Download Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction, : The handbook for construction professionals and students on NEBOSH and other construction courses PDF

TitleIntroduction to Health and Safety in Construction, : The handbook for construction professionals and students on NEBOSH and other construction courses
ISBN 139780080469720
File Size39.6 MB
Total Pages531
Table of Contents
                            Front cover
Introduction to Health and Safety in Construction
Copyright page
Table of contents
About the authors
List of principal abbreviations
Illustrations credits
CHAPTER 1. Health and safety foundations
	1.1 Introduction
	1.2 Some basic definitions
	1.3 The legal framework for health and safety
	1.4 The legal system in England and Wales
	1.5 The legal system in Scotland
	1.6 European Courts
	1.7 Sources of law (England and Wales)
	1.8 Common law torts and duties
	1.9 Levels of statutory duty
	1.10 The influence of the European Union (EU) on health and safety
	1.11 The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
	1.12 The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
	1.13 The main legal instruments relating to construction work
	1.14 Role and function of external agencies
	1.15 The scope and definition of construction
	1.16 The health and safety problem in the construction industry
	1.17 Moral, legal and financial arguments for health and safety management
	1.18 The framework for health and safety management
	1.19 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 1
CHAPTER 2. Policy
	2.1 Introduction
	2.2 Legal requirements
	2.3 Key elements of a health and safety policy
	2.4 Review of health and safety policy
	2.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 2
	Appendix 2.1 – Health and Safety Policy checklist
CHAPTER 3. Organizing for health and safety
	3.1 Introduction
	3.2 Control
	3.3 Employers’ responsibilities
	3.4 Employees’ responsibilities
	3.5 Organizational health and safety responsibilities
	3.6 Role and functions of health and safety and other advisers
	3.7 Persons in control of premises
	3.8 Self-employed
	3.9 The supply chain
	3.10 Contractors
	3.11 Joint occupation of premises
	3.12 Cooperation with the workforce
	3.13 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 3
	Appendix 3.1 – Typical organizational responsibilities
	Appendix 3.2 – Checklist for supply chain health and safety management
CHAPTER 4. Promoting a positive health and safety culture
	4.1 Introduction
	4.2 Definition of a health and safety culture
	4.3 Safety culture and safety performance
	4.4 Human factors and their influence on safety performance
	4.5 Human errors and violations
	4.6 The development of a positive health and safety culture
	4.7 Effective communication
	4.8 Health and safety training
	4.9 Internal influences
	4.10 External influences
	4.11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 4
CHAPTER 5. Risk assessment
	5.1 Introduction
	5.2 Legal aspects of risk assessment
	5.3 Forms of risk assessment
	5.4 Some definitions
	5.5 The objectives of risk assessment
	5.6 Accident categories
	5.7 Health risks
	5.8 The management of risk assessment
	5.9 The risk assessment process
	5.10 Risk control measures
	5.11 Hierarchy of risk control
	5.12 Prioritization of risk control
	5.13 Record of risk assessment findings
	5.14 Monitoring and review
	5.15 Special cases
	5.16 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 5
	Appendix 5.1 – Hazard checklist
	Appendix 5.2 – Example of a risk assessment record
CHAPTER 6. Principles of control
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Principles of prevention
	6.3 Hierarchy of risk control
	6.4 Controlling health risks
	6.5 Safe systems of work
	6.6 Lone workers
	6.7 Permits to work
	6.8 Emergency procedures
	6.9 First aid at work
	6.10 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 6
	Appendix 6.1 – Fire notice
	Appendix 6.2 – Job safety analysis form
	Appendix 6.3 – Example of a safety method statement form
	Appendix 6.4 – Essential elements of a permit-to-work form
CHAPTER 7. General site issues – hazards and control
	7.1 Introduction
	7.2 General hazards and controls
	7.3 Initial site assessment
	7.4 Site controls
	7.5 Provision of welfare facilities
	7.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 7
	Appendix 7.1 – A typical set of site rules
CHAPTER 8. Working at height – hazards and control
	8.1 Introduction
	8.2 The Work at Height Regulations 2004 (WAHR)
	8.3 Construction hazards and controls from working at height
	8.4 Working above ground or where there is a risk of falling
	8.5 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 8
	Appendix 8.1 – Inspection report form
	Appendix 8.2 – Checklist of typical scaffolding faults
