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TitlePractical Art of Motion Picture Sound
PublisherFocal Press
ISBN 139780240812403
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size38.8 MB
Total Pages678
Table of Contents
                            Frontmatter
Copyright
Dedication
A Memorial to Excellence
The Empowerment of Sound
Our Amateur Beginnings
	Early Applications
	Interview with Bruce Campbell
	Develop Your Eyes and Ears to Observe
	Protect Your Most Precious Possessions
The Passing of a Tradition and Coming of Age
	The Passing of A Tradition
	The Evolution of the Process
		Special Rules for the Sound Editing Award
		Special Rules for the Sound Mixing Award
	How Did They Get Here?
Success or Failure: Before the Camera Even Rolls
	Understanding the Art form of Sound
	The “Collateral” Terror Lurks at Every Turn
	Penny-Wise and Pound-Foolish
	Developing Grass-Roots Common Sense
	The Temp DUB
	Read the Fine Print
	But you Said it Would Be Cheaper!
	Budget Fundamentals
		Understanding the Budget Line Items
			Production Dialog Mixers versus Custom Sound Effect Mixers
			The Production Sound Budget
			Music Budget
			Sound-Editorial Budget
		Transfers and Stock Purchase
		Post-Sound Facility
	The Lost Sound Director
	Scott Byrns and Paul Geffre
	Richard Clabaugh and John Rushton (Crimson Wolf Productions)
The Challenging Battlefield of Production
	The Production Recording Team
		The Sound Mixer
		The Boom Operator
		The Cable Man
	The Sequence of Production Recording
	The Basic Recording Kit
	Analog or Digital
	Backup Tapes
	Line-Up Tones
	Sound Report
	Microphones and Pick-Up Patterns
		Microphone Pattern
			Omnidirectional Microphone
			Cardioid: A Directional Microphone
			Hypercardioid: Highly Directional or Mini-Shotgun
			Supercardioid: Ultra Directional Shotgun
				Features
				Technical data
				Profile
	The “Smart” Slate
	The Studio Microphone Boom
	The Shock Mount and Windscreen
		Mount and Zeppelin
	Fish Pole Microphone Boom
	Good Microphone Boom Techniques
		Boom Operator During Setup
		Checking with the Prop Department
	Using the Wireless Microphone
	Getting Room Tones and Wild Tracks
	Splitting Off Source Sound
	X-Y Microphone Configuration
		X-Y Pattern
	Stereo Capsule Microphone
		Neumann USM 69 i
	The Illusion of Monitoring Field Recordings
	Multichannel Mixing
	Recording Practical Phone Conversations
	Perils of Recording in Snow
	Boom Ergo Dynamics by Rusty Amodeo
		The HD Camera—Coming to a Shoot Near You!
		A Brief History of the Cuemaster
		Applications of the Cuemaster
	A Point of View that the “Visual” Director and/or Cinematographer Should Develop
	The Ultimate Goal and Challenge
From the Set to the Laboratory
	Transfer Protocol
		Delivery Format
		Shot on Film—Cut on Film
		Edge Code and Key Codes on Film
		Shot on Film—Cut Nonlinear and Conform
		Shot on Film—Cut Nonlinear
		Shot on Video—Cut Nonlinear
		Digital Food for Thought
	Data is Golden
	35MM Film Stock Variants
		35mm Picture
		35mm Mag Stripe
		35mm Magnetic Three-Stripe
		35mm Magnetic Fullcoat
	Line-Up Tones
		VU and Digital Meters
		Pink Noise
		Line-Up Tones for Your Own Use
			1-kHz Sine Wave and Square Wave
	Timecode: The Obnoxious Electronic Cricket
		Keeping Film in Exact Sync
		Invisible Sprocket Holes
		The “Pull-Down” Effect
		Addresses and Rates
			Addressing Modes
			Frame Rates
		Audio Timecode Signal
		Timecode Specifications for Video Transfers
		Drop-Frame Timecode
		Check for Drop/Nondrop
		VITC
		Mixing Drop- and Nondrop-Frame Sessions
		Using Outboard A-to-D Encoders
Picture Editorial and the Use of the Sound Medium
	The Bastion of Absolutes
	From the Lab to the Bench
	Head and Tail Leaders for Film
		The Start Mark
