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Table of Contents
                            Green Building Illustrated
Copyright
Contents
Preface
1 Introduction
	Facing Environmental Challenges
	New Information, New Risks, New Opportunities
	What Is a Green Building?
	Green Building Goals
	Approaches to Green Building
2 First Principles
	Relative and Absolute Green
	Loads and Layers
	Continuity
	Holistic Design
	Integrated Design
	Affordability
	Energy Modeling
3 Codes, Standards, and Guidelines
	Codes
	Standards
	Guidelines
	The 2030 Challenge
4 Community and Site
	Community and Site Selection
	Protection of Sensitive Sites
	Preservation and Restoration
	Protection of Natural Features
	Heat Island Reduction
	Site Waste Management
	Transportation Issues
	Minimizing Light Pollution
	Site Strategies and Energy Use
	Site Water Conservation, Management, and Quality Enhancement
		Quantity of Storm Water Runoff
		Quality of Storm Water Runoff
		Transported Water
	Impact of Outdoor Water on Indoor Environmental Quality
	Other Site Issues
	Site and Renewable Energy
5 Building Shape
	Floor Area
	Surface Area
	Orientation
	Green Building Standards and Building Shape
	Core Spaces versus Perimeter Spaces
6 Near-Building Features
	Overhangs and Awnings
	Solar Panels
	Balconies
	The Building Facade
	Rainwater Harvesting
	Use of the Roof
7 Outer Envelope
	Inner and Outer Envelopes
	Infiltration
	Thermal Bridging
	Continuity and Discontinuities
	Walls
		Masonry Walls
		Poured Concrete Walls
		Wood-Frame Walls
		Metal-Frame Walls
		Curtain Walls
	Choosing Between Wall Systems
	Ensuring Continuity
	Windows
		High-Performance Windows
	Daylighting
	Views
	Window Losses
	Reducing Window Losses
	Doors
	Roofs
		Pitched Roofs
	Floors
8 Unconditioned Spaces
	Basements
	Attics
	Crawlspaces
	Garages
	Unrecognized Unconditioned Spaces
	Corridors, Stairwells, and Other Spaces
	Further Removing Conditioning from Rooms
	Locating Storage
	Controlling Temperatures in Unconditioned Spaces
	Unconditioned Spaces—Summary
9 Inner Envelope
	Vulnerabilities
	Solutions
	Thermal Mass
	Finishes
		Thermal and Radiant Properties of Finishes
		Lighting Reflectance
10 Thermal Zoning and Compartmentalization
	Thermal Zoning
	Compartmentalization
11 Lighting and Other Electric Loads
	Lighting
		Space Design to Minimize the Need for Lighting
		Optimized Lighting Design
		Efficient Lamps and Fixtures
		Exterior Lighting
		Controls
		Decorative Lighting
		Other Lighting Issues
	Plug Loads
	Large Electric Loads
12 Hot and Cold Water
	Reducing Use
	Hot Water
	New Water and Heat Sources
		Water and Heat Recycling
		Condensate Recovery
		Rainwater Harvesting
		Solar Energy
	Cost of Water Improvements
	Water Summary
13 Indoor Environmental Quality
	Indoor Air Quality
	Ventilation Challenges
	Indoor Air Quality Solutions
		Community
		Site
		Building Shape
		Near-Building
		Outer Envelope
		Unconditioned Spaces
		Inner Envelope
		Internal Gains
		Ventilation
	Indoor Air Quality during Construction and Preceding Occupancy
	Thermal Comfort
		Background
		Measuring Comfort
		Goals/Requirements
		Strategies
	Water Quality
	Acoustics
14 Heating and Cooling
	System Types
	System Vulnerabilities
	Guidance from the Outside In
	System Efficiency
	Fuel Selection
	Advanced and Emerging Systems
	System Integration
	Affordability and Heating/Cooling
15 Renewable Energy
	Solar Energy
		Solar Photovoltaic Systems
		Solar Thermal Systems
		Passive Solar Energy
	Wind Energy
	Renewable System Risks
16 Materials
	Using Less Material
	Reused Materials
		Salvaged Materials
		Reuse in Place
	Materials with Recycled Content
	Selection of Previously Unused Materials
		Embodied Energy
		Rapidly Renewable Materials
		Other Natural Materials
		Nonhazardous and Low-Toxicity Materials
		Refrigerants
	Designing for Reduced Postconstruction Material Impacts
		Construction Waste Management
		Less Waste through Material Use Efficiency
		Protecting Construction Materials before Use
		Diverting Waste from Landfills
	Other Materials Issues
		Transparency
		Durability
		Biomimicry
17 Schedules, Sequences, and Affordability
	Schedules and Sequences
	Affordability
18 Quality in Green Design and Construction
	Designed-In Quality
	Approaches to Quality in Design and Construction
		Quality in Design
		Quality in Construction
	Energy Modeling
	Commissioning
		Owner’s Project Requirements
		Basis of Design
		Other Commissioning Issues
		Commissioning Tests
		Training and Documentation
		Follow-up Testing and Monitoring
	Metering and Metrics
		Metering
		Metrics
	Values and Tradeoffs
19 Conclusion
	Green Buildings and Beauty
	Green Buildings and Nature
	Closing
LEED Green Building Rating System
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 144

