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TitleMotion Picture and Video Lighting,
PublisherFocal Press
ISBN 139780240807638
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size29.1 MB
Total Pages269
Table of Contents
                            Motion Picture and Video Lighting, Second Edition
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
The History of Lighting
	Controllable Light
	Early Film Production
	Introduction of Tungsten Lighting
	The Technicolor Era
	HMI, Xenon, Fluorescent, and LED Sources
	Kino Flo and LED
Lighting Sources
	Fresnels
		Tungsten Fresnels
		The 10K and 20K
		The 5K
		Juniors
		1K
		650, Betweenie, and InBetweenie
		Inkie
	HMI Units
		12K and 18K
		6K and 8K
		4K and 2.5K
		Smaller HMIs
		When an HMI Fails to Fire
	Xenons
	Brute Arc
	Open-Face Lights
		Skypan
		2K Open Face
		1000-/600-/650-Watt Open Face
		PAR 64
	PAR Groups
		Dino, Moleeno, and Wendy
		MaxiBrute
		FAYs
		Ruby 7
	HMI PARs
	Soft Lights
		Studio Softs (8K, 4K, and 1K)
		Cone Lights
		Space Lights
	Fluorescent Rigs
		Color-Correct Fluorescent Units
		Color-Correct Bulbs
	Cycs, Strips, Nooks, and Broads
	Miscellaneous
		Chinese Lanterns
		Crane-Mounted Lights
		Source Fours
		Sunguns
		Softboxes
		Jokers
		LED Panels
		Dedo Lights
		Balloon Lights
		Barger Baglight
		Scrims and Barndoors
		Spacelights and Chicken Coops
Fundamentals of Lighting
	What Do We Expect Lighting to Do for Us?
		Mood and Tone
		Full Range of Tones
		Color Control and Color Balance
	Adding Shape, Depth, and Dimension to a Scene
		Shape
		Separation
		Depth
		Texture
		Exposure
		Directing the Eye
	The Lighting Process
		The Process
		What Are the Requirements?
		What Tools Do You Have?
		What's the Schedule?
		What Are the Opportunities
	How to Be Fast
	Lighting Fundamentals
		The Basic Elements
	Quality of Light
		Hard/Soft
	Other Qualities of Light
		Direction Relative to Subject
		Altitude
		High Key/Low Key (Fill Ratio)
		Specular/Ambient
		Relative Size of Radiating Source and Lens
		Modulation/Texture
		Movement
		Subject/Texture
Basic Scene Lighting
	Medieval Knights Around a Campfire
		The Plan
		Flicker Effect
		Group Scene with Fire
	Science Fiction Scene
	Film Noir Scene
	Aces and Eights
	Detective Scene
	Young Inventor
	Miscellaneous Scenes
		Potter
		Beauty Shot
		Pool Room
		Pool Room CU
	Intimate Room Scene
	Black Cross Keys (Sitcom Lighting)
	Reality Show Set
	In or Out
	Day Exterior
	From Under the Floor
	Ambient from Above
	Confessions: Training Scene
	Confessions of a Dangerous Mind: Alley
		Creating an Exterior in the Studio
	X-Men Plastic Prison
		Stage Rigging
	Large Night Exterior
		Complex Stage Set
Lighting HD, DV, and SD Video
	The Video Engineer and DIT
	The Waveform Monitor
	The Vectorscope
	Iris Control
	Electronic Pushing
	White Balance
	Transferring Film to Video
	Lighting for Multiple Cameras
	Monitor Setup
		Monitor Setup Procedure
		The PLUGE
	Camera White Balance
	Establishing a Baseline
	The Test Chart
Exposure Theory
	The Bucket
	F/Stop
	Exposure, ISO, and Lighting Relationships
		Lighting Source Distance
		ISO/ASA Speeds
	Chemistry of Film
	Film's Response to Light
		The Latent Image
	Chemical Processing
		Color Negative
		Additive vs. Subtractive Color
	The H&D Curve
		The Log E Axis
		What Is a Log?
	Brightness Perception
		Contrast
		"Correct" Exposure