		“But We Are Nonlinear!”
	The Code Book Entry
	The Danger of Romantic Mythology
	The Power of Coverage
	Leander Sales
	Mark Goldblatt, A.C.E.
	Cost Savings and Costly Blunders
	Shoot the Master Angle at a Faster Pace
	The Nonlinear Issue
	Sound and the Picture Editor
	Howard Smith, A.C.E.
	A Series of Breaks
	Ron Roose
	Touch It—Live It
	Finding a Way to Break Into an Editing Job
	More Craftspeople of Color
Temp Dubs and Test Screenings:
	Test Screening
	USE of Temp DUBS
Spotting the Picture for Sound and Music
	Sizing Up the Production Track
	Temp Music and Temp Sound Effects First
	After the “Running”
	Critical Need for Precise Notes: A Legal Paper Trail
	The Supervisor’s Bible
	Spotting-Session Protocol
	What Revelations May Come
Custom Recording Sound Effects
	The Adventure of Custom Recording
	Why a Custom Recording Specialist?
		Making a Career Out of Recording Sound Effects
		Fear of Being Stereotyped
	Sound Editors Record their Own Material
		Custom Recording Vehicles
			Vehicle Mechanicals
			Recording a Car—Start and Idle
			Recording a Car—Start and Aways
			Recording a Car—In to Stop
			Recording a Car—Bys
			Recording a Car—Maneuvers
		Recording Multiple Points of View Simultaneously
		Recording Animals
		Recording Airplanes
		Recording Explosions
			The Cannons of Master and Commander
		Smaller Is Often Bigger
	Importance of Script Breakdown
	Field Recording in 5.1
	Preparing for Successful Recordings
The Sound Librarian
	Prelude to this Chapter
	Custom Recording New Sounds
	The Evolution of “Finding It”
	Optical Sound to Magnetic Film
	Organizing a System to Find Stuff
		Assigning Sound Cue Part Numbers
			Topic-Roll-Cue System
			Linear Numbering System
	Archiving Stability
		Mastering to CD-Rs—and Then DVD-Rs
	Basic Cleaning-Up of Audio Files
	Complex Sound Effects Mastering
	Audio File Protocol
	Multichannel Mastering Techniques
	Mixed Medium Synchronous Mastering
	The Sound Effect Inventory Database
		DiskTracker
		Printouts
		Duplicate Files
		Looking for Audio Files
	The Traditional Catalog Database
	Upgrading Our Libraries to 96kHz/24-Bit
Sound Design
	The “Big Sound”
	American Sound Design
		The Sound Design Legacy
	Do You Do Special Effects Too?
	Sound Design Misinformation
	Bob Grieve and the Western
		Silverado
		Wyatt Earp
	The Difference between Design and Mud
		David Stone
		Gary Rydstrom
		Richard King
		Jon Johnson
		John A. Larsen
		Richard Anderson
		Stephen Hunter Flick
	Big Guns
	What Makes Explosions Big
	The Satisfaction of Subtlety
	Reality Versus Entertainment
	“Worldizing” Sound
		Walter Murch and Worldizing
		Sound Effects
		Mystery Men
		In the Future
	Worldizing Daylight
	Some Advice to Consider
	The Making of John Carpenter’s the Thing
Sound Editorial
	Who’s Who in Sound Editorial
		Sound Editorial Crew Tree
			Supervising Sound Editor
		Sound Editorial Crew Flow Chart
			First Assistant Sound Editor
			Sound Apprentice
			Sound Designer
			Dialog Supervisor
			ADR Supervisor
			Sound Effects Editors
			Foley Supervisor
			Foley Artists
	The Strategy Brews
		The Turnover
		Dupe Picture and Video Dupes
		Production Audio Source
		Code Book
		Lined Script
		Cast List
		Continuity
		LFOP Chart
		Developing the Cut List
	Which Preparation Technique?
		“All In and Mix” Approach
		A-B-C Approach
			A-FX, B-FX, C-FX
		Marking Sync on Film
			Marking Film Sync
		Separation of Sound Cues
		Leading Edges
		Digital Fade Choices
		Cutting Backgrounds
			Pro Tools One-Frame Overlaps
		Layering Techniques
			Pro Tools—Cannon Fire
		Varispeed Creations
		Creatively Misusing a Graphic Equalizer
		Whip Pan Techniques
			Pro Tools—Laser Fire
		Using an Off-the-Shelf Audio CD Sound Library
		Techniques in Cutting Vehicles
