Download Sound Theory from Sound Practice PDF

TitleSound Theory from Sound Practice
PublisherRoutledge
ISBN 139781317298243
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size7.8 MB
Total Pages219
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Dedication
Table of Contents
List of illustrations
Foreword
Acknowledgements
1. Introduction
	Sound analysis and sound-image analysis
	For those wary of ‘theory’
	What this book is not about
	Notes
	References
2. Theories of sound
	Definitions of sound
	Theories of sound
	The scientific study of sound
	Auditory perception
	General principles of perceptual organisation
	Philosophies of sound
	Summary
	Notes
	References
3. Audiovisual theories of sound
	Introduction
	Cinema and sound
	Early film sound theory
	Later film sound theory
	Practitioner’s sound theory
	Forums and blogs
	Summary
	Notes
	References
4. Sound as a sign
	The importance of signs
	Written and spoken language
	Sound as a sign
	Semiotics and sound analysis
	The sign system of Charles S. Peirce
	The universal categories
	The structure of a sign
	Classification of signifier-object relations
	Dividing the object
	Dividing the interpretant
	Significance and signs
	Reality and semiotics
	Summary
	Notes
	References
5. Analysing sound with semiotics
	Using semiotics
	Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness in sound
	Sound signs
	Natural(ised) and arbitrary sound signs
	Music in the soundtrack
	Emotion and signs
	Integrating semiotics with sound theory
	Analysis example – The Conversation
	Summary
	Notes
	References
6. King Kong (1933)
	Introduction
	Sound effects in King Kong
	Music in King Kong
	Summary
	Notes
	References
7. No Country for Old Men
	Introduction
	The sounds of the gas bottle and cattle gun
	The use of repeated dialogue
	Withholding information
	Summary
	Notes
	References
8.Sound in non-fiction
	Sound and non-fiction
	Newsreels
	Sound from location recordings
	Early documentary films
	Conventions of documentary
	Animated documentary
	Sound in television non-fiction: current affairs, news and sport
	Semiotics and non-fiction sound
	Truth-telling and sound
	Impact on the audience
	Sound and ethics
	Summary
	Notes
	References
9. Sound in video games
	Introduction
	Similarities between interactive and linear media
	Early game sound design – creating meaningful sounds
	Theoretical models for video games
	Game audio models
	Game audio and semiotics
	Modern games
	Immersion – modelling reality or ignoring reality?
	Meaningful sound design
	Summary
	Notes
	References
10. Sound in practice
	Sound analysis revisited
	Re-examining sound design
	Communication and collaboration
	Sound authorship
	Working with sound
	Summary
	Note
	References
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

SOUND DESIGN THEORY AND
PRACTICE

Sound Design Theory and Practice is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the
concepts which underpin the creative decisions that inform the creation of sound
design.

A fundamental problem facing anyone wishing to practice, study, teach or
research about sound is the lack of a theoretical language to describe the way sound
is used and a comprehensive and rigorous overarching framework that describes all
forms of sound. With the recent growth of interest in sound studies, there is an
urgent need to provide scholarly resources that can be used to inform both the
practice and analysis of sound. Using a range of examples from classic and con-
temporary cinema, television and games this book provides a thorough theoretical
foundation for the artistic practice of sound design, which is too frequently seen as
a ‘technical’ or secondary part of the production process.

Engaging with practices in film, television and other digital media, Sound Design
Theory and Practice provides a set of tools for systematic analysis of sound for both
practitioners and scholars.

Leo Murray is a lecturer in sound at Murdoch University, Australia. He spent ten
years as a broadcast engineer in the UK, before moving into teaching and
researching in sound, principally working in film and television. His research
interests include sound design, semiotics and media ethics.

Page 109

Grieg, Edvard. 1876. In the Hall of the Mountain King. From Peer Gynt Suite. Leipzig: C.F.
Peters. Orchestral music.

