Download Parking Structures: Planning, Design, Construction, Maintenance and Repair PDF

TitleParking Structures: Planning, Design, Construction, Maintenance and Repair
PublisherSpringer US
ISBN 139781461515777
File Size24.1 MB
Total Pages858
Document Text Contents
Page 1




T h i r d E d i t i o n

Page 2




T h i r d E d i t i o n

Anthony P. Chrest
Mary S. Smith
Sam Bhuyan

Mohammad Iqbal
Donald R. Monahan

Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

Page 429

Structure 423

In comparison, ASCE 7 requires a combined loading of 1.2 D + L +
1.6S. Applying these load factors to the L = 25 psf and S = 40 psf above,
and omitting, for this example, the D (dead) load, produces a worst-case
combined service load greater than that obtained using the last option above. Wind Loads

Design and construct every parking structure and its component elements
to resist the equivalent wind pressures given in governing building codes.
Model building codes have methods with which to calculate wind pressures,
using basic wind speed, importance factor, exposure factor, and projected
areas. In most cases it is unrealistic to use anything less than the full
building face area for the projected area. Don't subtract the open areas of the
face; consider the face solid unless you make a more rigorous analysis. Seismic Loads

Please see Chapters 14 and 15. Barrier Requirements

Handrail heights, live load, and railing spacing requirements may vary
and all affect design. Openings in barriers that resist car bumper impact are
limited in size by codes, but these limits vary also.

Not all building codes deal with lateral load requirements for car bumper
barriers at floor edges. Requirements vary from none, to the National
Parking Association's (NPA) recommendation given below, to Houston's
12,000 lb. Designing for these loads will restrain a slowly moving vehicle.
These requirements are in addition to other building code requirements are
in addition to other building code requirements for handrails or similar
barriers. The Parking Consultants Council of the NPA recommends a
factored concentrated lateral load (strength design load) of 10,000 Ib at 18
in. above the driving surface. At least one code requires the load be applied
27 in. above the floor - 50% more than the NPA requirement. Barrier-Ioad-
resisting reinforcement is additive to that required by other loads.

A typical curb, 6 in. high, or a precast wheel stop will not stop anything
more than a slowly moving car, and should never be considered a barrier. A
faster-moving car will jump the curb or wheel stop and will hit the bumper
barrier beyond with barely diminished force. Curbs do add to driver comfort
with the facility, though. A curb of proper width will ensure that the car's
rubber tires reach the curb before its bumpers reach the wall beyond.

Page 430

424 Parking Structures

Some building codes require a barrier with greater impact resistance at
locations such as the perimeter wall at the bottom of a ramp, especially if
there are no parking places directly in front the wall.

Perimeter guardrails comprising only cables or post-tensioned tendons
are not recommended, particularly if they are mounted on the exterior faces
of the exterior columns. There is little redundancy in case of failure of a
connection. Also, most building codes will not permit any barrier that
resembles a ladder that a child could climb. In some jurisdictions, we have
not been permitted to use interior guardrail details like that shown in figure
12-2. If such a detail is used, be sure to check the dimension between the
lowest cable and the top of concrete wall as shown in figure 12-3.

/r~i"::'~" : _/1' LD, (YE DRlLL£D coo._


':' .. r:

Figure 12-2: Interior bumper wall and handrail showing surface-mounted post-tensioning
strand serving as handrail.

Page 857


Van accessible parking spaces, 379-383
clearance of, 54
minimum number of, 382-383
regulations on, 379-380
restrictions on use of, 383
signs on, 381
universal parking spaces as, 381-382,

vertical clearance of, 379-380
wide access in, 380-382

Variable-height columns, problems with,

Vehicle barriers
building codes on, 244
in mechanical access structures, 292
rails, 278-279

Vehicle clearance, 49, 53-54, 274
Vehicle counting system, 112
Vehicle crossovers, safety of, 276-277, 277f
Vehicle door opening dimension, 65
Vehicle safety, 274-279

accidents, 274-275
barrier rails, 278-279
moving vehicle striking parked vehicle,

two moving vehicles, 276-277, 277f
vehicles striking fixed objects, 277-278

Vehicle sales trends, US, 66-70, 67f-69f
small cars, 65, 67, 67f, 69, 69f

Vehicle sizes, 49
classes of, 66-fJ7
on parking geometrics, 65-78

small-car-only stalls, 74, 76-78, 78f
US design vehicles, 70-72, 71 t
US parking dimensions, 73-76, 73t,

74f, 75t, 76f
US vehicle sales trends, 66-70, 67f-69f

Vehicular travel components, 49-55
decision/conflict points, 55
express ramping, 55
floor-to-floor heights, 49, 53-54
nonparking roadways and express ramps,

49, 50t, 5lf
parking areas, 49, 52t
short circuits, 55
speed ramps, 54
transition area, to avoid break over effects,

tum minimization, 43f, 54-55
turning bay widths, 52t, 53f, 54
turning radius, 49
vehicle size, 49

Ventilation, 426

building codes on, 239-240
in mechanical access structures, 292

Ventilation opening, 206-207
Vibrations, structure, 442-443
Video recorder (VCR), in security, 261
Visibility, 46-47, 300-310

across parking floor, 46, 47-48
contrast, 303-306
glare, 307-310, 309f, 309t

definition of, 307
direct vs. reflected, 307
discomfort, 307-308

illuminance, 301-303
intensity of, 302-303, 3021'
at a point, 301, 30 If

in security, 253, 254f
walking distance and, 48

Visible spectrum, 300
Volume-change effects, 466-472

control measures, 468-472


design measures, 469-472, 469t, 470f,

overall structure, 468-469
creep, 467-468
drying shrinkage, 467
elastic shortening, 467
general, 467
temperature, 468


in condition appraisal, 722
in maintenance review, 613
in restoration, 657

Walking distance
acceptable, 45t, 47
visibility and, 48

Walking path of travel. 48
Walkways, pedestrian, 272
Wall openings, exterior, 202-203, 202t

bumper, maintenance of, 617t, 619
coupled, 532
exterior openings in, 202-203, 202t
fire, 207-208

in mechanical access structures, 291
party, 194
shearwalls, 447, 448f, 530-532, 53lf

coupled, 532
precast, 532

structural, 530-532, 531 f
Water, in concrete, 549, 556t

Page 858


Water leakage. See also Leaching
in concrete deterioration, 672, 674f-676f
sources of, potential, 780
through slab crack, 684, 685f

Water-reducing additives (WRDAs), 550,

Water-to-cement ratio, 671
on porosity/permeability, 709

Waterproofing membranes
exploratory excavation of, 747
in plaza deck systems, 49lf, 497f
repair with, 774, 775f

Wayfinding, 42. See also Signage
pedestrian, 47-48

Wayfinding design, 42-47
building front, 44
cast-in-place post-tensioned structures,

entrance area, 46
floor-to-floor heights, 45t, 46-47
level of service criteria, 44, 45t
light wells, 45t, 46, 47f
visibility, 46-47

Parking Structures

visual cues, 46
Wearing surfaces, in plaza deck systems,

491-492, 49lf, 494f-495f, 499-500,


exit, occupant loads and. 222-225
of open structures, 19~ 191, 19lf
of site, 56, 57f

Wiegand effect cards, 119-120
Wind loads, 423
Windowless buildings, 199

building codes for, 198-201
sprinklers in, 199-200, 212-213

Workstations, accessible, 408-410

X-ray examination, 743

Yards, 205-206

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