	Appendix 8.3 – A checklist for a safety inspection of a scaffold
	Appendix 8.4 – Examples of safe systems of work used in roof work
CHAPTER 9. Excavation work and confined spaces – hazards and control
	9.1 Introduction
	9.2 Excavations – hazards and control
	9.3 Confined spaces
	9.4 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 9
	Appendix 9.1 – Inspection report for excavation
	Appendix 9.2 – An example of safe digging practice
	Appendix 9.3 – Typical excavation work risk assessment
	Appendix 9.4 – Typical confined spaces risk assessment
CHAPTER 10. Demolition – hazards and control
	10.1 Introduction
	10.2 Principal hazards of demolition work
	10.3 Pre-demolition investigation and survey
	10.4 Demolition method statement
	10.5 Management of the demolition and general controls
	10.6 Specific issues
	10.7 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 10
	Appendix 10.1 – Checklist for a safe system of work
CHAPTER 11. Movement of people and vehicles – hazards and control
	11.1 Introduction
	11.2 Hazards to pedestrians
	11.3 Control strategies for pedestrian hazards
	11.4 Hazards to the general public and the associated controls in construction activities, including street works
	11.5 Hazards in vehicle operations
	11.6 Control strategies for safe vehicle operations
	11.7 The management of vehicle movements
	11.8 Hazards and controls of vehicles on construction sites
	11.9 Managing occupational road safety
	11.10 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 11
CHAPTER 12. Work equipment hazards and control
	12.1 Introduction
	12.2 Suitability of work equipment and CE marking
	12.3 Use and maintenance of equipment with specific risks
	12.4 Information, instruction and training
	12.5 Maintenance and inspection
	12.6 Operation and working environment
	12.7 Users’ and hirers’ responsibilities
	12.8 Hand-held tools
	12.9 Mechanical machinery hazards
	12.10 Mobile work equipment
	12.11 Non-mechanical machinery hazards
	12.12 Examples of machinery hazards
	12.13 Practical safeguards
	12.14 Other safety devices
	12.15 Application of safeguards to the range of machines
	12.16 Guard construction
	12.17 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 12
CHAPTER 13. Manual and mechanical handling hazards and control
	13.1 Introduction
	13.2 Manual handling hazards and injuries
	13.3 Manual handling risk assessments
	13.4 Types of mechanical handling and lifting equipment
	13.5 Requirements for the statutory examination of lifting equipment
	13.6 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 13
	Appendix 13.1 – Manual handling of loads assessment checklist
	Appendix 13.2 – A typical risk assessment for an excavator to be used for lifting
	Appendix 13.3 – A typical risk assessment for the use of lifting equipment
CHAPTER 14. Electrical hazards and control
	14.1 Introduction
	14.2 Principles of electricity and some definitions
	14.3 Electrical hazards and injuries
	14.4 General control measures for electrical hazards
	14.5 The selection and suitability of equipment
	14.6 Inspection and maintenance strategies
	14.7 Portable electrical appliances testing
	14.8 Protection against contact with live overhead power lines
	14.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 14
CHAPTER 15. Fire hazards and control
	15.1 Introduction
	15.2 The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order (RRFSO) – Requirements
	15.3 Basic principles of fire
	15.4 Methods of extinction
	15.5 Classification of fire
	15.6 Principles of heat transmission and fire spread
	15.7 Common causes of fire and consequences
	15.8 Fire risk assessment
	15.9 Fire detection and warning
	15.10 Means of escape in case of fire
	15.11 Principles of fire protection in buildings
	15.12 Provision of fire-fighting equipment
	15.13 Maintenance and testing of fire-fighting equipment
	15.14 Planning for an emergency and training staff
	15.15 Fire procedures and people with a disability
	15.16 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 15
	Appendix 15.1 – Fire risk assessment as recommended in Fire Safety Guides published by the Department for Communities and Local Government in 2006
	Appendix 15.2 – Example form for recording significant findings as published in 2006 by the Department for Communities and Local Government
CHAPTER 16. Chemical and biological health hazards and control
	16.1 Introduction
	16.2 Forms of chemical agent
	16.3 Forms of biological agent
	16.4 Classification of hazardous substances and their associated health risks
	16.5 Routes of entry to the human body
	16.6 Health hazards of specific agents
	16.7 Requirements of the COSHH Regulations
	16.8 Details of a COSHH assessment
	16.9 The control measures required under the COSHH Regulations
	16.10 Health surveillance and personal hygiene