		Brightness Range in a Scene
	Determining Exposure
	The Tools
		The Incident Meter
		The Reflectance Meter
	The Zone System
		Zones in a Scene
		The Grayscale
		Why 18%?
		Place and Fall
		Reading Exposure with Ultraviolet
		The Shutter
Theory and Control of Color
	The Nature of Light
	Color Perception
	The Tristimulus Theory
		The Purkinje Effect and Movie Moonlight
	Light and Color
		Additive and Subtractive Color
	Qualities of Light
		Hue
		Value
		Chroma
		Color Temperature
	The Color Wheel
		Color Mixing
		Film and Video Colorspace
	Color Harmonies and Interaction of Color
		Interaction of Color and Visual Phenomena
		The Laws of Simultaneous Contrast
		Metamerism
	The CIE Color System
		Standard Light Sources in CIE
		Digital and Electronic Color
	Control of Color
		What Is White?
		Color Temperature
	Color Meters
	Color Balance of Film
		Color Balance with Camera Filters
		Conversion Filters
		Light-Balancing Filters
	Correcting Light Balance
		CTO
		Tungsten to Daylight
	Fluorescent Lighting
	Correcting Off-Color Lights
		Arcs
		HMI
		Industrial Lamps
		Stylistic Choices in Color Control
Electricity
	Measurement of Electricity
		Potential
		Paper Amps
	Electrical Supply Systems
		Three-Phase
		Single-Phase
	Power Sources
		Stage Service
		Generators
		Generator Operation
		Tie-ins
		Tie-in Safety
	Determining KVA
		Wall Plugging
	Batteries
		Battery Capacity
		Lead Acid
		Heavy Antimony
		Nicads
		Li-Ion and NiMh
	Load Calculations and Paper Amps
		Ampacity
		Color Coding
	The Neutral
	Distribution Equipment
		Tie-ins
		Busbar Lugs
		Connectors
		Bullswitches
		Feeder Cable
		Wire Types
		Distribution Boxes
		Lunch Boxes, Snake Bites, Gangboxers, and Four-Ways
		Extensions
		Planning a Distribution System
		Working with AC and DC
		Calculating Voltage Drop
		VCR
	Electrical Safety
		Wet Work
		HMI Safety
		Grounding Safety
Gripology
	Light Controls
		Reflectors
		Operating Reflectors
	Flags and Cutters
		Flag Tricks
	Nets
		Net Tricks
	Cuculoris
	Diffusers
		Butterflies and Overheads
		Griffs
	Holding
		Grip Heads
	Clamps
		Studded C-Clamps
		Miscellaneous
The Team and Set Operations
	The DP
	The Team
		The Gaffer
		The Best Boy
		Third Electric and Electricians
		The Key Grip
		Grips
	Other Crews
		Set Operations
	The Process
		Rough-In
		Blocking
		Light
		Rehearsal
		Shooting
	Procedures
Lamps and Sockets
	Types of Radiating Sources
		Carbon Arc
		Tungsten
		Tungsten–Halogen
	Enclosed Metal Arc: HMI
	Household and Projector Bulbs
	Practical Bulbs
	Fluorescent Tubes
	Dichroics
Technical Issues
	Shooting with HMI Units
	The Power Supply
		Flicker-Free HMIs
	Dimmers
		Dimmer Systems On The Set
	Working with Strobes
		Strobe Exposure
	Exposure for Macrophotography
		Depth-of-Field in Closeup Work
		Lighting for Extreme Closeups
	Underwater Filming
	Effects
		Rain
		Smoke
		Fire
		TV and Projector Effects
		Day-for-Night
		Moonlight Effects
		Water Effects
		Lightning
	Using Daylight
	Lighting for Process Photography
		Chroma Key
		Greenscreen
		Lighting for Process Photography
		Greenscreen/Bluescreen Tips
Appendix
	Brute Arc Operation
	International Plug and Socket Types
	Building Your Own Hand Squeezer
	Typical Lighting Order for a Small Independent Film
	Lighting Order for a Large Studio Film
Acknowledgments
Special Thanks
About the Author
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

