Download Screening Modernism: European Art Cinema, 1950-1980 (Cinema and Modernity Series) PDF

TitleScreening Modernism: European Art Cinema, 1950-1980 (Cinema and Modernity Series)
ISBN 139780226451633
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.2 MB
Total Pages441
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Part One: What Is the Modern?
	1 THEORIZING MODERNISM
		Modern
		Modernism
		Avant-Garde
		Cinema and Modernism: The First Encounter
		The Institution of the Art Film
		Modernist Art Cinema and the Avant-Garde
	2 THEORIES OF THE CLASSICAL/MODERN DISTINCTION IN THE CINEMA
		Style Analysts
		Evolutionists
		Modern Cinema and Deleuze
		Modernism as an Unfinished Project
Part Two: The Forms of Modernism
	3 MODERN ART CINEMA: STYLE OF MOVEMENT?
	4 NARRATION IN MODERN CINEMA
		Classical versus Modernist Art Films
		The Alienation of the Abstract Individual
		Who Is “the Individual” in Modern Cinema?
		The Role of Chance
		Open-Ended Narrative
		Narrative Trajectory Patterns: Linear, Circular, Spiral
	5 GENRE IN MODERN CINEMA
		Melodrama and Modernism
		Excursus: Sartre and the Philosophy of Nothingness
		A Modern Melodrama: Antonioni’s Eclipse (1962)
		Other Genres and Recurrent Plot Elements
			Investigation
			Wandering/Travel
			The Mental Journey
			Closed-Situation Drama
			Satire/Genre Parody
			The Film Essay
	6 PATTERNS OF MODERN FORMS
		Primary Formation: Continuity and Discontinuity
		Radical Continuity
		Imaginary Time in Last Year at Marienbad
		Radical Discontinuity
		The Fragmented Form according to Godard
		Serial Form
	7 STYLES MODERNISM
		Minimalist Styles
		The Bresson Style
			Abstract Subjectivity and the “Model”
			Bresson and His Followers
		Analytical Minimalism: The Antonioni Style
			Psychic Landscape?
			Continuity
			Antonioni and His Followers
		Expressive Minimalism
	8 NATURALIST STYLES
		Post-neorealism
		Cinéma Vérité
		The “New Wave” Style
	9 ORNAMENTAL STYLES
	10 THEATRICAL STYLES
	11 MODERN CINEMA TRENDS
		The Family Tree of Modern Cinema
Part Three: Appearance and Propagationof Modernism (1949–1958)
	12 CRITICAL REFLEXIVITY OR THE BIRTH OF THE AUTEUR
		The Birth of the Auteur
		Historical Forms of Reflexivity
		The Emergence of Critical Reflexivity: Bergman’s Prison
		Reflexivity and Abstraction: Modern Cinemaand the Nouveau Roman
	13 THE RETURN OF THE THEATRICAL
		Abstract Drama
	14 THE DESTABILIZATION OF THE FABULA
		Voice-Over Narration
		The Dissolution of Classical Narrative: Film Noirand Modernism
		Fabula Alternatives: Hitchcock
		Alternative Subjective Narration: Rashomon
	15 AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE CLASSICAL FORM: NEOREALISM AND MODERNISM
		The End of Neorealism
		Modernism in Story of a Love Affair: NeorealismMeets Film Noir
		Rossellini: The “Neorealist Miracle”
Part Four: The Short Story of Modern Cinema (1959–1975)
	16 THE ROMANTIC PERIOD, 1959-1961
		Neorealism: The Reference
		Eastern Europe: From Socialist Realism toward Neorealism
		Heroism versus Modernism
		Jerzy Kawalerowicz: The First Modern Polish Auteur
		The Year 1959
		Forms of Romantic Modernism
		Genre and Narration in the Early Years
		Sound and Image
		Background and Foreground
		From Hiroshima to Marienbad: Modernism andthe Cinema of the Elite
		The Production System of the “New Cinema”
	17 ESTABLISHED MODERNISM, 1962-1966
		Western Europe around 1962
		The Key Film of 1962: Fellini’s 8 1/2
		Central Europe
			Czechoslovak Grotesque Realism
			The “Central European Experience”
			Jancsó and the Ornamental Style
		Summary
	18 THE YEAR 1966
		The Loneliness of the Auteur
	19 POLITICAL MODERNISM, 1967-1975
		The Year 1968
		Conceptual Modernism: The Auteur’s New World
		Reconstructing Reality
		Counter-Cinema: Narration as a Direct Auteurial Discourse
		The Film as a Means of Direct Political Action
		Parabolic Discourse
			Teorema
		The Auteur’s Private Mythology
		The Self-Critique of Political Modernism: Sweet Movie
		Summary
	20 “The Death of the Auteur”
		The Last of Modernism: Mirror
		Mirror and Serial Structure
		The Disappearance of Nothingness
Appendix: A Chronology of Modern Cinema
Selected Bibliography
Index of Names and Movie Titles
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Screening Modernism