134 / G reen Bu i l d i ng I l l u s t r a t ed

Lighting Reflectance
Whereas the thermal and radiant properties of finishes offer modest
gains, their lighting reflectance can have a significant impact on a
building’s energy use. Two distinct savings result from the use of
reflective interior surfaces:

1. A reduced need for artificial lighting, thus saving electricity.
2. A reduced need for daylighting to achieve the same level of

illumination, thus requiring fewer windows and/or a smaller
window area and saving on associated heating and cooling costs.
Other cascading benefits accrue, such as reducing lighting fixture
costs and lessening air-conditioning requirements and associated
energy use.

9.22 Benefits of reflective finishes.

Reduced artificial lighting

Reduced window area
required for daylighting

Reflectance can be measured by placing a light meter close to a
surface, directing it toward a light source, measuring how much light
is reaching the surface, and then turning the light meter toward the
surface to see what fraction of the incoming light is reflected.

9.23 Measuring reflectance.

Light source

Reflecting surface

Example:
Point light meter to light source: 100 foot-candles
Point light meter to reflecting surface: 45 foot-candles
Reflectance = 45/100 = 45%

Page 145

I nne r Enve l ope / 135

9.24 Reflectance values of various finishes (%).

Paints
Highly reflective white 90
Typical white 70–80
Light cream 70–80
Light yellow 55–65
Light green* 53
Kelly green* 49
Medium blue* 49
Medium yellow* 47
Medium orange* 42
Medium green* 41
Medium red* 20
Medium brown* 16
Dark blue-gray* 16
Dark brown* 12

* Estimated for flat paints. For gloss paints,
add 5%–10%.

Woods
Maple 54
Poplar 52
White pine 51
Red pine 49
Oregon pine 38
Birch 35
Beech 26
Oak 23
Cherry 20

Carpet
Low maintenance, dark 2–5
Moderate maintenance 5–9
Higher maintenance 9–13
Very high maintenance 13+

Linoleum
White 54–59
Black 0–9

Concrete
Black polished concrete 0
Gray polished concrete 20
Light polished concrete 60
Reflective concrete floor coatings 66–93

Walls
Dark paneling 10
Burlap 10
Plywood 30

Furnishings
Gray plastic-coated steel desk 63
Bulletin boards 10
Gray fabric partitions 51
Countertops 4–85

Ceiling Tiles
Typical ceiling tiles 76–80
High-reflectance tiles 90

For walls and ceilings, priority should be given to reflective surfaces
that minimize the need for artificial lighting. Reflective flooring and
furnishing can also contribute to this end. While flooring is typically
assumed to have a default reflectance of 20%, this does not need to
be accepted as a given. Some hardwood floorings have a reflectance
value of over 50%, a variety of commercial flooring products are
as high as 75% reflective, and some concrete floor coatings have
been reported to be 93% reflective. Countertops, too, have widely
ranging reflectance values, from below 10% to as high as 85%. By
establishing the design of finishes at an early stage, the final lighting
design can be optimized to take advantage of reflective interior
surfaces.

Although white surfaces are indeed highly reflective, they are not the
only option. Research has shown that a variety of paint colors can be
highly reflective, as can a variety of other surfaces, such as certain
metals and wood finishes, reflective blinds, and reflective concrete
coatings.9.25 Ceiling reflectance strategies.

Paint ductwork and pipes
with reflective colors.

Use reflective paint
colors on ceilings.

Use reflective
ceiling tiles.

Page 288

278 / G reen Bu i l d i ng I l l u s t r a t ed

temperature stratification, 181
temperature, air, 180
temperature, equilibrium, 114
temperature, radiant, 181
temperature, unconditioned space, 124
thermal boundary, 84, 170
thermal bridging, 19, 88, 190
thermal buffer, 119
thermal comfort, 8, 180, 239
thermal conduction, 89
thermal continuity, 111
thermal convection, 89
thermal envelope, 116
Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human

Comfort, 182
thermal losses, window, 100, 103
thermal mass, 92, 132
thermal resistance, 59, 88
thermal zoning, 137, 242
thermal zoning diagram, 140
thermal, solar, 206
thermo-siphoned airflow, 129
think as a community, 37
threatened species, 40
three-way switching, 150
threshold, door, 108
through-wall air-conditioner, 87
through-wall systems, 197
through-wall units, 189
tilt, 78
timers, 150
tint, window, 133
Title 24, 27
tobacco smoke, 167, 172
tobacco smoking, 171
toilet lid sink, 164
toilet, composting, 160
toilet, dual flush, 160
toplighting, 99
topology, 90
top plates, 213
topsoil, 7, 42, 51
tower, cooling, 48, 192, 196
townhouses, 107
tracked-in dirt, 55
track-off mats, 172
tradeoffs, energy, 81
training, 247

transformers, 48, 157
transparency, 226
transportation, 44, 51
transported water, 53
trespass, light, 46
trickle ventilators, 178
triple pane windows, 98
tube, light, 101
turbine ventilators, 178
turbine, wind, 209