Hudson, Hugh. 1981. Chariots of Fire. 20th Century Fox. Motion picture.
Jagger, Mick, and Keith Richard. 1969. Gimme Shelter. Decca Records/ABKCO. Song.
Kershener, Irvin. 1980. Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back. Lucasfilm/Twentieth

Century Fox.
Kubrick, Stanley. 1963. Dr. Strangelove or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.

Columbia Pictures. Motion picture.
Kubrick, Stanley. 1968. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Warner Brothers Pictures. Motion picture.
Lang, Fritz. 1931. M. Vereinigte Star-Film GmbH. Motion picture.
Neil, Fred. 1966. Everybody’s Talkin’ . Carlin Music Corporation. Song.
Nilsson, Harry. 1969. Everybody’s Talkin’. RCA/Victor. Song.
Newton, John. 1779. Amazing Grace. Song.
Redding, Otis. 1966. Try a Little Tenderness. Volt/Atco. Song.
Schlesinger, John. 1969. Midnight Cowboy. United Artists. Motion picture.
Scorsese, Martin. 1990. GoodFellas. Warner Bros. Motion picture.
Scorsese, Martin. 1995. Casino. MCA/Universal Pictures. Motion picture.
Scorsese, Martin. 2004. The Aviator. Miramax. Motion picture.
Spielberg, Steven. 1975. Jaws. Universal. Motion picture.
Strauss, Richard. 1896. Also Sprach Zarathustra. Munich: Joseph Aibl. Orchestral tone poem.
Williams, John. 1980. Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back. Lucasfilm/Twentieth

Century Fox. Soundtrack.
Woods, Harry M., Jimmy Campbell, and Reginald Connelly. 1933. Try a Little Tenderness. Song.

Other references

Altman, Rick. 1980a. “Four and a Half Film Fallacies.” In Sound Theory, Sound Practice,
edited by Rick Altman, 35–45. New York: Routledge.

Altman, Rick. 1980b. “Moving Lips: Cinema as Ventriloquism.” In Cinema/Sound, edited
by Rick Altman. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.

Cavalcanti, Alberto. 1985. “Sound in Films.” In Film Sound: Theory and Practice, edited by
Elisabeth Weis and John Belton, 98–111. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chandler, Daniel. 2007. Semiotics: The Basics, 2nd edition. Oxford: Routledge.
Chion, Michel. 1994. Audio-Vision: Sound on Screen. Translated by Claudia Gorbman. New

York: Columbia University Press.
Ciment, Michael. 2003. Kubrick. New York: Faber & Faber.
Cobley, Paul, and Litza Jansz. 1999. Introducing Semiotics. Cambridge: Icon Books.
Deutsch, Stephen. 2007. “Editorial.” The Soundtrack 1(1): 3–13.
Glazer, Trip. 2017. “The Semiotics of Emotional Expression.” Transactions of the Charles S.

Peirce Society 53(2): 189–215.
Holman, Tomlinson. 2002. Sound for Film and Television, 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Focal Press.
Holman, Tomlinson. 2010. Sound for Film and Television, 3rd edition. Amsterdam; Boston:

Elsevier/Focal Press.
Jarrett, M., and W. Murch. 2000. “Sound doctrine: An interview with Walter Murch.” Film

Quarterly 53(3): 2–11.
Murch, Walter. 2000. “Stretching Sound to Help the Mind See.” New York Times,

October 1, (2.1).
Peirce, Charles S., Max Harold Fisch, Edward C. Moore, and Christian J. W. Klousel. 1982.

Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

96 Analysing sound with semiotics

Page 110

Peirce, Charles S., Charles Hartshorne, and Paul Weiss. 1960. Collected Papers of Charles
Sanders Peirce. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.