			Pro Tools—Car Sequence
		Splitting off Tracks
		Building in Volume Graphing and Equalization
		Cueing the Picture
			The Ten-Ten Cue Technique
			The Wipe Cue Technique
			Presentation
			Cue Sheets: Hand-Made or Computer-Generated?
			An Example of an Information Header
				Show Title:
				Editor:
				Reel #:
				Predub Group:
				Version:
			The “Dubbing” Cue Sheet
		Packed and Ready to Go
Sound Editorial
	You Suffer from “You Don’t Know What You Don’t Know!”
	Sound Advice
	Production Sound
		Double Phantoming—The Audio Nightmare
		Using the Tone Generator
		The Pan Pot Controllers
		Two Recording Strategies
		Single Monaural Channel—Flat
		Single Monaural Channel—Right −10dB
		Two Discrete Monaural Channels—Recorded Separately
		Two Discrete Channels—Recording Stereo
	Sound Editing Strategies
	The Evolution of Blending Editor and Rerecording Mixer
	Think Big—Cut Tight
	Keep It Tight—Keep It Lean
	Rethinking the Creative Continuity
		On the Importance of Designing and Mixing a Film
	Don’t Forget the M&E
	An Example of Ultra Low-Budget Problem Solving
	Kini Kay
	The Bottom Line
Dialog Editors
	Quality Control before Postproduction
	Dialog Editing Strategy
	Dialog Sequence Sheets, or the EDL
		Dialog Sequence Sheet
		The EDL
	Auto Assembly: OMF or Phase-Matching Sync
		Open Media Framework
		To Trust or Not to Trust OMF Media Files
	Reprinting Dialog Cues from Original Source on Film
		Nonlinear Reprinting
		First Assistant Becomes a Transfer Engineer
	Laying Out the Dialog Track Strategy
		Pro Tools DIA Session
		Lip Smacks, Tisks, and Other Unwanted Noises
		P-FX Preparation
		Creating Great Fill
		Magic and Transparency of Great Dialog Editing
		Creating That Which Is Not There
		When to Equalize and Set Volume Graphing
ADR and Looping
	ADR
		The Practice ADR Lines
		The ADR Supervisor
		Listen Carefully to the Production Track
		Crushed Schedule Trends of Mega-Monsters
	Appropriate Use of Language
	Cueing ADR Lines
		The Traditional ADR Form
		ADR Software to Further Automate the Process
			VoiceQ—for ADR, Foley, and Dubbing
	ADR Stage: The Crew
		ADR Mixer
		ADR Recordist
	Microphone Choice and Placement
	ADR Protection Report
	ISDN Telecommunications Interlock
	The Return of the Looping Technique
		Recording Dialog Using the Looping Technique
		Remote Location Looping
	Alexander Markowski
	Inhuman Vocalities
		Group Walla
			Recording Group Walla
	Techniques of Cutting ADR
Foley
	Jack Foley
	Modern Foley
	It’s Really the Pits
	Prop Room
	Supervising Foley Editor
	Emphasis on Foley Creation
	Selection of Lead Foley Artist
	Television Breaks the Sound Barrier
	Observing the Foley Stage in Action
	Cueing the Foley
		Foley Cue Sheet Log
		Techniques to Consider
			Self-Awareness Tips
			Grassy Surrogate
			Snow
			Safety with Glass
			Fire
			The Most Terrifying Sound Effects in the World Come from Your Refrigerator!
			Hush Up!
			Zip Drips
	Editing Foley
		Pro Tools—One Man’s Recording Technique
		Importing Foley Stems into Pro Tools for Track Stripping
	It Will All Come Together
The Music Composer
	Challenges of Writing for the Screen
	Set the Music Composer Early
	Basic Mechanics
	Basil Poledouris
	Philosophy of Film Scoring
		A Personal Contemporary View of Film Scoring
	The Music Editor
	The Delicate Game of Insight
	Similar Issues Affecting the Creative Effort
	Index-Linking Foreign Sales
The Rerecording Stage
	Rerecording
	The Credenza
		It Can Seem Overwhelming
	The Mixers
		Head Mixer
		Effects Mixer
		Music Mixer
		Times Have Changed
		A Vital Collaboration
	Predubs: Tactical Flow
		Rerecording Mixing Flowchart
			Four-Week Mixing Schedule
	The New Centurions of the Console
	Who Really Runs the Mix?
	Proper Etiquette and Protocol