U
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 40
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 40
U-factor, 98
ultrasonic sensors, 151
uncapped chases, 109, 129
uncapped wall cavities, 86, 129
unconditioned space temperatures, 124
unconditioned spaces, 107, 113, 174, 191
United States Botanic Garden, 33
United States Department of Agriculture, 223
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 250
United States Green Building Council, 28
unitized panels, 95
unrecognized unconditioned spaces, 120
urinal, waterless, 160
USDA, 40, 223
use of the roof, 82
USGBC, 34
using less material, 212, 215
utility bills, 11
utility metering, 247
utility spaces, 105

V
vacancy sensors, 152, 235
valley, roof, 77, 109
values, 253
values, owner’s, 39
vapor barrier, 112, 118, 173
variable air volume, 183
variable refrigerant flow, 192, 203
variable speed drives, 157, 193
variable speed heat pumps, 192
variable speed motors, 193
variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) drives, 158
varnishes, 223

VAV, 183
vegetated landscapes, 51
vegetated roofs, 110
vegetation, 55
vegetation, native, 56
vehicles, 45
vent, clothes dryer, 87
vent, combustion, 87, 172
vent, exhaust fan, 87
vent, plumbing, 19, 77
vent, ridge, 109
vent, roof, 109
ventilation, 140, 168, 176
ventilation air intakes, 87
ventilation effectiveness, 177, 179
ventilation energy, 169
ventilation zoning, 140
ventilation, commissioning, 177
ventilation, demand-controlled, 170
ventilation, energy recovery, 176, 181
ventilation, heat recovery, 176
ventilation, natural, 178
ventilation, nighttime, 132
ventilator, trickle, 178
ventilator, turbine, 178
very weak layer, 126
vestibules, 105, 113, 121, 122
view out, 103
views, 103, 104
vision glazing, 101, 103, 108
VOC, 223
volatile organic chemicals, 223
VSD, 193
VVVF drives, 158

W
walkable streets, 39
walk-up stairs, 127
wall cavities, 109, 131
wall cavity, uncapped, 129
wall headers, 87
wall insulation, 92
wall reflectance, 101
wall, curtain, 95
wall, masonry, 91
wall, metal frame, 95
wall, party, 109, 129
wall, poured concrete, 93

Page 289

I ndex / 279

wall, wood frame, 94
walls, 91
washers, clothes, 156, 160
waste diversion, 226
waste management, site, 44
waste, construction, 211
wastewater, 164
water, 159
water bodies, 40
water conservation, site, 50
water flow duration, 161
water heater, heat pump, 163
water heater, point of use, 162
water heater, tankless, 164
water intrusion, 54
water loads, 160
water loop heat pumps, 196
water metering, 247
water quality, 8, 52, 185
water quality, site, 50
water quantity, 52
water recycling, 164
water retention, 51
Water Sense, 160
water, drinking, 185
water, hot, 156, 162
water, potable, 50, 53
water, surface, 54, 171
water, transported, 53
waterless urinals, 160
waterproofing, 54
weak layer, 126
weak layer of shelter, 19
weatherstripping, 86, 107
wetlands, 40
wheatboard, 220
wildlife, 46
wind energy, 209
wind erosion, 42
wind shielding, 48
wind turbines, 56, 209
wind-catchers, 178
window air-conditioner, 87
window discomfort, 104
window frames, 106
window losses, 104
window losses, reducing, 105
window perimeter, 106

window radiation losses, 104
window shades, insulated, 133
window size, optimum, 100
window sizes, 105
window thermal losses, 100, 103
window tints, 133
window, awning, 105
window, casement, 105
window, double-hung, 105
window, double-pane, 98
window, fixed, 105
window, operable, 105, 178, 184
window, ribbon, 106
window, sliding, 105
window, storm, 89, 98
window, triple-pane, 98
windows, 98, 243
windows, high-performance, 98
windows, low-emissivity, 98
windows, number, 105
window-to-wall ratio, 81, 103, 235, 243
window-to-wall ratio, optimum, 100
wood, 200, 220
wood chips, 188, 200
wood finishes, 174
wood frame walls, 94
wood pellets, 188, 200
wood preservatives, 223
wood studs, 88
wood, rot-resistant, 52, 223
woodstoves, 196, 200
workshops, 174

Z
Z-channels, 92
zone, breathing, 170, 177, 179
zone, comfort, 182
zoning boards, 81
zoning, thermal, 137, 242
zoning, ventilation, 140

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