Chapter 7. Structure and architecture
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 The types of relationship between structure and architecture
	7.3 The relationship between architects and engineers
Selected bibliography
Appendix 1: Simple two-dimensional force systems and static equilibrium
	A1.1 Introduction
	A1.2 Force vectors and resultants
	A1.3 Resolution of a force into components
	A1.4 Moments of forces
	A1.5 Static equilibrium and the equations of equilibrium
	A1.6 The ‘free-body-diagram’
	A1.7 The ‘imaginary cut’ technique
Appendix 2: Stress and strain
	A2.1 Introduction
	A2.2 Calculation of axial stress
	A2.3 Calculation of bending stress
	A2.4 Strain
Appendix 3: The concept of statical determinacy
	A3.1 Introduction
	A3.2 The characteristics of statically determinate and statically indeterminate structures
	A3.3 Design considerations in relation to statical determinacy
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Structure and Architecture

Page 83

Structure and Architecture

Fig. 6.6 Basic structural
arrangement of the Forth Railway
Bridge, Firth of Forth, UK. This
structure is a post-and-beam
framework but, as with the Renault
Headquarters (Figs 3.19 & 6.8), it has
been ‘improved’ at various levels.
There is more justification for the
complexity in this case due to the
large span involved. (Photo: A. & P.


Page 84

non-form-active structure ‘improved’ by
triangulation – which was connected to the
main structure only at the nodes of the
triangles. Thus, the principal sub-elements of
the structure carried either direct tension or
direct compression. The individual sub-
elements were given ‘improved’ cross-sections.
The main compression sub-elements, for
example, are hollow tubes, most of them with
a cross-section which is circular, which is the
most efficient shape for resisting axial
compression. Thus, the structure of the Forth
Railway Bridge has a basic form which is
potentially rather inefficient but which was
‘improved’ in a number of ways.

The most common structural arrangement
in the world of architecture is the post-and-
beam form in which horizontal elements are
supported on vertical columns or walls. In the
most basic version of this, the horizontal
elements are non-form-active, under the action
of gravitational load, and the vertical elements
are axially loaded and may therefore be
regarded as form-active. Countless versions of
this arrangement have been used through the
centuries, and it is significant that the greatest
variations are to be seen in the non-form-
active horizontal elements where the
advantages to be gained from the
‘improvement’ of cross-sections and
longitudinal profiles are greatest.

The temples of Greek antiquity, of which the
Parthenon in Athens (see Fig. 7.1) is the
supreme example, are a very basic version of
the post-and-beam arrangement. The level of
efficiency achieved here is low, and this is due
partly to the presence of non-form-active
elements and partly to the methods used to
determine the sizes and proportions of the
elements. The priorities of the designers were
not those of the present-day engineer, and the
idea of achieving efficiency in a materialistic
sense was probably the last consideration in
the minds of Ictinus and his collaborators
when the dimensions of the Parthenon were
determined. The building is perhaps the best
illustration of the fact that the achievement of
structural efficiency is not a necessary
requirement for great architecture.

In the twentieth century, by contrast,
efficiency in the use of material was given a
high priority partly in a genuine attempt to
economise on material in order to save cost,
but also as a consequence of the prevalence of
the belief in the modernist ideal of ‘rational’
design. The overall geometry of the inefficient
non-form-active post-and-beam form is so
convenient, however, that it has nevertheless
continued to be the most widely used type of
architectural structure. It was normal in the
modern period, however, for at least the
horizontal elements to have some form of
‘improvement’ built into them. This was
especially true of steel frameworks in which the
beams and columns invariably had ‘improved’
I-shaped cross-sections and much use was
made of the technique of internal triangulation.

In the Centre Pompidou, in Paris (Figs 6.7
and 1.10), the basic arrangement of the


The critical appraisal of structures

Fig. 6.7 Load, bending moment and structural diagrams
for one of the principal elements in the floor structure of
the Centre Pompidou, Paris, France. This is a non-form-
active beam but the relatively long span involved justified
the incorporation of ‘improvements’. Height restrictions
prevented the matching of the longitudinal profile to the
bending moment diagram, except in the cantilevered
‘gerberette brackets’ at the extremities of the structure.
Triangulation was the only form of ‘improvement’ which
was feasible here for the main element (see also Figs 1.10,
3.17, 7.7 and 7.8).

Page 166

Temperature stress, 145�6
Tepee, 1, 2
Thermal expansion, 145
Timber, 25�30
Torroja, E., 88, 121
Triangle of forces, 128, 130
Triangulated structure, 42, 61
TWA Terminal, New York, USA,


UnitØ d�Habitation, Marseilles,
France, 104

Utzon, J., 113

Valmarana, Palazzo, Vicenza,
Italy, 75, 116

Vault, 88, 103
Victoria and Albert Museum,

London, UK, 110, 112
Vitra Design Museum, Basel,

Switzerland, 36, 111
Vitruvius, xi

Waterloo International Rail
Terminal, London, UK,
76, 77, 88�9, 123

Williams, O., 121

Willis, Faber and Dumas
Building, Ipswich, UK, 3,
4, 5, 36, 55, 71, 106�7, 109

Wooton, H., xi
World Trade Centre, New York,

USA, 92, 94
Wren, C., 116�17

Yamasaki, M., 92, 94
Yield stress, 138�9
YRM Anthony Hunt

Associates, 88
Yurt, 65



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