	16.11 Maintenance and emergency controls
	16.12 Control of asbestos
	16.13 Environmental considerations
	16.14 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 16
CHAPTER 17. Physical and psychological health hazards and control
	17.1 Introduction
	17.2 Task and workstation design
	17.3 Work environment issues
	17.4 Noise
	17.5 Heat and radiation hazards
	17.6 The causes and prevention of workplace stress
	17.7 The causes and prevention of workplace violence
	17.8 The effects of alcohol and drugs
	17.9 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 17
CHAPTER 18. Incident investigation, recording and reporting
	18.1 Introduction
	18.2 Reasons for incident/accident investigation
	18.3 Which incidents/accidents should be investigated?
	18.4 Investigations and causes of incidents
	18.5 Legal recording and reporting requirements
	18.6 Typical examples of incidents within the construction industry
	18.7 Internal systems for collecting and analysing incident data
	18.8 Compensation and insurance issues
	18.9 Pratice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 18
	Appendix 18.1 – Injury report form
	Appendix 18.2 – Information for insurance/compensation claims
CHAPTER 19. Monitoring review and audit
	19.1 Introduction
	19.2 The traditional approach to measuring health and safety performance
	19.3 Why measure performance?
	19.4 What to measure
	19.5 Measuring failure – reactive monitoring
	19.6 Proactive or active monitoring – how to measure performance
	19.7 Who should monitor performance?
	19.8 Frequency of monitoring and inspections
	19.9 Report writing
	19.10 Review and audit
	19.11 Practice NEBOSH questions for Chapter 19
	Appendix 19.1 Workplace inspection exercises
	Appendix 19.2 – Checklist of items to be covered in a construction site inspection
CHAPTER 20. Summary of the main legal requirements
	20.1 Introduction
	20.2 The legal framework
	20.3 List of Acts and Regulations summarized
	20.4 Health and Safety at Work etc Act (HSW Act) 1974
	20.5 Environmental Protection Act 1990
	20.6 The New Roads and Street Works Act 1991
	20.7 Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 2002
	20.8 Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 as amended in 1998
	20.9 Draft Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006
	20.10 Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002
	20.11 Confined Spaces Regulations 1997
	20.12 Construction (Design and Management) (CDM) Regulations 1994 and Amendment Regulations 2000
	20.13 Draft Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2006
	20.14 Construction (Head Protection) Regulations 1989
	20.15 Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) (CHSW) Regulations 1996
	20.16 Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations 1996
	20.17 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002 and 2005 Amendment
	20.18 Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) 2002
	20.19 Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
	20.20 Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
	20.21 Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 and Regulations 1998
	20.22 Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
	20.23 Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
	20.24 Health and Safety (Information for Employees) Regulations 1989
	20.25 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999
	20.26 Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002
	20.27 Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998
	20.28 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
	20.29 Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHO) 1992
	20.30 Control of Noise at Work Regulations 2005
	20.31 Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992
	20.32 Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (except part IV)
	20.33 The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995
	20.34 Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977
	20.35 Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996
	20.36 Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992
	20.37 Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005
	20.38 Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992
	20.39 Work at Height Regulations 2005
	20.40 Other relevant Regulations in brief
CHAPTER 21. Study skills
	21.1 Introduction
	21.2 Finding a place to study
	21.3 Planning for study
	21.4 Blocked thinking
	21.5 Taking notes
	21.6 Reading for study
	21.7 Revision
	21.8 Organizing information
	21.9 How does memory work?
	21.10 How to deal with exams
	21.11 The examiners’ reports
	21.12 Conclusion
	21.13 References
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Introduction to
Health and Safety
in Construction

