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Document Text Contents
Page 142

Interior Sources of Water

Unwanted water can originate inside a building from leaking
plumbing or heating systems, splashover from sinks and baths,
and condensation on cold surfaces. Leaky pipes can be prevented
only by careful installation. Plumbing installations that tend to
develop leaks, such as interior roof drains and built-in shower
receptors, are provided with underlying metal or plastic sheet
membranes to gather stray water and funnel it into the drain pipes.
Where splashover is expected, impervious surfaces and, if necessary,
floor drains should be installed to keep water out of the fabric of the
building. Condensate dripping off water tanks and cold-water pip-
ing is a frequent cause of building damage in humid climates. Piping
and tanks should be insulated and provided with a vapor retarder.

Condensate running down the interior of window panes results
in a decaying or rusting sash. Double glass has an interior surface
temperature sufficiently high to avoid condensation under most
circumstances. The metal frames of windows and doors some-
times accumulate condensate in cold weather. If such frames have
hollow internal spaces, condensate may form inside and cause
damage unless it is drained continually to the outdoors through drain
holes or unless the hollows are completely filled with sealant or
mortar to prevent moist air from occupying the space. Condensa-
tion on the exposed indoor surfaces of metal frames can usually be
avoided by providing a thermal break in the frame section, to enable
the indoor surface to be maintained at a temperature above the dew
point (12.24).

127

Interior Sources of Water

Unwanted water can originate inside a building from leaking
plumbing or heating systems, splashover from sinks and baths,
and condensation on cold surfaces. Leaky pipes can be prevented
only by careful installation. Plumbing installations that tend to
develop leaks, such as interior roof drains and built-in shower
receptors, are provided with underlying metal or plastic sheet
membranes to gather stray water and funnel it into the drain pipes.
Where splashover is expected, impervious surfaces and, if necessary,
floor drains should be installed to keep water out of the fabric of the
building. Condensate dripping off water tanks and cold-water pip-
ing is a frequent cause of building damage in humid climates. Piping
and tanks should be insulated and provided with a vapor retarder.

Condensate running down the interior of window panes results
in a decaying or rusting sash. Double glass has an interior surface
temperature sufficiently high to avoid condensation under most
circumstances. The metal frames of windows and doors some-
times accumulate condensate in cold weather. If such frames have
hollow internal spaces, condensate may form inside and cause
damage unless it is drained continually to the outdoors through drain
holes or unless the hollows are completely filled with sealant or
mortar to prevent moist air from occupying the space. Condensa-
tion on the exposed indoor surfaces of metal frames can usually be
avoided by providing a thermal break in the frame section, to enable
the indoor surface to be maintained at a temperature above the dew
point (12.24).

127

Further Reading

Edward Allen. Architectural Detailing: Function, Constructibility, Aesthetics. New
York, Wiley, 1993, pp. 5-36.

J. M. Anderson and J. R. Gill. Rainscreen Cladding. London, Butterworths, 1988.

12.24

Page 143

13
Seeingf and lUumination

We gather most of our information about the world through our
eyes. Eyes are organs capable of sensing a portion of the spectrum of
electromagnetic radiation that we call light. We perceive the longest
visible wavelengths as red in color and progressively shorter wave-
lengths as orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet (13.1). "Colorless"
light, which we perceive as white, is in reality a balanced mixture of
all the wavelengths, whereas black is an absence of light.

Light and Seeing

Useful light originates from either the sun or artificial sources.
Because our eyes evolved for the purpose of seeing in sunlight, they
perceive sunlight as being normal in color. Most artificial sources
generate light that is perceptibly different in color from sunlight.
Incandescent sources, such as an open fire, a candle, an oil lamp, or
a glowing filament in a lightbulb, emit light that is deficient in the
shorter wavelengths and thus more reddish than sunlight. Fluorescent
light is created in a sealed glass tube filled with mercury vapor.
An electrical discharge between the ends of the tube excites the
mercury vapor into discharging energy to a coating of phosphor on
the inner surface of the tube, causing the phosphor to glow. The color
of light emitted by a fluorescent tube depends on the chemical com-
position of the phosphor. Most commonly, the light is somewhat
deficient in the longer, "warmer" wavelengths and appears bluish,
but fluorescent lamps also are available with phosphors that emit
warmer light.

