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TitleProjected Shadows: Psychoanalytic Reflections on the Representation of Loss in European Cinema (The New Library of Psychoanalysis)
ISBN 139780203946862
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.2 MB
Total Pages213
Table of Contents
                            BOOK COVER
TITLE
COPYRIGHT
CONTENTS
CONTRIBUTORS
FOREWORD
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
INTRODUCTION
1 THE NIGHT OF MELANCHOLIA AND THE DAYLIGHT OF MOURNING: Anne Fontaine’s Comment j’ai tué mon père
2 QUEST FOR A LOST MOTHER: Alina Marazzi’s Un’ora sola ti vorrei
3 IS THERE LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL?: Keren Yedaya’s Or (Mon Tresor)
4 THE ANOREXIC PARADOX: Matteo Garrone’s First Love
5 REPARATION AND THE EMPATHIC OTHER: Christian Petzold’s Wolfsburg
6 THE TALKING CURE, FROM FREUD TO ALMODÓVAR: Hable con Ella
7 INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION: The holocaust in Central European cinema
8 CUT AND LACED: Traumatism and fetishism in Luis Buñuel’s Un Chien Andalou
9 TWO SHORT FILMS BY JAN SVANKMAJER: Jabberwocky and Punch and Judy
10 COMPILATION FILM AS ‘DEFERRED ACTION’: Vincent Monnikendam’s Mother Dao, the Turtle-like
11 MOVING BEYOND THE CONSTRAINTS OF THE MORTAL SELF: Universal images of narcissism in Jan Troell’s The Flight of the Eagle
12 TRICYCLES, BICYCLES, LIFE CYCLES: Psychoanalytic perspectives on childhood loss and transgenerational parenting in Sylvain Chômet’s Belleville Rendez-Vous
13 LOSS, MOURNING AND DESIRE IN MIDLIFE: François Ozon’s Under the Sand and Swimming Pool
14 THREE SISTERS: Sibling knots in Bergman’s Cries and Whispers
15 TIME REGAINED: The complex magic of reverse motion
FILMS INDEX
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
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Projected Shadows

Projected Shadows presents a new collection of essays exploring films from a
psychoanalytic perspective, focusing specifically on the representation of loss
in European cinema. This theme is discussed in its many aspects, including:
loss of hope and innocence, of youth, of consciousness, of freedom and loss
through death. Many other themes familiar to psychoanalytic discourse are
explored in the process, such as:

• Establishment and resolution of Oedipal conflicts
• Representation of pathological characters on the screen
• Use of unconscious defence mechanisms
• The interplay of dreams, reality and fantasy

Projected Shadows aims to deepen the ongoing constructive dialogue between
psychoanalysis and film. Andrea Sabbadini has assembled a remarkable num-
ber of internationally renowned contributors, both academic film scholars
and psychoanalysts from a variety of cultural backgrounds, who use an array
of contemporary methodologies to apply psychoanalytic thinking to film.

This original collection will appeal to anyone passionate about film, as well
as professionals, academics and students interested in the relationship between
psychoanalysis and the arts.

Andrea Sabbadini is a Fellow of the Institute of Psychoanalysis and honor-
ary senior lecturer at University College London. He has published exten-
sively in psychoanalytic journals, and edited books including Even Paranoids
Have Enemies (Routledge, 1998) and The Couch and the Silver Screen; Psycho-
analytic Reflections on European Cinema (Brunner-Routledge, 2003).

Page 106

And those who 20 years ago let 6 million Jews be gassed and burned? How
soon will they be absolved? You see how maddening this can be, and how
idiotic this Auschwitz thing is! Part of me is there. My parents and relatives
perished there. But I can’t go on harping on it just to get sympathy. I feel
ashamed for belonging to those who were slaughtered like sheep. I always
feel as if I had to prove something . . .

Father – and its later incarnation as Sunshine – suggests that both docu-
mentary and narrative are potent vehicles of enacting and working through
trauma and mourning, enabling filmmakers and viewers alike to engage in
these processes whether directly (as survivors or witnesses) or indirectly, as
vicarious participants after the fact. Both are forms of witnessing and testi-
mony, capable of performing voyeurism, violence, comedy and propaganda.
Both have become objects and agents of historical research. Since the begin-
ning of the post-communist era in 1989, Central European cinema has
undergone dramatic crises including that of filmmakers’ sense of obligation
and purpose with respect to their audiences. The years since the fall of the
Berlin Wall have witnessed a renewal of interest in the traditions of Central
European psychoanalytic practice, and the return of the history of discourse
about Jewish experience to the centre of the cinematic stage. In successive
decades, through ambitious historical frescoes as well as intimate, moving
narratives, retrospective mappings onto the topography of cinematic represen-
tations sustain the intergenerational work of memory transmission. Despite
the proliferation of publications, memorials, artistic works and memorialization,
it is important to recall the silence that once surrounded discourse of the Shoah
and that continues to inform the visual representation of Holocaust trauma.4

