Download Handbook for Blast Resistant Design of Buildings PDF

TitleHandbook for Blast Resistant Design of Buildings
PublisherWiley
ISBN 139780470170540
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size24.5 MB
Total Pages486
Table of Contents
                            fmatter
ch1
ch2
ch3
ch4
ch5
ch6
ch7
ch8
ch9
ch10
ch11
ch12
ch13
ch14
ch15
ch16
ch17
index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

HANDBOOK FOR
BLAST-RESISTANT
DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Handbook for Blast-Resistant Design of Buildings
Edited by Donald 0. Dusenberry

Copyright 0 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Page 2

HANDBOOK FOR
BLAST-RESISTANT
DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Edited by

Donald O. Dusenberry

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.

Page 243

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232

Page 244

FRAGMENT IMPACT DAMAGE 233

0.2
0

2

4

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10

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0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
h/a

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2

ρf .V50
σt .ρt√

Figure 8.9 Nondimensional Limit Velocity versus Nondimensional Thickness for
“Chunky” Nondeforming Fragments (U.S. Department of Energy 1992)

Most fragments generated during an explosion will not resemble a simplified
bullet—the majority of primary fragments are more blunt; thus, the bullet-shaped
fragment is conservative. Certainly some sharper-edged fragments are generated;
however, the likelihood that these fragments will strike the target in the appro-
priate orientation to control the design is minimal.

8.5.3 Fragment Penetration into Concrete Targets

When a fragment strikes a concrete target, the impulse imparted by the fragment
on the concrete will cause a crater of irregular size. The depth of the crater grows
with impact velocity for a given fragment size (or with a reduction in fragment
cross-sectional area for a given velocity). If the velocity is high enough (typically
greater than 1,000 feet/second [U.S. Department of Defense 2008]), the fragment
will penetrate beyond the crater. If the fragment deforms upon impact, the crater
size will decrease or may not form at all.

In addition to the crater on the impact side, a crater may form (generating con-
crete spall) on the opposite side of the target adjacent to impact. This crater is the
result of a compression wave passing through the concrete material and reflecting
off the free surface of the opposite concrete face. The reflection causes tension
stresses at the surface of the concrete element. If the tension stress exceeds the
compressive strength of the concrete, spalling of the concrete target will occur.
If the impulse imparted on the target is sufficient, the spall crater may extend to
the reinforcing steel. As impact velocity increases, the impact and spall craters
increase, and the fragment will become lodged in the target or pass through the
target (perforate).

Page 485

INDEX 483

roofs, 290
concrete, 290
gardens, 291
steel, 290

S
sacrificial elements, 10
safe havens, 300

access to egress, 305
design requirements, 302
location, 304
mechanical systems, 342

screening
of cargo and mail, 76
of personnel, 75
of vehicles, 76

security design guidelines, 82
security zone, 75
Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 17
shielding, 10
shock wave, 163, 170

comparison of free field and reflected
blast loads, 171

from detonation, 164
high explosives, 184
Hopkinson-Cranz scaling method, 173
overpressure, 171
parameters, 170
propagation, 162
scaling, 171

site-specific risk assessment, 18
siting of facilities, 36, 293, 314, 326

balancing hardening with standoff, 310
skylights, 279
stairwell enclosures, 299
standoff, 51, 53, 55, 64, 308

pressures as a function of, 310
standoff military ordnance

rocket-propelled grenade, 30
shoulder fired missiles, 30

steel
column retrofit, 455
composite, 291, 388
connection design, 419
connection ductility, 387
constitutive models, 120
deck, 290
design examples, 398
detailing, 394

detailing for failure modes, 394
ductility, 386
dynamic design stress, 391
dynamic increase factors, 125, 390,

391, 420
effect of strain rate on mild steel, 122
material properties, 389
overstrength factor, 387
strain hardening, 126
strain-rate effects, 124, 387
strength increase factors, 390
strength reduction factors, 145
stress-strain relationships, 119
tensile strength, 121
yield strength, 121

strain rates, 9
strength reduction factors, 8

concrete, 145
steel, 145

stress increase factor. See dynamic
increase factor for various materials

stress-strain relationships
concrete, 129
steel, 119, 120

structural behavior, 8, 256
large deformations, 252
P-Delta effects, 11, 251
seismic vs. blast, 242, 266

structural design
general guidance, 65
impacts on facility programming, 68

structure
braced frames, 243
exposed structural systems, 287, 388
influence on blast load, 6, 244
moment frames, 243, 246

support rotation. See deflection limits

T
Taba Hilton, 24
target attractiveness, 47
tensile strength

effect of strain rate on, 121
effect of temperature on, 121

tension membrane, 93
testing

building components, 151
mechanical systems, 333
vehicle barriers, 150

Page 486

484 INDEX

threat
identification and rating, 18, 28, 30,

298
map, 56, 58
methods to respond, 39
mulit-hazard, 301
probability and consequence rating, 30
sequential events, 301

threat reduction, 57, 72
TNT equivalence, 165

of high explosives, 166
of vapor cloud explosions, 169

triacetone triperoxide, 26
trinitrotoluene. See explosives, TNT

U
Unabomber, 25
utility siting, 53

V
value engineering, 69
vapor cloud explosions. See explosions
vaults, 292
vehicle barrier testing, 150
vehicle screening, 76
vehicle speed, 315
verification, 269
vulnerability

assessment planning, 34
reduction of, 63

vulnerability assessment, 18

W
walls

blowout panels, 282
concrete, 283
exterior, 282
masonry, 286
metal panels, 287
post-tensioned panels, 286
precast panels, 284
progressive collapse resistance, 285
retrofit, 459
secondary, 442
shotcrete, 442
stud, 286, 467
tilt-up construction, 286

windows, 109, 273
anchorage, 440
Department of Defense hazard levels,

110
frames and anchorages, 280
Interagency Security Committee

hazard levels, 110, 111
mullions, 279
operable vs. inoperable, 278
supporting structure, 281

World Trade Center, 17, 22, 23

Y
yield stress

effect of temperature on, 121
effects of strain rate on, 121

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