Page 220

Modern Cinema Trends

207

represent any obstacle to understanding narrative information. As I men-
tioned at the outset of this book, these techniques would become accepted
even in Hollywood some thirty years later. This however does not mean that
cinema has become “modern” once and for all; this means rather that cer-
tain techniques “survived” the art historical period in which they were in-
vented. They have become an item in the repertory of a fi lmmaker’s options.

In one sense of the term “modern,” fi lms that to some extent used some
of the new devices were actually “modern” at the time, and still can be con-
sidered also “modernist” to the degree that they contributed to exploring
the central topic of modern cinema: alienation. Losey’s Eva is perhaps not
the most innovative fi lm of its time, as its modernism amounts to replicat-
ing the ambiance of other well-known modernist masterpieces, especially
the Antonioni and Fellini fi lms of the time,1 yet this fi lm is rather on the
modernist side due to some of its narrative solutions.

Almost at any time during the history of cinema one can easily fi nd fi lms
that can be plotted in any of the quadrants of the scheme. The period of late
modernism is characterized by the fact that fi lms were being made that can
be grouped into every region of the scheme; in other words, late modernism
involved every possible manner of transgression of classical narrative style. Which
modernist options continued to be productive after the decline of modern-
ism is an interesting question. Postmodern cinema continued utilizing
primarily the fragmented-saturating style region (Greenaway, Jarman, Tyk-
wer), while in the 1990s some auteurs revived the continuous-rarefying re-
gion as well (Tarr). The other two combinations continuous-saturating and
fragmented-rarefying, were not revitalized after modernism’s decline. The
combination of the two dimensions of the fi gure above with the style cat-
egories is summarized in table 1 above.

The next aspect of modern cinema’s formal characteristics to be exam-
ined is genre, in other words, the basic story types. I found seven genres that

1. To a great extent due to Losey’s cinematographer, Gianni di Venanzo.

Table 1

Form

Continuous Fragmented

Style

Minimalist La notte Pickpocket

Theatrical Katzelmacher All’s Well

Ornamental The Red and the White The Color of Pomegranates

Naturalist Adieu Philippine Yesterday Girl

Page 221

modern art cinema favored over other traditional genres: the mental journey,
the investigation, the picaresque, the essay, the closed situation, the satire, and
the melodrama. These genres, with the exception of the mental journey and
the essay, were essential elements of some broader genre category in the pre-
modern period, and they were not particularly distinguished as genres. In-
vestigation was obviously part of the crime fi lm genre; the picaresque form
is part of various genres, especially of the western; and the war fi lm; and
melodrama was transformed into a dispassionate intellectual form. Com-
bining these genres with the general stylistic trends we get groups listed
in table 2.

The empty cells in table 2 show what combinations of forms are atypi-
cal or nonexistent in modern cinema. For example, naturalist melodrama
is a characteristic form of neorealism that developed into minimalist or
theatrical modern melodrama during the modernist period, which is why
this form is not represented during modernism. Post-neorealist fi lms
such as Pasolini’s Mamma Roma are the representatives of this form during
the modernist period. I could not fi nd any characteristic naturalist-style
mental journey fi lms, either. This could be explained by the fact that rep-
resentation of a mental universe is contrary to representation of empiri-
cal surface reality. Nevertheless, the scenes in the train compartment in
Robbe-Grillet’s Trans-Europ-Express are partially fi lmed in a documentary
fashion; also, the characters are playing themselves. Theatrical stylization
is characteristically missing from the investigation, picaresque, and the es-
say genres. These genres are more easily associated with naturalist or orna-
mental styles.