MOTION PICTURE

AND VIDEO LIGHTING

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Page 134

Exposure Theory 119

direct readout in f/stops, but it would probably be better if
they didn’t, as they are a source of much confusion.

Think of it this way: you are using such a meter and photo-
graphing a very fair-skinned girl holding a box of detergent
in front of a sunset. You read the girl’s face: f/5.6, the box
reads f/4, the sky is f/22. So where are you? Not only do we
not know where to set the aperture, we don’t even know if the
situation is good or bad. Let’s step back a moment and think
about what it is that light meters are telling us. To do this we
have to understand the cycle of tone reproduction and lay
down a basic system of thinking about it.

The Zone System
We must remember that the exposure values of a scene are

not represented by one simple number: most scenes contain
a wide range of light values and refl ectances. In evaluating
exposure we must look at a subject in terms of its light and
dark values: the subject range of brightness. For purposes of
simplicity, we will ignore its color values for the moment and
analyze the subject in terms of its monochromatic values.

Let’s visualize a continuous scale of gray values from com-
pletely black to completely white (Figure 6.12). Each point
on the grayscale represents a certain value that is equivalent
to a tonal value in the scene. In everyday language we have
only vague adjectives with which to describe the tones:
“dark gray,” “medium gray,” “blinding white,” and so on. We
need more precise descriptions. Using Ansel Adams’s classic
terminology, we will call the most completely black section
Zone 0 and each tone that is one f/stop lighter is one zone
higher. For example, a subject area that refl ects three stops
more light than the darkest area in the scene would be des-
ignated Zone IV. It is crucial to remember that these are all
relative. Zone 0 is not some predetermined number of foot-
candles—it is the darkest area in this scene.

Still photographers might be accustomed to thinking of ten
zones in all, but if there is a great contrast range in the scene,
there might well be zones XII, XIII, or more. (Zone system
purists will no doubt object to such an extreme simplifi ca-
tion of the method, but it is suffi cient for the present discus-
sion since few cinematographers do their own darkroom
work.) What we are measuring is subject brightness (lumi-
nance), which can vary in two ways: its inherent refl ectance
and the amount of light that falls on it. Refl ectance is a
property of the material itself. Black velvet refl ects about 2%
of the light that falls on it. A very shiny surface can refl ect up
to 98% of the light that falls on it. This is a brightness ratio
(BR) of 1:48.

However, this is the refl ectance ratio if the same amount
of light falls on both objects. In reality, different amounts of

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Page 135

120 Motion Picture and Video Lighting

light fall on different areas in the same frame (indeed, we
earn our living making sure they do). In natural light situa-
tions the refl ectance ratio can be as much as 3200:1. Picture
the most extreme example possible: a piece of deeply absor-
bent velvet in dark shadow in the same scene with a mirror
refl ecting the sun.

The brightness range of a typical outdoor subject is about
1000:1. This is 15 stops, but here’s the rub: imaging systems
cannot reproduce this range of subject brightness, just as the
human eye cannot accommodate such a range. Recall that
the human eye reacts in two different ways. First, the iris (the
aperture of the eye) expands or contracts to allow more or
less light to pass. Second, the eye shifts its imaging from
the cones to the rods. This is like switching to a higher
speed fi lm.

Zones in a Scene

Examine a typical scene with the spot meter—see Figure
6.13. If you assign the darkest value to Zone 0, you can then
fi nd areas that are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and perhaps 8 stops
brighter than the darkest area. These are Zones I through IX.
This is an important exercise and is vital to understanding
exposure control. Ignoring the effect of color contrast can be
cumbersome. It can be helped by viewing the scene through
a viewing glass, which is a neutral density fi lter.

Now picture each of these tonal values arranged in ascend-
ing order. What you have is a grayscale, and fortunately it
is a commonly available item. Most grayscales are made to
reasonably rigorous densitometric standards and are useful
calibration tools. Let’s take a look at what it really is.

The Grayscale

There are a great many grayscales, but they all have one
thing in common: they vary from black to white. Most are
divided into 6 to 10 steps, but they certainly don’t have to be:
many are 20 steps or more. How white the white is and how
black the black is vary somewhat, depending on the print-
ing quality and the materials involved. Some scales include
a piece of black velvet since black paper can never be truly
black. For our purposes, we will consider only gray scales in
which each step represents one full stop increment over the
previous—that is, where each step is �2 times the refl ectance
of the previous one.

Why 18%?

Zone V is the middle zone of a 10-zone scale, and we would
therefore assume it to be 50% refl ectance. It isn’t—it is 18%
refl ectance. The reason for this is that the eye perceives
changes in tone logarithmically rather than arithmetically,

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Page 268

Index 253

lighting instruments
balloon lights, 32–33
Barger Baglight, 32, 33
brute arc, 16–17, 153, 226
Chinese lanterns, 29, 30
crane-mounted lights, 29
cycs, strips, nooks, and broads, 25–26, 28
Dedolights, 31–32
fl uorescent rigs, 24

color-correct bulbs, 25
color-correct fl uorescent units, 8, 24

fresnel lens, 10–12
HMI PARs, 21–22
HMI units, 12–15, see also HMIs
Jokers, 31
LED panels, 31
open-face lights, 17–18