Free Fall (Péter Forgács, 1996)

A more recent instance of this multigenerational approach may be read in
Péter Forgács’s film Free Fall, a segment from his remarkable multipart series
Private Hungary, composed entirely of home movie and amateur footage, some
shot continuously by families from the late 1920s to the early 1940s. His
innovative approach to experimental filmmaking on subjects from psycho-
analysis to philosophy has earned him international acclaim. In this segment
from his 1996 work, we witness an approach to memory created by the
juxtaposition of text and image, sound and silence. Here, the imposition of the
Jewish Laws (numerus clausus) on the lives of Hungarian Jewish citizens – seen
in intimate daily life, celebrating birthdays and weddings, boating on the lake
– is rendered through an operatic voice reciting the consequences of those
laws which progressively deprived Jews of their livelihood and ultimately their
lives.

83

Intergenerational transmission

Page 107

Forgács edits footage taken of the upper middle-class Jewish family of
György Petö, the cameraman of this footage, a successful Jewish businessman
from a wealthy family in the Hungarian city of Szeged who made continuous
home movies of his family, friends and lover beween 1938 and 1944. With a
passion for music and speedboats, Petö acquired an 8mm camera at the age of
30 and quickly became an avid and proli�c home movie bufi. As in previous
�lms in the series, Forgács reworks home movies to illuminate the hidden,
repressed interstices of mid-twentieth century Hungarian history: with Hun-
gary an ally of Nazi Germany, the Hungarian Jewish community was never-
theless virtually intact until the spring of 1944. In this tragic and disturbing
piece, Petö’s images of the banal and tender world of family gatherings, out-
ings on the lake, his 33rd birthday party, erotic images of his lover in the bath
and even of his early ‘carefree moments’ in the Jewish labour camps play
disquietingly against radio reports, bits of newsreel footage, political speeches
and the cool language of the ever more elaborate and cruel Hungarian anti-
Jewish laws. One of this segment’s most powerful ‘narrative’ strategies is its
invocation of erosion of the false sense of security typical of Hungarian Jews
(many of whom were non-observant) who, often ardent patriots, were none-
theless ultimately forced to comply with the instigation of the Jewish Laws of
1938–9, which efiectively excluded them from professional and cultural life.
Suggesting how deeply and pervasively most Hungarian Jews were integrated
and assimilated into an idea of the nation, considering themselves proud
Hungarian patriots, it becomes all the more inconceivable that they could be
perceived as the other (the enemy) by their own compatriots. Combining
newsreel footage and the viewers’ own knowledge of historical circumstances,
Forgács creates a documentary of ordinary life in extraordinary times, fore-
grounding the consequences of this tragic denial, perhaps more extreme than
that of other Central European Jews.

What many commentators of his �lms call reverse, or parallel, history,
however, is to Forgács primarily emotional, in large part because of his work
with music, thanks to the creative collaboration with his composer, Tibor
Szemzö. In what has become his signature style, Forgács evokes fragments of
life stories, intercut with minimal explanatory material, by using home movie
footage in much the same way as psychoanalysis creates a narrativized inter-
text of continuities and discontinuities, of transference and countertransfer-
ence, of resistance and free association. To create these efiects, the archival,
amateur footage itself is manipulated by pausing on an image, creating an iris
efiect, coloring details within the frame, or toning entire sequences, lending
the footage a sense of urgency and even doom which was clearly absent at the
time of its original �lming. The result is not merely a reassembled reconstruc-
tion of historical images, refashioned by technical manipulation and
reprocessing from archival discoveries, but rather an original, independent
work.

84

Catherine Portuges

Page 212

179; siblings 160; suture concept 94, 96;
see also analysts; Freud, Sigmund

psychosis 9
Pygmalion 11, 19n6, 147

‘quasi-person’ concept xix, 56, 57

Racalbuto, A. 47
Raczymow, Henri 88
Radványi, Géza 79
Rampling, Charlotte xix, 146–7, 146, 149,

152, 153, 155
rape 69, 176–7
realism 78, 169, 179
reality testing 10
Régnier, Natacha 6, 15
Reik, Theodor 66
reparation 58, 60, 61, 62–3, 64, 157
representation 46
repression 14, 17, 60, 61, 134–5, 156
Resnais, Alain 79, 110, 172, 173
resurrection 71–2
reverse motion xx, 168–9, 170, 172, 173–4,