When light falls on an object, the object absorbs a part of the light
and reflects the rest back into the environment. Our eyes gather a

128

Page 284

radiators, 92
rafters, 194
rainscreen principle, 118-23
ramps, 164
regenerative wheel, 106,107
reglet, 114
reinforced concrete, 194-97
relative humidity, 81
remodeling, 250
re-use of buildings, 250, 251
reverberation time, 144,145
roof, inverted, 69, 70

monitors, 102,103
overhangs, 112
ventilators, 102,103

roofs, 110-15
edges, 112—18
gutters, 112
ice dams, 113,114
low-slope, 111
shingle, 111,112
snow on, 113,114
steep, 111
thatch, 112
vapor problems, 69, 70

safety, accidents, 167,168
sealant joints, 117,118
seeing, 128-37
sewage disposal, municipal, 44,45

on-site, 45,46
sewage systems in buildings, 42-44
shading, solar, 77
shading and reflecting devices, 132
shafts, enclosure of, 216, 217
shear walls, 199, 200
shelter belt, 104
shelter, concept of, 23-30
shelter, primitive, 23, 24
shoring of excavation, 232, 233
Siamese connection, 226
sick building syndrome, 244
site, role of, 252
SI units, 171
skylights, 102,103,133
slab on grade, concrete, 124-26
"slow-burning" construction, 224
smokeproof enclosure, 226
solar heating, 78, 79, 84, 87-90

active, 89, 90
attached sunspace, 88, 89
backup heat, 90
direct-gain, 88
flat plate collectors, 87
passive, 87-90
trombe wall, 89

solar phenomena, 11,12
solar radiation, effects of, 6, 7
solstices, 4, 5
sound, 139-42

absorption, 140
passage between rooms, 141,142

pressures, 139
reinforcement, 143-45
reinforcement, electronic, 145
resonant response, 140,141
standing waves, 142,143

space frame, 190
specifications, construction, 229—31
sprinkler systems, 219,220
stairs, 163—66

tread and riser dimensions, 164-66
exit, 221,222

standby generating units, 150
steel, fire protection of, 225
stoves, heating, 86
stresses, structural, 173,174
structure-enclosure joint, 208
structures, 172-203

arches, 182-86
beams, 190-97
bracing, 199, 200
buckling, 176
buttresses, 184,185
camber, 193
cantilever, 193
collapse, 200
columns, 175-77
compression and tension, 174
concrete slabs, 195,196
continuous, 193,194
corbel, 197,198
domes, 185,186
elastic modulus, 173
factor of safety, 174
folded plates and barrel shells, 197
foundations, 201, 202
funicular, 180,181
hanging model, 182
invertibility, 187,188
lateral support, 199, 200
loads, 172-74
one-way and two-way, 195
plate girder, 196
pneumatic, 198,199
post-tensioned, 191,195,196
rafters, 194
reinforced concrete, 194-97
rigid frame, 196
rigid joints, 199,200
shear walls, 199,200
space frame, 190
stresses, 173,174
tensile, 177-81
tents, 181
tholos, 197,198
trusses, 186—90
vaults, 185,186
vertical support, 175-77
yield point, 174,177

sump pump, 123
sunlight, 3
sun paths, 4—6
sunshading, 78

superinsulated, sun-tempered approach, 89
sustainable building, x-xiii
systeme international d'unites, 171

tensile structures, 177-81
tents, 181
termites, 242
thermal break, 17
thermal bridge, 57
thermal capacity, 58-66, 82-85
thermal comfort, 15-19,49-52
thermal feel 70, 71
thermal mass, 58-66, 82-85
thermal properties of building components,

53-71
Tholos, 197,198
toilet, 43,44
total energy system, 94,150
trap, plumbing, 42,43
trombe wall, 89
Trullo, 198
trusses, 186-90

ultraviolet radiation, 12
underground buildings, 65, 66
unit air conditioner, 97
unit ventilator, 106,107
universal design, 169

vacuum breaker, 39
vacuum insulation, 58
vandals and arsonists, 243, 244
vapor barrier, 68-70
vapor pressure, 67-69
vapor retarder, 68-70
vaults, 185,186
vent, plumbing, 42,43
ventilation, 100-108

of combustion products, 103
by convection, 102
by infiltration, 100,101
mechanical, 105-107
natural, 100-103
windows, 101,102
wind-powered, 102,103

voussoirs, 182,183

wainscot, 245
wall, loadbearing, 175-77
wall, functions of, 254, 255
walls, panel, 116-21
wash, 121
waste piping, 42,43
wastes, recycling, 41-48

solid, 46-48
water, climatic effects, 10,11

bottled, 40
distribution within building, 36-38
forces that can move, no
internal sources of, 127
keeping out, 109-27
private supply systems, 35, 36

269

Page 285

water, climatic effects (conr.) watertightness of masonry, 115,116 wind energy, 90
provision of, 33—40 watertightness, theory, 109, no windows, 101,102
sources, 33, 34 walls, 115 functions of, 255, 256
transporting to point of use, 34 weather, 8-n orientation, 79
treatment of, 34 well points, 233 wood decay, 241, 242

water closet, 43,44 well, water, 35, 36 World Trade Center collapse, 200, 201
water leaks, 242, 243 whispering gallery, 143
water vapor in buildings, 66—71 wind around tall buildings, 104,105 yield point, 174,177

270

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