Page 266

14Electrical hazardsand control
14.1 Introduction

Electricity is a widely used, efficient and convenient, but

potentially hazardous method of transmitting and using

energy. It is in use in every factory, workshop, laboratory

and office in the country. Any use of electricity has the

potential to be very hazardous with possible fatal results.

Legislation has been in place for many years to control

and regulate the use of electrical energy and the activities

associated with its use. Such legislation provides a

framework for the standards required in the design,

installation, maintenance and use of electrical equipment

and systems and the supervision of these activities to

minimize the risk of injury. Electrical work from the largest

to the smallest installation must be carried out by people

known to be competent to undertake such work. New

installations always require expert advice at all appro-

priate levels to cover both design aspects of the system

and its associated equipment. Electrical systems and

equipment must be properly selected, installed, used

and maintained.

Approximately 8% of all fatalities at work are caused

by electric shock. Over the last few years, there have

been between 12 and 16 employee deaths due to elec-

tricity, between 210 and 258 major accidents and about

500 over three-day accidents each year. The majority of

the fatalities occur in the agriculture, extractive and utility

supply and service industries, while the majority of the

major accidents happen in the manufacturing, construc-

tion and service industries.

Only voltages up to and including mains voltage

(220/240 V) will be considered in detail in this chapter and

the three principal electrical hazards – electric shock,

electric burns and electrical fires and explosions.

14.2 Principles of electricity and some

14.2.1 Basic principles and measurement
of electricity

In simple terms, electricity is the flow or movement of

electrons through a substance which allows the transfer

of electrical energy from one position to another. The

substance through which the electricity flows is called a

conductor. This flow or movement of electrons is known

as the electric current. There are two forms of electric

current – direct and alternating. Direct current (dc)

involves the flow of electrons along a conductor from one

end to the other. This type of current is mainly restricted

to batteries and similar devices. Alternating current (ac)

Figure 14A Beware of electricity – typical sign.


Page 530

Vane anemometers, 290

Vapours, 278

condition, 185

construction sites, 181–2

hazards and controls, 105–6

journeys, 186
movements, 171–88

operations, 178–9

safety equipment, 185

scheduling, 186
suitability, 185

time, 186

weather, 186

COSHH regulations, 291–2

ducting, 292

electrical equipment, 242
work environment issues, 313

Very narrow aisle (VNA) trucks, 220

Vibration white finger (VWF), 308

exposure values, 308

hand–arm, 307

ill-health, 308
regulations, 471–3

Violence, workplace, 325–8

Viruses, 278

Visitors, construction site, 77
Visual problems, 312–13

VNA see Very narrow aisle trucks

Volts, 238

VWF see vibration white finger

WAHR see Work at Height Regulations

Waling frames, 148

Washing facilities, 110


controlled, 372

disposal, 301–2
management licences, 372–5

regulations, 481–2


pollution, 301
working over, 120–1

WBV see whole-body vibration

Weather, vehicles, 186

Weather working at height, 120
Weil’s disease, 286


checklist, 50
definition, 2

facilities, 110–11

WELs see Workplace Exposure Limits

Wet cement, 285
Wheeled excavators, 224

Wheels, abrasive, 191

Whole-body vibration (WBV), 308–9,

Wood dust, 285

Work at Height Regulations

(WAHR) 2005, 115–18, 134,

Work environment, physical and

psychological hazards,

Work equipment:

hazards and control, 189–214

instructions, 191

self-propelled, 199–200
users’ responsibilities, 194

Work permits, 90–3

Work related ill-health, 3, 71
Work related upper limb

disorders (WRULDs), 216,

306–8, 312

Workers with a disability risk

assessment, 76

Workforce co-operation, 45
Working above ground, 121–35

Working environment:

injuries risk reduction, 219

manual handling risk assessments,

Working equipment:

environment, 193–4

operation, 193–4
Working over water, 120–1

Working Time Regulations 1998

as amended by 1999 Regulations,


inspection exercises, 359–60

lifting equipment, 221
mechanical handling equipment,


stress, 323–5

violence, 325–8
Workplace Exposure Limits (WELs), 87, 284,


Workplace (Health, Safety
and Welfare) Regulations

1992, 473–5


design, 305–13
seating, 314

Writing reports, 353–5

Written communications, 62

WRULDs see Work Related Upper Limb

X-rays, 321

Young persons risk assessment, 76



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