178–9
reverse narration 174–8, 179
Ricciardi, Alicia 9–10, 20n14
Rossi, Elena 28
Rothberg, Michael 80
Russian Revolution 170

Sabbadini, Andrea xvii, xix, xx, 1–5, 65–72,
160–6

Sacks, Oliver 70
sadism 13, 51, 52, 115
sadomasochism 140, 154
Sagnier, Ludivine 146, 154
St. Augustine 168
Santner, Erik 18, 19n12
satire 105
Schifier, Pál 82
Schneider, Gerda 79
Schneider, Gerhard xix–xx, 56
Second World War 3, 73–91, 173–4
self: bad parts 60, 63; death of the 121; ‘false’

32; ideal 142, 150; narcissistic dilemma
126, 127–8; splitting 50; subjective 89; see
also ego

self-analysis 33, 56, 66
self-hate 40
self-referentiality 114
separation 38, 50, 121, 137; anxiety 51;

failure of mourning 150; narcissistic
dilemma 126

sexuality 102, 141; cars 58; death association

with 164; The Flight of the Eagle 122; Or
39, 41, 42; Swimming Pool 155, 156

Shakespeare, William 1, 6
shame 14, 89, 150
Shine, C. 148
Shklovsky, Viktor 170, 180n9
Shub, Esther 110, 111
siblings 160–6
Silverman, K. 101n1
Silverstone, J. 161
Simon, J. 129
Siodmak, Robert 166n2
Sklarew, Bruce 162
slow motion 171, 172
social coldness 57, 58, 63, 64
Sorrentini, Barbara 30
sounds 30, 140
speech 111
Spielberg, Steven 79, 90n2
splitting 38, 50, 54, 148, 150, 152
Stalin, Josef 82
Stein, Alexander 2, 132–44
Steiner, J. 150–1
Sterne, Lawrence 170, 180n9
Stevens, George 79
Stevenson, Robert Louis 174, 180n12
Stoppard, Tom xviii
Strindberg, Nils 120, 124, 126–7, 128
subject-perspective 56
subjectivity 73, 76, 77, 85, 89
suicide 21, 26, 71
Suleiman, Susan 88
Sundman, Per Olof 129
superego 52, 63, 121
surrealism 92, 102, 103, 105–6, 133
survivor guilt 38
suture 94, 96, 98
Svankmajer, Jan 102–8
Sylwan, Kari 161, 162
Szabó, István 81, 82–3, 90n4
Szemzö, Tibor 84

tableaux 104, 171
Taylor Robinson, Helen 3, 102–8
Tedeschi, Valeria Bruni 175, 176
therapeutic relationship 66
therapy 31
Thulin, Ingrid 161, 162
time xx, 3, 28, 34, 168–81; Belleville Rendez-

Vous 133, 135, 136, 138, 139–40;
compilation �lms 109–10, 114, 116; The
Flight of the Eagle 122; metaphors
117–18

Torok, M. 13–15, 16

Index

189

Page 213

totems 106, 107
transference 84, 89
trauma: cinematic recreation of xvii;

colonization 112, 113, 114, 115;
compilation �lms 110; Holocaust 74, 80,
83, 87, 88; lace 97, 98; primary object loss
134; psychoanalytic theory of 116; time
confusion 117

traumatism 100
Trevisan, Vitaliano 48, 49, 53
Tristram Shandy 170, 180n9
Troell, Jan xix, 119, 128, 129
Trufiaut, François 26, 166n2

Ullmann, Liv 161, 162, 164
unconscious 102, 110, 118

Veloso, Caetano 68
Vermeer, Jan 3, 97, 98–9, 100
Vertov, Dziga 89, 92–3, 169–70, 180n7
Visconti, Luchino 166n2
voyeurism xviii–xix, 29, 44n2, 98, 177;

power relations 115; Swimming Pool 148,
154, 155, 156

Watling, Leonor 66, 67, 68
Webber, Andrew xviii–xix, 3, 92–101
Weinstein, Lissa xix, 3, 119–31
Wiesel, Elie 80
Wigoder, Shimshon xviii, 2, 35–45
Wilder, Billy 180n15, n16
Williams, Linda 96
window scenes 92–3, 97
Winnicott, D.W. 179
Wolfi, E. 123
women xviii, 133, 147
Woolf, Virginia 151, 169
Wurmser, Leon 61

Yedeya, Keren 35, 43, 44n4
Young-Breuhl, E. 150

Zimetbaum, Mala 80
Zwiebel, Ralf xix–xx, 2, 56–64

Index

190

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