	Print Mastering
		Pull-Ups
		Various Formats: A Who’s Who
	Foreign M&E
		Preparing Foreign M&E
	Mixing the Action Film Salt
		Effects and Pace
Production Sound
	Zaxcom Deva 5.8 and Deva 16
		Front Panel Descriptions
		Left Panel Descriptions
		Right Panel Descriptions
	Sound Devices Digital Recorders
		Left Panel Connectors and Controls
		Right Panel Connectors and Controls
	Fostex PD-6 Digital Recorder
		Fostex PD-6 Front Panel
		Fostex PD-6 Left Panel
		Fostex PD-6 Right Panel
	Aaton Cantar-X Digital Recorder
		The 3-Crown Turret
		The Main Selector
		The Twin Battery Safety
		Routing 15 Inputs to 8 Tracks
	The Ultimate Goal and Challenge
The Venerable Nagra IV-S (Analog)
	The Practical Nagra
	The Battery Supply
	The Parts
		Speed and Equalization Selector
		Tape Thread Path
		Rewind Switch
			Rewinding
			Fast Forward
		Head Stack and Transport
		The Stabilizer Roller
		The Record Head
		The Pilot Head
		The Playback Head
		The Capstan and Pinch Roller
		Front Control Panel
		Right Side of the Front Control Panel
			Power Selector Switch
			Tape/Direct Switch
			Line & Phones Switch
			Main Function Selector Bar
			Roll to Record
			Roll for Playback
			Light Button
			Reference Oscillator Button
			Volume Control Potentiometers
		Center Controls of Front Control Panel
			The Meter Selector
			Pilot Frequency
			Level
			Battery
			TC/Pilot Playback
			M Setting
			Filter Selector
			Mics/Line Selector Switch
			Noise Reduction Switch
			Mono-Stereo Selector
		Left Side of Front Control Panel
			Headphone Jack and Headphone Controls
			Pilot Flag indicator
			Speed and Power indicator
			The Modulometer
		The Tuchel In and Out Connectors
			Line Inputs (Tuchel 7-Pin Connector)
			EXT.NRS (Tuchel 7-Pin Connector)
			Line Outputs (Tuchel 7-Pin Connector)
				Outputs
				EXT.NRS (Noise Reduction System)
				Inputs
			The Microphone XLR Connector
			The Microphone XLR Inputs
			The Phantom Power Selectors
			The Phase Selector
			The Output Side
			External Power Pack—6-pin Tuchel
			Line Outputs (via Banana Jacks)
			Time Code In/Out
		The Time Code Option
	Audio Tech Maintenance
		Outline placeholder
			Outline placeholder
				Nagra USA, Inc.
				California
				New York
				Oklahoma
				Tennessee
				Texas
Emerging Technologies
	5.1–6.1 and Higher
		What Is 5.1?
	The QC Game
	Total Immersion Opportunities
		Practical Application for Training Purposes
		Entertainment in Total Immersion
	Audio Restoration
		Sound Preservation and Restoration
		Restoration and Colorization
	Colorization: A Biased Perspective from the Inside by Barry B. Sandrew, Ph.D., president and COO of Legend Films
		From Brains to Hollywood
		The Early Digital Process
		The Rationale for Colorization Today
			Legend Films, Inc.: Building a System for the Twenty-First Century
		Colorization—A Legitimate Art Form
		India Is the Future
		The Second Coming of Colorization
			Ray Harryhausen
			The Aviator
			Jane Russell
			Terry Moore
			Shirley Temple Black
		Conclusion
	THE SOUND DESIGN DEPARTMENT FOR INTERACTIVE GAMING
	Sound for the Video Game Industry
		Game Audio Overview
		Get Back in the Game
		Technically Speaking
		The Big Picture
		Publishers
		Developers
		Production Studios
		Individual Contributors
		The Game Development Team
			Designers and Gameplay
			Programming
			Art and Animation
		The Sound Team
		Game Audio Techniques in Action
		Sounds Good to Me
		Felt More Than Heard
		Speaking of Video Games
		Musical Notes
		Mixing Games
	It Is All Up To You
Glossary
Index
DVD and Website Information
The Art of Practical Motion Picture Sound Companion Website
How to Convert Audio Files
Legal Notice
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound

