Download Grammar of the Edit, PDF

TitleGrammar of the Edit,
PublisherFocal Press
ISBN 139780240521206
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size3.6 MB
Total Pages225
Table of Contents
                            Front Cover
Grammar of the Edit
Copyright Page
Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Chapter One – Editing Basics
	A Little Editing History
	What Factors May Impact Your Editing Choices?
	The Basic Edit Transitions
	Stages of the Editing Process
	End of Chapter One Review
Chapter Two – Understanding the Footage
	Basic Shot Types
	Shot Descriptions
		Extreme Close-Up (XCU or ECU)
		Big Close-Up (BCU)
		Close-Up (CU)
		Medium Close-Up (MCU)
		Medium Shot (MS)
		Medium Long Shot (MLS)
		Long Shot/Wide Shot (LS/WS)
		Very Long Shot (VLS)
		Extreme Long Shot (XLS/ELS)
		Two-Shot (2-Shot/2S)
		Over-the-Shoulder Shot (OTS/OSS)
	Increasing Shot Complexity
	Simple Shots
	Complex Shots
	Developing Shots
	Reviewing the Footage — Selecting the Best Shots
	What Could Make or Break a Shot?
	Focus
	Audio Quality
	Exposure and Color Temperature
	Framing and Composition
	Screen Direction
	180 Degree Rule/Axis of Action
	30 Degree Rule
	Matching Angles
	Matching Eye-Line
	Continuity of Action
	Continuity of Dialogue
	Performance
	Be Familiar with All of the Footage
	So How Does All of This Help You?
	End of Chapter Two Review
Chapter Three – When to Cut and Why?
	What Factors Help Make a Transition a Good Edit?
	Information
	Motivation
	Shot Composition
	Camera Angle
	Continuity
		Continuity of Content
		Continuity of Movement
		Continuity of Position
		Continuity of Sound
	Sound
	Is There a Right or Wrong Reason for a Cut?
	End of Chapter Three Review
Chapter Four – Transitions and Edit Categories
	The Cut
	The Dissolve
	The Wipe
	The Fade
	The Five Major Categories of Edit Types
		The Action Edit
		The Screen Position Edit
		The Form Edit
		The Concept Edit
		The Combined Edit
	Will I Be Quizzed on Any of This?
	End of Chapter Four Review
Chapter Five – General Practices for Editors
	Sound and Vision are Partners and not Rivals
	A New Shot Should Contain New Information
	There Should Be a Reason for Every Edit
	Observe the Action Line
	Select the Appropriate Form of Edit
	The Better the Edit, the Less It Is Noticed
	Editing Is Creating
	End of Chapter Five Review
Chapter Six – Working Practices
	End of Chapter Six Review
Chapter Seven – The Final Cut: Additional Editing Topics You Are Bound to Encounter
	Additional Editing Terms
		Parallel Editing
		Montage
		Multi-camera Editing
		Sync Sound and Counting Time
	Making Your Way into the World of Editing
		Tools vs. Skills
	Digital Workflow
	The Role of an Assistant Editor
	In Conclusion
	End of Chapter Seven Review
Glossary
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	Z
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
	Z
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Grammar of
the Edit

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Chapter Five | General Practices for Editors 99

A New Shot Should Contain New Information

This general practice is one of the elements of the cut and also one of the elements of
the dissolve. It is almost important enough for it to be called a “ rule. ”

The success of a good program is based on the audience’s expectation that there will
be a continuous supply of visual information. This supply, if it is correctly delivered, will
constantly update and increase the visual information the viewer has of the events of
the program.

Page 113

100 Grammar of the Edit

There Should Be a Reason for Every Edit

This convention is linked with motivation , one of the six elements of the cut.

If the shot is good and complete in itself, with a beginning, a middle, and an end, then
it may not serve much purpose to cut a section out and replace it. Especially if the over-
all result is not better or more interesting and does not fulfi ll the expectations of the
audience even better than the original shot. In short, do your best not to cut apart a
shot that stands on its own, intact. Sometimes the best choice for an editor to make is
to not cut a shot at all, but simply time its entrance and exit within the sequence.