Potter, Cherry. 1990. Image, Sound, & Story: The Art of Telling in Film. London: Secker &Warburg.
Sack, Kevin, and Gardiner Harris. 2015. “President Obama Eulogizes Charleston Pastor as

One Who Understood Grace.” New York Times, June 27. Available online at www.nytim
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Schaeffer, Pierre. 1967. Traité Des Objets Musicaux. Paris: Seuil.
Spence, Leis. 2005. A Dictionary of Non-Classical Mythology: Cosimo Inc.
Yenika-Abbaw, Vivian. 2006. “Capitalism and the Culture of Hate in Granfields’s Amazing

Grace: The Story of the Hymn.” Journal of Black Studies 36: 353–361.

Analysing sound with semiotics 97

http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.nytimes.com/

Page 218

reality 22, 25–26, 30, 36–37, 38–40, 62, 68,
72, 87, 90, 121–122, 128, 133–136,
138–139; see also realism

reasoning 62, 66, 71, 79, 89–90, 134–135,
155–156; see also abduction

Rotha, Paul 140

Saussure, Ferdinand de 54–55, 57–60, 94
Schafer, Murray 30, 168
secondness see universal categories
sensible qualities 27, 30; see also perception
Shannon, Claude 20
sign (Peirce) 58, 60–70, 82–84
sign (Saussure) 54, 57–62; applied to film

59–60; applied to language 54–57
silent film 36–38, 42, 103, 121, 124
Sonnenschein, David 41, 46–47
sound: definitions of 13, 14; propagation as

a wave 16, 17, 20–20, 26, 29; as an
object 18, 19, 23, 26, 29; as a stream 28

sound design: approaches to 41, 43–44,
46–47, 86, 127, 132–135, 141–142,
155–163, 165–168, 174, 177, 183–186,
188–189; authorship 185–187;
cartoon 179–180; creature 98–102,
158–159, 182; automotive 178–179;
individual elements 98–102, 107,
157, 178, 181–182; industrial 69

sound editing 35, 45, 136, 99–103, 141,
177–178, 185–187

sound effects 99–103, 111–114, 121–123,
133, 140, 148

sound recording: technology 14, 35, 44–46,
122, 189; techniques 39–40, 91, 93,
98–102, 140, 164; synchronous 44,
121–123, 124–128, 133–135, 138, 140,
157, 164; 86–88, 98–102, 122, 123,
129; sound effects 133, 181; see also
ADR, Foley

speech 25, 38, 44, 53, 57, 114, 118, 131,
146–147, 149, 154, 170, 176–177, 186,
213, 217: intelligibility and recognition

22, 26, 30, 41, 45, 53; linguistic study of
24–26, 56, 188; intonation 56–57;
functions of 85, 152

Spivack, Murray 99–102
Steiner, Max 103–107
Swift, Jonathan 54, 55
symbol 67–69, 77, 79, 83, 85–91, 93,

101–102, 106, 153, 189
synchresis 40, 87–88, 134
synchronised sound 36–38, 40–42, 72,

82–83, 85–89, 98, 100, 102–106, 122

talking film 37
technology and sound 35–36, 42–43, 102,

125, 150–151, 158, 164, 168–169,
174–176, 185–186, 189–191

The Wire 180–181
theme music 80, 85, 90, 103–107
thirdness see universal categories
Thom, Randy 43–44, 47
Through the Looking Glass 54, 55
Transducer 13, 35
Truax, Barry 30

universal categories 63–65, 73, 78–79;

Van Leeuwen, Theo 57–58
Vegt, Emar 178–179
Ventriloquism 36, 87
Vitaphone 35, 38
Vitruvius 16–17
voice: recognition 25, 53; acousmatic 40;

characteristics 88, 90; production of 17,
21, 31; in film 39–41, 36, 39–40, 87–88,
113–114, 131; non-human 99, 101, 107;
see also speech

voiceover and narration 122–123, 125–127,
129, 133, 139, 152

vuvuzela 134

Westerberg, Andreas, and Henrik
Schoenau-Fog 153–154

Index 205

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