c h a p t e r e l e v e n

208

Table 2

Genre

Mental Investigation Travel Essay Closed Satire Melodrama

Journey Situation

Style

Minimalist Last Year at L’avventura Alice in Not Persona Playtime La notte

Marienbad the Cities Reconciled

Theatrical 8 ½ The Zazie The Gods of

Exterminating in the the Plague

Angel Subway

Ornamental Solaris The Round-Up Satyricon Teorema Confrontation

Naturalist The Grim Yesterday I Am Two or Three Black

Reaper Girl Curious Things I Know Peter

About Her

Page 440

i n d e x o f n a m e s a n d m o v i e t i t l e s

427

Tonight or Never, 379
Tornatore, Giuseppe, 304
Torraca, Luigi, 186n
Tötenberg, Michael, 200n
Toubiana, Serge, 148–49, 291n
Toute la mémoire du monde, 130
Trans-Europ-Express, 75, 77, 109, 111–12,

209–10, 305, 336
Trauberg, 58
Trintignant, Jean-Louis, 111
Troell, Ian, 314
Truffaut, François, 1, 1n, 17, 40n, 69, 80–

81, 83–84, 102, 106n, 115, 132, 137, 148,
170n, 172, 197, 206, 211, 220, 223–24, 235,
247, 248n, 249nn, 260n, 291, 293–94,
296, 303–304, 307, 307n, 308, 310–14,
323, 370

Turaj, Frank, 288n, 289n
Two or Three Things I Know About Her,

117–18, 125, 170, 209, 300, 305, 314, 349,
361, 364–66, 384

Tykwer, Tom, 75–76, 208

Ulmann, Liv, 167, 344
Umberto D., 79, 254–55, 263
Umbrellas of Cherbourg, The, 115–16
Unusual Occurrence, A, 116
Urbani, Giovanni, 377n

Vancini, Florestani, 311n
Varda, Agnès, 68, 75, 116, 139, 192, 192n,

277–79, 295, 308, 314, 368
Veidt, Konrad, 242
Venanzo, Gianni Di, 195n, 208n
Vertov, Dziga, 16, 16n, 18, 20n, 27, 118,

226–27, 227n, 261, 281, 281n, 368–70
Vigo, Jean, 18
Virgil, 183n
Virgin Spring, The, 163
Visconti, Luchino, 169, 247, 256–57, 277–78,

279n
Visit, A, 223
Vlacil, Frantisek, 213, 377
Vostrcil, Jan, 327
Voyage, 260, 264, 268
Voyage to Italy, 261–62, 266n

Wagner, Jean, 141n
Wajda, Andrzej, 68, 183–84, 189, 192, 228,

230, 278, 284–86, 289, 289n, 290, 290n,
294, 322, 378, 384

Walls, 364
Warhol, Andy, 32, 126–27, 127n, 161
Warren, 10n
Waters, John, 32
Wayward Love, 296
Wedding, The, 68, 183, 289, 378
Week-end, 81, 102, 125, 314, 339, 350, 366–

68, 372, 380, 382
Wegener, Paul, 242
Welcome, 116
Wellek, 10n
Welles, Orson, 18, 36, 36n, 38n, 218–19,

224, 242, 247
Wenders, Wim, 56, 69, 81, 103, 129, 156,

158, 206, 211, 256n, 292, 322, 385–86
Wermüller, Lina, 311n
Weyergans, François, 303
Where Is the Friend’s Home? 191n
White, David Manning, 13n
White Sheik, The, 271, 320n
Whity, 197–99, 383
Widerberg, Bo, 313, 313n, 314, 362
Wild Strawberries, 96, 103–104, 163–64, 321
Wilder, Billy, 228, 251n
Williams, Raymond, 8n, 14, 14n
Winckelmann, Johann, 9
Wind, The, 283
Wind from the East, The, 139
Winter Light, 63, 68–69, 96
Winter Wind, 379
Witches, The, 296
Witness, The, 355, 355n
Woll, Josephine, 294n
Wollen, Peter, 29, 29n, 30, 304, 305n
Woman Is a Woman, A, 294, 296
Wrong Man, The, 228
W.R.—Mysteries of the Organism, 116, 135
Wyler, William, 219, 241
Wyspianski, Stanislaw, 378

Yesterday Girl, 84, 118, 170, 173, 208–209,
213, 337–38, 359

Page 441

i n d e x o f n a m e s a n d m o v i e t i t l e s

Young Girls of Rochefort, The, 197
Young Törless, The, 329, 338

Z, 370
Zabriskie Point, 68, 362
Zalán, Vince, 198
Zanuck, Daniel, 219

Zanzibar Productions, 379n
Zavattini, 256, 263, 296, 319, 325
Zay, Jean, 24
Zazie in the Subway, 69, 116, 132, 195, 209,

294–97, 313, 323, 326
Zehetbauer, Rolf, 200

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