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TitleHigh Voltage Engineering
TagsTransformer Electrical Substation Insulator (Electricity) High Voltage Electric Arc
File Size7.7 MB
Total Pages157
Table of Contents
                            Contents
1 INTRODUCTION TO HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SYSTEMS
	1.1 Historical Overview
	1.2 Power Network
		1.2.1 Energy sources and energy conversion
		1.2.2 Generators
		1.2.3 Substations
		1.2.4 Power lines and cables
	1.3 Basic Equipment
		1.3.1 Power lines: towers, conductors, metal ware and insulators
		1.3.2 Underground power cables
		1.3.3 Bushings
		1.3.4 Power transformers
		1.3.5 Instrument transformers: current transformers (CT’s) and voltage transformers (VT’s)
		1.3.6 Line traps (LT’s)
		1.3.7 Circuit breakers and fuses
		1.3.8 Isolators
		1.3.9 Surge arresters or lightning arresters (LA’s)
	1.4 Conclusion
	1.5 Review Questions
2 FIELDS
	2.1 Introduction: Field concepts
	2.2 Electrostatic Fields
		2.2.1 Uniform fields
		2.2.2 Non-uniform fields
		2.2.3 Bundle conductors and grading
		2.2.4 Mixed dielectrics
		2.2.5 Capacitive coupling
	2.3 Magnetic Fields
		2.3.1 Magnetic induction: inductive coupling
	2.4 Electrical Conduction Fields
	2.5 Thermal Fields
	2.6 Health Effects
	2.7 Field Analysis Methods
	2.8 Review Questions
3 HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATING MATERIALS
	3.1 Gases
		3.1.1 Ionization
		3.1.2 Electronegative gases, attachment and de-ionization
		3.1.3 Self-sustained gas discharges: Townsend discharges
		3.1.4 Self-sustained gas discharges, streamer discharges
		3.1.5 Flashover of uniform gaps: The effect of pressure and gap length (Paschen’s Law)
		3.1.6 Flashover of non-uniform gaps: the polarity effect
		3.1.7 Flashover mechanism of longgaps: Leader mechanism
		3.1.8 Flashover, sparks and arcs
		3.1.9 Corona discharges
	3.2 Solid and Liquid Insulating Materials
		3.2.1 Dielectric constant (ε)
		3.2.2 Losses in dielectrics (tan δ)
		3.2.3 Typical solid insulating materials
		3.2.4 Failure mechanisms of solid insulating materials
		3.2.5 Liquid insulating materials
		3.2.6 Failure mechanisms of insulating liquids
	3.3 The Performance of Combinations of Gases, Solids and Liquids in Insulation Systems
		3.3.1 Parallel insulating materials
		3.3.2 Series insulating materials
	3.4 Insulator pollution
		3.4.1 Form Factor Calculation
	3.5 Summary of Properties of Typical Insulating Materials
	3.6 Review Questions
4 HIGH VOLTAGE TESTING AND MEASUREMENT
	4.1 Generation of High Voltages
		4.1.1 Power frequency voltage and current (AC)
		4.1.2 Direct current (DC)
		4.1.3 Lightning and switching impulses
	4.2 Measurement
		4.2.1 Voltage dividers
		4.2.2 Peak and RMS voltmeters
		4.2.3 Sphere gaps for voltage measurement
		4.2.4 Electrostatic voltmeters
	4.3 Laboratory Testing
		4.3.1 Interpretation of AC, DC andImpulse test results
		4.3.2 Non-destructive tests
	4.4 Review Questions
5 OVERVOLTAGES AND INSULATION CO-ORDINATION
	5.1 Insulation Co-ordination
		5.1.1 Basic principles
		5.1.2 Standard insulation levels
	5.2 Power System Overvoltages
		5.2.1 Power frequency overvoltages
		5.2.2 Switching overvoltages
		5.2.3 Lightning overvoltages
	5.3 Surge Protection
	5.4 Coordinated woodpole insulation coordination
	5.5 Specifications
	5.6 Review Questions
6 HIGH VOLTAGE SAFETY PRINCIPLES
	6.1 Judiciary Aspects
		6.1.1 Effect of electrical currents on the human body
		6.1.2 Electrical clearances
		6.1.3 Safety signs and working procedures
	6.2 Capacitive and Inductive Coupling, Floating Objects, Current Loops
	6.3 Safety Earthing
		6.3.1 Working earths
	6.4 Step and Touch Potential, Equipotential Platforms and Voltage Transfer
	6.5 Safety in the High Voltage Laboratory
	6.6 Review Questions
                        

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