2K open face, 18
Par 64, 19–20
skypan, 18
1000/600/650-watt open face, 18–19

PAR groups
Dino, Moleeno, and Wendy, 20
FAY lights, 21
Maxibrute, 20–21
Ruby 7, 21

scrims and barndoors, 33–34
softboxes, 28, 30–31
soft lights, 22

cone lights, 22–23
space light, 23
studio soft lightss (8K, 4K, and 2K), 22

source fours, 29–30
spacelights and chicken coops, 34
sunguns, 30, 223
xenons, 9, 15–16

light intensity, 99
control of, 132, 215–216

lighting team, see Team, lighting
Li-ion batteries, 159
litho fi lms, 108
load(s), electrical, 152, 157

ampacity and, 151, 160–161
balance, 166–168
calculations and paper amps, 159–160
extensions, 165

logarithms, 111
Lowell Tota Lite, 28
lux, 99

M
macrophotography, 220

depth-of-fi eld problem in, 221
lighting for, 221–222

mafer clamps, 187
metamerism, 25, 137
Monochrome color harmony, 135

N
nets, 178–179

cookies and celos, 180
cuculoris, 179–180
grids, 180
open frames, 180
tricks, 179

neutral, 152, 161, 167
nicad batteries, 159
Ni-MH batteries, 159

O
off-color lights, correction, 147–148

color arcs, 147
HMIs, 148
industrial lamps, 148
strategies for dealing with, 140

off set arms, of clamps, 189
open frames, 180

P
Pampa light, 24
paper amps, 151

load calculations and, 159–160
photochemistry, 103
photographic bulbs, 209
photographic fi lm(s)

chemical processing of, 105–106
chemistry, 103–104
color negative, 106–107
contrast and, 109
development, see Photographic fi lms,

chemical processing
differences between high-contrast and

low-contrast, 108–109
latent image and, 104–105
log E axis and, 110–111
negative, making of, 104
response and H&D curve, 107–110
response to light, 104–105

photographic fi lms, color balance, see
Color balance

pigeons, see Baby plates
pipe clamps, 186
platypus, 187
power sources, for fi lm and video

production
generator operation, 154
generators, 153–154
stage service, 152–153
tie-ins, 154–156

power supply, variations in, 215–216
process photography, 227–231

lighting for, 230
Purkinje effect, 131

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Page 269

254 Index

R
radiating sources, types of, see Lamps and

sockets
refl ectance, 102
refl ectance meters, 118–119
refl ection and color, 134
refl ectors

boards, 174–176
operating, 176

rifl es, 5, 6
ring lights, 222
rods, in retina, 130, 131
Rosco gels, 141

S
safety, electrical, 170–171

grounding, 172
HMI safety, 171–172
tie-ins, 155–156
wet work and, 171

sash cord, 198
SCR, see Silicon-controlled rectifi ers
SCR dimmers, 217
set operations, 197

blocking, 199–200
cabling, 198
generator, 198
lighting, 200–201
load-in, 197–198
procedures, 202
rehearsal, 43, 44, 201
rough-in process, 198–199
shooting, 201–202
staging, 198

shooting, with fl uorescents, 147
Shooting stop, 221
shutter(s)

angle, 126
speeds, 102, 125, 127
zone system and, 125–127

shutter angle, 24, 126, 211, 215
fl ickering and, 211

side arms, of clamps, 189
silicon-controlled rectifi ers (SCR),

218
dimmers, 217

silver halide grains, 103, 104, 105
single-phase systems, 152
spinning mirror shutter, 126, 127
split complementary harmonies, 135
stage operations, see Set operations
stop, see F/stop scale
strobe(s)

exposure, 219–220
lighting, 218–219
lighting, types of, 218

studded C-clamps, 185–186

studded chain vise grips, 187
subtractive color, 106, 107, 131–132

T
team, lighting, see also Set operations

electrical best boy, 193
equipment preparation, 194–195
gaffer, 191, 192–193
grips, 196–197
key grip, 195–196
prerig crew, 197
third electric and electricians, 193–194

technicolor, 6–7
tenner, 11
third electric and electricians, 193–194
three-phase systems, 151–152
tie-in(s), 154–155

connectors, 161–162
safety, 155–156

tools, basic, carried by technician,
117–119, 196–197

toplight, 45
transparency and color, 56, 134
triadic harmonies, 135
tristimulus theory, of color, 129–131
tungsten bulbs, 207

early, 206
tungsten-halogen bulbs, 205–206
tungsten lighting, 5–6, 11, 146–147
turtles, 187–189

U
underwater fi lming, 223–224
Unilux strobe lighting sytem, 218, 220

V
value, as color quality, 132
variacs, see Auto transformers
VCR, 169–170
video lighting, gripology in, see Grip works
visible light, 128
visible spectrum, 128–129
voltage, higher, 150–151
voltage drop, 169

W
wall plates, see Baby plates
wall plugging, 157–158
wedges, 189
white light, 139

Z
zip lights, 22
zone system, 119–120, 123–125

grayscales, 120
reading exposure with ultraviolet

lights, 125
18% refl ectance and, 120–123
in scene, 120
shutters, 125–127

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