Page 339

software displays it in the cut region the data may show up as: 097/42_Oil_Fire_
w/low1 6-18.R.

That means that it is showing you the entire name, then the 18th cut in that ses-
sion, then the right-channel is displayed to you. I really do not want all that in each
data window, it is just too much data clutter. So I will eliminate everything except
what I want the mixer to see, and in this case I will add a perspective description
like “close” or “distant.” I will then highlight this new name and copy the text “Oil
Fire close” and then scroll down and paste it into each cut-region that the entire
name shows up in, thereby giving me a name: Oil Fire close.

I will repeat this technique in each displayed channel and change any cut-
region field data that I wish to simplify.

If you look up at the channel data window, you will see that you can combine left
and right channels into a single track. The reason that “.R” will show up at the end of the
clip name is that I have combined all the stereo channels into one track. So the computer
shows only the one track name that represents both the left and right sides. The data win-
dow tells you this by showing you this information expressed as: Stereo.1/2.

This means that this single represented channel of sound is actually 2 channels
of sound, because it takes a left and a right channel. As you can see, this will save on
an awful lot of cue sheet paper by condensing stereo cues, as well as saving on the
wear and tear of dubbing mixers’ eyes in studying the cue sheet. An additional help
to the mixer is not to read the entire audio cue as “097/42 Oil Fire w/low1 6-18.R”;

Figure 13.21 A typical computer-generated “dubbing” cue sheet. Note the regimented line-up of
time counts and the cleaned-up audio file names for ease of use on the rerecording stage.

330 • Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound

Page 340

therefore I will go into the computer program and clean up the cues, removing
unnecessary data that will mean nothing to the rerecording mixer.

In addition, computer programs do not make split arrows such as you see in
FX-1, FX-3, FX-13, and FX-15. I make an arrow template and put these in manually,
because when an audio track is split for perspective and/or volume shift issues, a
rerecording mixer is really thankful to see where the event is going.

