Download Introduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable Design PDF

TitleIntroduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable Design
PublisherWright
ISBN 139780723611417
LanguageEnglish
File Size6.0 MB
Total Pages351
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Introduction
List of Examples
List of Figures
List of Tables
Part 1 Heat: The Thermal Environment
	1.1 Physics of heat
	1.2 Thermal comfort
	1.3 Climate
	1.4 Thermal behaviour of buildings
	1.5 Thermal design: passive controls
	1.6 Active controls: HVAC
Part 2: Light: The Luminous Environment
	2.1 Physics of light
	2.2 Vision
	2.3 Daylight and sunlight
	2.4 Design methods
	2.5 Electric lighting
Part 3: Sound: The Sonic Environment
	3.1 Physics of sound
	3.2 Hearing
	3.3 Noise control
	3.4 Room acoustics
Part 4: Resources
	4.1 Energy
	4.2 Energy use
	4.3 Water and wastes
	4.4 Sustainability issues
References
Bibliography
Data Sheets and Method Sheets
	D1.1 Thermal properties of materials
	D1.2 Thermal properties of surfaces and cavities
	D1.3 Thermal properties of walls
	D1.4 Thermal properties of windows, roofs and floors
	D1.5 Thermal bridges, ground floors and basement walls
	D1.6 Solar gain factors for windows
	D1.7 Moisture movement data
	D1.8 Heat emission of humans and appliances
	D1.9 Typical ventilation requirements
	M1.1 Temperature and vapour pressure gradient
	M1.2 Stack and wind effects
	M1.3 Solar geometry
	M1.5 Construction of stereographic sun-path diagrams
	M1.5 Calculation of degree-hours
	M1.6 Solar radiation calculations
	M1.7 Contruction of comfort zone and CPZS
	M1.8 Calculation of dynamic thermal properties
	M1.9 Determining shading (overheated) period
	D2.1 Daylighting: utilisation factors for roof lights
	D2.2 Daylighting: correction factors
	D2.3 BRS daylight factor protractor n
o. 2
	D2.4 The internally reflected component (IRC) nomogram for daylight factor
	D2.5 The pepper-pot diagram for daylight factor
	D2.6 Recommended illuminance and limiting glare index values
	D2.7 Utilisation factors of typical luminaires
	D2.8 Luminaire characteristics: polar curves
	D2.9 Lamp characteristics
	M2.1 Overshadowing: a site survey
	M2.2 Construction of internal perspective (for pepper-pot diagram)
	M2.3 Glare index calculation
	D3.1 Noise rating (NR) and speech interference level (SIL) limits
	D3.2 Attenuation by ground cover and molecular absorption in air
	D3.3 Transmission loss (dB) of some constructions
	D3.4 Absorption coefficients: materials and components
	D3.5 Absorption coefficients (contd
) and Abs of room contnts
	M3.1 Averaging of TL for different wall areas
	M3.2 Traffic noise reduction by a barrier
	M3.3 Calculation of reverberation time
	M3.4 Progressive rake and principles of optical acoustics
	M4.1 'Present worth' and the discounted cash-flow method
Appendix 1 Declaration of interdependence for a sustainable future
Appendix 2 Environment poloicy of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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154 INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURAL SCIENCE

120 dBA: is painful
150 dBA: causes instantaneous loss of hearing.

Inmore precise terms the spectral composition of the noisemust
also be taken into account. As opposed to the above 90dBA limit,
‘safe’ levels of continued occupational noise exposure can be spe-
cified for each octave band:

Centre frequency: 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 Hz

Maximum level: 103 96 91 87 85 83 81 79 dB

The level of acceptable noise depends not only on objective, physi-
cal factors, but also on subjective, psychological ones. It depends
on the state of mind and expectations of the listener. In a sleeper
train the monotonous noise of 65–70 dBA does not disturb, but in
a quiet home for a person ‘badly tuned’ the ticking of an alarm
clock at 25 dBA can keep him (her) awake and cause annoyance.
Noise may adversely affect concentration, particularly if the

noise has an information content. In a work situation switching of
theworker’s attention fromtask tonoise andbackmay take several
seconds, and would affect work performance. The most obvious
effect of noise is its interference with aural communication. This
will be discussed in some detail in Section 3.3.
A pure tone sound can be described and quantified using the

phon scale, but this is only possible if both its level (dB) and its fre-
quency are known. A complex sound can be described in terms of
itsA-weighted sound level (dBA) but this is only a sketchydescrip-
tion. For a complete picture, an octave-band analysis (for more
precision: a third-octave analysis) is necessary, which would pro-
duce its spectrum. Fig. 3.11 shows the spectra of noises produced
by some everyday sources.
A single-figure description of such broad-band noises is avail-

able in terms of their ��
� ���
�� (NR). A family of curves (the NR
curves, Fig. 3.12) (or in the USA the very similar ‘noise criteria’,
NC curves, which are still used there) must be laid over the noise
spectrum, and the curve which just touches the spectrum at its
(relatively) highest point gives the rating of that noise. Fig. 3.13
indicates that a high frequency noise has a greater effect on NR
than one which has a dominantly low-frequency spectrum.
Subjective assessment of the noisiness of a given situation is

closely related to its NR number. Generally people judge the situa-
tion as

NR20–25 Very quiet
NR30–35 Quiet
NR40–45 Moderately noisy
NR50–55 Noisy
NR60 and over Very noisy

Page 176

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SOUND: THE SONIC ENVIRONMENT 155

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
20 50 100 200

Circular saw (2 m)

Office duplicator (2 m)

TV and radio (1 m)

500 1 k 2 k 5k 10 kHz

S
o
u
n
d
p

re
ss

u
re

le
ve

l (
d
B

,
re

2
0

µP
a
)

Fig. 3.11
Noise spectra from some typical sources.

120

100
100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

80

60

40

20

0
20 50

31.5 63 125 250 Hz

100 200 500 Hz 1 k 2 5 10 kHz

S
o
u
n
d
p

re
ss

u
re

le
ve

l (
d
B

,
re

2
0

µP
a
)

Fig. 3.12
The noise rating (NR) curves.

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