Download Paragliding - A pilot's training manual PDF

TitleParagliding - A pilot's training manual
File Size6.8 MB
Total Pages142
Table of Contents
01 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Equipment
02 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Aerodynamics
03 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Weather_part_I
04 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Weather_part_II
05 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Technique_part_I
06 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Technique_part_II
07 APPI_Pilot_Manual_Legislation
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Pilot Manual

APPI Pilot

Association of Paragliding Pilots and Instructors

Version 1.2



Page 2

Pilot Manual
1- Equipment

Association of Paragliding Pilots and InstructorsAssociation of Paragliding Pilots and Instructors

© APPI 2010 / 2014
All rights reserved.
Portions of the Appendix of this section may be reproduced by APPI Members for use in APPI-sanctioned training, but not
for resale or personal gain. No other reproduction is allowed without the express written permission of APPI.

1.1 - Component parts of the paraglider1.1 - Component parts of the paraglider
The canopy, which consists of the upper and lower part of the sail, forms a semi-rigid airfoil inflated forward by a flow of air
through cell openings. The contoured shape of the canopy is achieved through cell walls and intercellular walls. The more
there are the more the surfacesurface of the paraglider will approach the shape of the desired profile.

Figure 1-1: The most important parts of a paraglider are the canopy, the suspension lines and the
The cell-bearing walls divide the canopy into cells and intercellular non-bearing walls divide these
cells into cell boxes. The cell walls are mainly used to give a regular distribution of the load of the
lines to the upper surface. The largest load is at the forward half of the wing at the point of
attachment of the suspension lines. At this point one tries to prevent the deformation of cell walls by
the construction of reinforcements called ‘Flares’. In flight, these partitions are mostly required
during a spiral dive.
Openings in the cell and intercellular walls (’evens’) allow a balance of pressures between the cells
and the boxes and ensure a homogeneous distribution of the pressure within the entire surface of the
glider. They also perform an important function, namely the inflation of closed cells at the wing tip
during takeoff or flight. The lateral stabilizers reduce the loss of lift at the wing tip and stabilize the
glider in slow flight.

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If the wind is low thermal bubbles leave the ground and go up near
the place of origin.
The best locations for these separations are:
• forest edges respectively vegetation changes,
• change in the country profile,
• slits in the mountain slopes and on ridges in general.

Strong wind takes the thermal off the ground before it is sufficiently
This creates a chopped up thermal, broken, difficult to use.

Good thermals develop in places sheltered from the wind.
Thus the right places for taking off will always be downwind on the
edge of forests, buildings, hills, mountains, etc...
WarningWarning : If one exploits the thermal downwind, one can spiral till
the boundary between the upward thermal and the prevailing
altitude wind. This contact zone is turbulent and is called wind-
shear zone .

4.4.5 Factors influencing the thermal4.4.5 Factors influencing the thermal

• Inclination of the slope, aspect and position of the sun:
Surfaces perpendicularly touched by sun’s rays get the maximum
solar energy. Regarding the slopes, the south-facing slope (sunny
slope of a mountain) inclined at 45° does not get more than 70% of
this maximum energy while the north-facing slope (mountain side
exposed to North, ie. to shadows) gets only a scattered energy. On
an annual average the South Southwest slopes are the sunniest and
warmest. Compared with a North slope, a eastern slope is 20%
warmer, a western slope 30% and a southern slope 40% warmer.

Page 72

• Orography:
The concave surfaces such as valleys are, at an annual average,
20% cooler than plains.
Convex shapes such as ridges or domes are 10% warmer.
The main reasons for these differences are:

- The fact that there is more shade in concave than in convex
- The fact that the cold air flowing overnight in valleys and
hollows stays on the ground and creates a temperature inversion.
This inversion must first of all be dissipated by the first sun’s rays
before it allows the start of thermal activity.
Normally inversions get dissipated in the late morning. After clear
nights, if one wants to do thermal flight it is better to fly in the
second half of the day.

Soil texture (soil type).●
Absorption and reflection:❍
A portion of the solar rays is directly returned to space by the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface. The remaining part
is absorbed and converted into heat. The greater the possibility of absorption of this energy by the soil, the better will
be the basic conditions for thermal release.

Absorptive capacity of some textures of soil types
Wheat fields high and dry 95%

Asphalt 92%

Black soil, coniferous forests 90%

Page 141

Converging: Pilot on the right has priority

Thermalling: Turn in the same direction as upper pilot.
Upon entry into the thermal, the pilots already installed should not
be disturbed.
When overtaking, the pilot mounts the faster must enlarge its
circles and overtake from outside.

Landing: Lower pilot has priority

Priority rulesPriority rules
In air law, there are several categories of aircraft which is a priority based on its avoidance possibilities. The craft less
maneuvering will always have priority over the more maneuvering. Hang gliders, paragliders and sailplanes are as defined
in the regulations at the same level, among them, the most powerful gives priority. In all cases you must give way to an
aircraft in distress. Non-compliance with rules of air traffic is only allowed if security reasons dictate.
Reference rules in force in some countriesReference rules in force in some countries

Country Link

USA USHPA Part 100 basic safety recommendations

Europe Aerial collision avoidance rules in Europe

Switzerland FSVL - Air rules

France Aviation regulations applicable to free flight

Italy Guide for visiting pilots

Germany Rules

7.3 - The paragliding license7.3 - The paragliding license
In some countries, a license and/or an insurance is required to fly autonomously. In all cases, a pilot must inquire in a local
school to meet legal requirements.
In some countries, APPI is recognized as the official education system, and therefore allows you to fly with your APPI
license (if a license is required).{60B0C27A-2DE8-4A70-ADE2-5605D3A7CC3C}.pdf

Page 142

APPI certification awarded to a pilot is internal to the APPI system, and shows no particular right in the country where the
activity is done, unless APPI is recognized by the legal authority managing free flight in that country. Check with the local
federation if such an agreement exists.

In all cases, your paragliding activity (solo, tandem, instruction) must comply with the laws of the country in
which it is performed.

7.3.1 APPI theoretical examination7.3.1 APPI theoretical examination

The APPI theoretical examination should be performed under the supervision of an APPI instructor.
Any member affiliated APPI has access to theoretical exams online, and must train to the examination on the APPI website.
More than 800 questions are online, and are subdivided into 6 categories: Aerodynamic, Meteorology, Legislation,
Equipment, Flight practice and Tandem flight.
Any affiliated APPI instructor can print exam questions for students.

7.3.2 APPI practical examination7.3.2 APPI practical examination

The APPI practical examination should be performed under the supervision of an APPI instructor.
It should be done once the theory test successfully completed.

7.3.3 APPI license by equivalence7.3.3 APPI license by equivalence

I you are already a confirmed pilot or instructor, in some conditions you can get your APPI license by equivalence.
Check which federations allow you APPI equivalence.
Should your issuing federation not qualify for equivalence, you will need to be validated by an APPI Instructor.

7.3.4 Insurance7.3.4 Insurance

APPI strongly recommends its members to be insured to paraglide, and in case of an accident, APPI does not accept any
All EU Schools and EU tandem pilots must hold Third Party Liability Insurance.

Similer Documents