You might want to check out computer cue sheet programs before you buy
them. I really stay away from one program in particular, in that it makes you change
the names of your audio files so that it will read them a certain way in the cue sheet.
This is like the tail wagging the body of the dog: it is engineered backward. Other
computer cue sheet programs are designed to be much friendlier to editors, who
usually have to make their cue sheets in the middle of the night or minutes before
the actual mix commences and do not have time to put up with a lot of backward
computer program engineering.

The sideways Vs in FX-7 and FX-9 tell the mixer that the effect has built-in
fade-ins or fade-outs. These symbols are built into the computer program and will
show up automatically; although, once again they are canard, because if you are a
precise editor who builds in one-frame fade-ins and fade-outs to guard against digi-
tal ticks, the computer will not know this any differently from a 30-foot fade-in or
fade-out but will show the fade-in and fade-out symbols regardless.

So here again, I remove any fade-in or fade-out symbols that do not truly repre-
sent an important fade that the mixer may be interested in knowing about.

Packed and Ready to Go
The sound assistant has gone over the flow chart of the material advertised from the
various departments. He or she has seen to it that the editors have cut to the proper
versions. The assistant also has seen to it that the sessions have been backed up and
protected. Finally he or she has seen to it that the cue sheets have been properly
made and that the various editors are speaking with one style and voice, as far as
presentation is concerned.

Since 1978 I have taken an organizational chart template to an economy copy cen-
ter and have special 10v x 13v white envelopes printed up. Each envelope holds a reel
of dialog cue sheets (including ADR and Group Walla), or a reel of Foley cue sheets, or
a reel of hard effects cue sheets, or a reel of stereo background cue sheets. As each
group of cue sheets is completed, the sound assistant check-marks the appropriate box
on the front of the envelope, along with the show title, editor’s name, types of cue sheet
groups, completion of predubbing on the material, and so on. On the bottom is a large
box for the supervising sound editor to write notes while he is on the dubbing stage
with the mixers. He or she can pencil in update notes to be made before the final mix.

This is not only a good organizational help to keep the flood of paperwork
straight and easily accessible, but it is also good presentation to your client. They see
how you work with clean and neat envelopes with precise notes that are easy to
find. It instills their confidence in you and your ability to handle the complex job of
developing their soundtrack, and they are more willing to listen to your advice when
the chips are down because they have seen your neatness and orderly procedure.

Chapter 13 • Sound Editorial • 331

Page 677

Note that near the bottom of the menu is another drop-down menu with the
iTunes icon and application name. Also note that at the top it says that the author
has selected 16 audio files to convert all at once. Click on the drop-down menu and
the following submenu will appear.

Now you can convert the files to work with the application of your choice. In
this case, the author has chosen the Pro Tools (default) so that these audio files can
best be seen and used by Pro Tools, Final Cut Pro, and Avid editing software.

668 • Practical Art of Motion Picture Sound

Page 678

Legal Notice

Some of the sound effects included in the Yewdall FX Library were licensed to
Sound Ideas for its General 6000 series back in 1996. They are reproduced here by
permission of Sound Ideas for promotional purposes. Included are the original ver-
sions, with full equalization spectrum; they have not had the low-frequency roll-off
that Sound Ideas applied as its standard operating procedure. Sound Ideas tended
not to include the full series of sound cues; here, however, you will find the full
series of the Sierra pick-up and the Stearman 220 aircraft (as described earlier in this
book). Enjoy.

The use of the audio material on the included DVD is limited and restricted
solely to motion pictures, video-tape images, slide programs, interactive entertain-
ment, personal audio-visual, or advertising and marketing presentations, including
radio and television presentations, commercials, and any other multimedia, audio-
visual, or computer generated displays, programs, or presentations.

Neither you nor anyone else may make copies of any of the sound effects audio
files on this DVD-data disc except as may be synchronized with such audio-visual
materials or equipment at your own facility. You are not permitted to sell and/or
license any of the audio material on the disc, as you are the not the owner of the
audio files on this disc.

In the event of a breach of these terms, action may be taken against you directly
by the owner of the audio material in question.

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