Download Practical Cinematography PDF

TitlePractical Cinematography
PublisherElsevier/Focal Press
ISBN 139780240519623
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.8 MB
Total Pages222
Document Text Contents
Page 1

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Practical
Cinematography

Prelims 12/16/04 3:23 PM Page i

Page 111

94 Practical Cinematography

used to write four combinations, with each combination representing
one value.

The great advantage of this system is that one can easily design a
machine, or electronic circuit, to recognize this code, as we can tell it
one is represented by ‘On’ and zero is represented by ‘Off’. So, as we
are only asking our machine to tell if it is on or off to understand all
the numbers we require, we have gained a huge advantage – we can
copy our string of codes as many times as we like, with absolute accur-
acy, and even the most stupid of machines can tell if it is on or off.

Here lies the advantage of digital copying over photographic copy-
ing; every time you make a photographic copy there will be some loss
in quality, no matter how small, but every digital copy should be an
exact replica of the original. We can now, therefore, make as many
copies, or intermediates, as we wish.

But how many combinations of zeros and ones should we assign to
each pixel to get an exact representation of our photographic original?
Well, perceived wisdom tells us we need 10 or 12 combinations of zeros
and ones in order that the digital intermediate process remains seam-
less. Figure 9.1 shows how the number of combinations available with
different numbers of zeros and ones moves up to an astounding 4096
for 12-bit encoding.

Linear and logarithmic sampling

There is a way of encoding the original scanning of the camera nega-
tive that can both make the picture more appealing to the eye and, at
the same time, reduce the size of the digital files used to store the
images. It involves the use of logarithmic sampling rather than the tra-
ditional linear sampling.

Figure 9.1 The effect of adding
more bits to the binary code

1-bit 0 (or 1)
2 � 2 values

2-bit 0 1
2 � 2 � 4 values

4-bit 0 1 0 1
2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 16 values

6-bit 0 1 0 1 0 1
2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 64 values

8-bit 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 256 values

10-bit 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 1024 values

12-bit 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 2 � 4096 values

Chap-09 12/16/04 3:09 PM Page 94

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Digital intermediates 95

With linear sampling, the steps between each brightness sampled
are exactly the same throughout the tonal range of the master image,
as in Figure 9.2. Because of the shape of the brightness response curve,
a finer gradation between recorded values will occur in the highlights
than in the shadows.With logarithmic sampling, as shown in Figure 9.3,
there are more steps in the area of the shadowed part of the scene
than in the highlights, and this results in the recorded values being
evenly spaced across the tonal range.

There is another advantage to logarithmic sampling. Original cam-
era negative will usually have an overall density range of 2.0D from
the clearest part of the film to the darkest. The industry standard
Kodak specified Cineon (.CIN) film file format for digital recording,
the most widely used in the DI world, works on the basis that between
each digital sample there will be a density change of 0.002D on the

SHADOWS HIGHLIGHTSScene brightness

R
e
c
o

rd
e
d

v
a
lu

e
s

Figure 9.2 Screen
brightness using linear
sampling

SHADOWS HIGHLIGHTSScene brightness

R
e
c
o

rd
e
d

v
a
lu

e
s

Figure 9.3 Screen
brightness using
logarithmic sampling

Chap-09 12/16/04 3:09 PM Page 95

Page 221

Lenses (contd)
Panavision Primo, 57
Zeiss, 57–8

perceived sharpness, 50–3
perspective, 167–71
telephoto lenses, 54–5
testing of, 150–3

focus tests at various distances,
152–3

infinity test, 151
resolution test, 151

wide-angle lenses, 55
zoom lenses, 55–6
See also Focal length

Light meters, See Exposure meters
Lighting equipment list, 11–12
Lighting ratios, 107–9

controlling the whole scene, 110
definition, 107
for both cinema and television,

108–9
for cinema, 107–8
for television, 107–8
use of on the set, 110
visualization of, 107

Lightworks process, 75
Linear sampling, 94–6
Lines of sixths, 162–3
Logarithmic sampling, 94–6
Long handled negative cut, 88–9
Long pitch, 73
Long-focus lenses, 54–5
Loop, 42–3
Low contrast filters, 130

Maddox, Richard L., 63
Magnus, Albertus, 62
Maltese cross mechanism, 73–4
Maximum aperture, 53–4
Minolta colour temperature

meter, 124
Mired shift values, 121–3
Modular Transfer Function

(MTF), 151
Moonlight, 127

Negative cutting, 86–7
A and B roll, 87, 88
long handled negative cut, 88–9

Nets, 131–2
Neutral density filters, 130
Nitrocellulose, 63

Objective shots, 172–5
Operator, 31
Optical printers, 84–6

Palmtop computers, 144–5
Pan and scan telecine transfer, 183

Pan glass, 133
Panavision camera mechanism,

41–2
Panavision Primo lenses, 57
Panchromatic viewing filter (pan

glass), 133–4
Paperwork, 27
Parallax focusing, 30
Pentax Digital Spotmeter, 104–5,

113
Perforations, 72–4

three-perforation pull-down,
178–9

two-perforation pull-down,
179–80

Perspective, 167–71
Photographic process, 63–8

history of, 62–3
Pincushion distortion, 59
Pixels, 93

resolution and, 96–7
Polar screens, 132–3
Premier copy, 88
Preparation for shoot, 7–23

camera equipment list, 10–11
DP’s preparation, 9–10
film stock breakdown, 17–23
lighting equipment list, 11–17
recces/scouting, 8–9
technical schedule, 23

Print density control, 116–17
Printer lights, 83–4
Printers, optical, 84–6
Printing:

contact printing, 84
controlling print density, 116–17
optical printers, 84–6

Prints:
cinema release prints, 87–8
festival prints, 197

Pro-mist filters, 131

Recces/scouting, 8–9
Reflectance values, 102
Reflected light meters, 103
Reflex viewfinder, 43–4
Report sheets, 27, 28
Research, 7–8
Resolution:

digital intermediates, 96–7
lens resolution test, 151

Rotary calculators, 142–3
Rule of thirds, 159–62
Rushes, 62, 84

Samuelson calculators, 144
Scanning, 92, 94, 96–7

See also Digital intermediates
(DI)

204 Index

Index 12/16/04 3:22 PM Page 204

Page 222

Scouting, 8–9
Scratch tests, 149–50
Seconic combined exposure meter,

105–6
Sensitometric curve, 77–9

three point image control and,
113–14

Sensitometry, 77–81
Sepia filters, 129
Set box, 26
70 mm film, 180–2
Shadow, 125–6
Sharpness, perceived, 50–3
Shipping film stock, 75–6
Short pitch, 73
Shutter, 40
Shutter speed, 101–2
Silver halide, 63, 64, 66–8
Sixths, 162–3
65 mm film, 180–1
Skin tone warmer filter, 129
Spot meters, 104–5

Pentax Digital Spotmeter, 104–5,
113

Star filters, 131
Steady tests, 147–8
Stores, 154–6
Subjective shots, 172–5
Sunlight, 125–6
Super 16 mm format, 138, 167

depth of field and, 138–9
Super 16 to 35 mm blow-ups,

137–8
festival prints and, 197
for television, 185, 189–91

16 � 9 television and, 191–2
history of, 189–91

Super 35 format, 182
Swarf, 26

Tape stick, 26
Technical recce, 8–9
Technical schedule, 23
Telecine grading, 90–1
Telephoto lenses, 54–5
Television:

16 � 9 television, 191–2
35 mm film depth of field, 138
aspect ratios, 183–5, 189–97
frame rates, 39, 101
framing in several formats, 192–4
framing solutions, 194–7
high definition (HD), 191, 198–9
image control, 114
lighting ratios, 107–10
Super 16 mm format, 138, 189–92
widescreen television, 138

Testing, 146–56

gamma testing, 153
lens testing, 150–3

focus tests at various distances,
152–3

infinity test, 151
resolution test, 151

non-film testing, 153–4
reasons for, 146
responsibility for, 146–7
stores, 154–6
tests involving shooting film,

147–50
camera steady tests, 147–8
fog tests, 150
frame leader, 148–9
scratch tests, 149–50

Thirds, rule of, 159–62
35 mm film:

depth of field, when only shown
on television, 138

Super 16 to 35 mm blow-ups,
137–8

35 mm frame, 177
Three-perforation pull-down, 178–9
Three-point image control, 111–14

for television, 114
sensitometric curve and, 113–14

Time-keeping, 33
Trainees, 24–5
Triplets, 61
Tripod testing, 153–4
Tungsten light:

colour correction, 126
colour temperature, 125

Two-perforation pull-down, 179–80

Ultra contrast filters, 130

Video assist, 25
Viewfinder, 43–4
Viewing glass, 133–4
Viewing screens, 45
Vision, persistence of, 37–8

Weston Master light meter, 103–4
Wide-angle lenses, 55

close-ups and, 171
Widescreen format, 178
Widescreen television, 138
Williamson camera mechanism, 41
Wratten filters, 126–7, 128–9

X-ray radiation, 75–6

Zeiss lenses, 54, 55, 57–8, 61
Zoom lenses, 55

distortion, 59

Index 205

Index 12/16/04 3:22 PM Page 205

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