This does not mean that a three-minute monologue from one person to another should
not be edited visually. If one person is listening, then that person is likely to make some
form of facial or body reaction to what is being said. These reaction shots should be
shown to help break up the continual, verbal assault of the one character and to pro-
vide new information about the listening party (see Figure 5.1). If, however, the person
is talking to himself, and there are no reasons to add fl ashbacks or to reference other
shots, then this uninterrupted monologue may stand unedited. Cutting up a shot such as
this just so the audience should have something else to look at is a poor motivation and
may only serve to break the monologue and disturb the audience. If the shot is boring,
the fault may lie in the type of shot or the shot composition, the script, or the actor’s
performance.

In recent history, a very fast paced editing style has become rather widespread. Some
call this the MTV effect thanks to the quick cutting of many of the music videos once
found on that cable network. This tendency has developed alarmingly to where a shot
lasting more than three seconds is viewed by some producers and directors as “ boringly
long. ” Quick cuts can be very effective, but they have their place like all styles.

A

FIGURE 5.1 For long monologues, you may wish to cut in a reaction shot to help keep the viewer interested in
the proceedings .

B

Page 224

Index 211

In
d

e
x

defi nition , 171
shot considerations , 46 – 47

Three-person dialogue, two-shots , 120 – 121
Three point lighting, defi nition , 195
Tilt

complex shots , 28
cut point reverse , 152
defi nition , 195
static frame , 132

Time
condense/expand , 155 – 156
counting , 163 – 164
dissolve , 81
fade , 87
wipe , 85

Timecode
defi nition , 195
example , 164
multi-camera editing , 163

Trace, shot considerations , 48
Track in/out

defi nition , 195
and motivation , 130 – 131
vs. zoom shot , 128 – 130

Tracks
defi nition , 195
and shot complexity , 24

Transitions
appropriate edits , 104
basic methods , 6
combined edit , 94 – 95
continuity across , 66
cut , 76 – 78
cutting the rise , 126
dissolve , 80 – 82
editing choices , 4 – 5
factors , 57
fade , 86 – 87
form edit , 91 – 93
frame exits , 137
ideal , 75
loud sounds , 150
matching eye-lines , 49
motivation , 60 – 61
natural wipes , 150 – 151
screen direction , 67
second shot head , 154
shot composition , 62
sound , 70 – 71
sound continuity , 69 – 70

whip pans , 151 – 152
wipe , 84 – 85

Tripod
camera support , 175
defi nition , 196
shot complexity increase , 24
spreader , 193

Tripod head
defi nition , 196
shot complexity increase , 24 – 25

Truck in/out
defi nition , 196
and motivation , 130 – 131
shot complexity increase , 24
static shot cut , 133 – 134

Tungsten balanced, defi nition , 196
Two-person dialogue

180 degree rule , 44
screen position edit , 91
shot composition , 62

Two-shot (2S)
action edit , 135 – 136
defi nition , 196
description , 21 – 22
edit practices , 102
matched vs. unmatched , 115 – 116
screen placement issues , 138
three-person dialogue , 120 – 121

U

“ Ums, ” documentary editing , 146 – 147
Underexpose, defi nition , 196
Unmatched shots, cutting , 115 – 117

V

Vanishing point, defi nition , 196
Vari-focal lens

defi nition , 196
shot complexity increase , 24

Verbal ticks, documentary editing , 147
Very long shot (VLS), description , 20 – 21
Video format, defi nition , 196
Visible spectrum, defi nition , 196
Vision, and sound , 98
Visual track, at program start , 143
VLS , see Very long shot (VLS)
Voice-over narration

defi nition , 197
as information , 58

Voice slate, defi nition , 196 – 197

Page 225

212 Index

W

Whip pan
defi nition , 197
as transition point , 151 – 152

Wide shot (WS)
after close-up , 139
description , 20
matched vs. unmatched , 115
new scene sequence , 141
and sound , 70

Wipe
defi nition , 197
edit transitions , 6
elements and usage , 84 – 85

Workfl ow
defi nition , 197
digital , 166 – 167

Working practices , see Editing practices,
working

WS , see Wide shot (WS)

X

XCU , see Extreme close-up (XCU, ECU)
XLS , see Extreme long shot (XLS, ELS)

Z

Zoom lens
defi nition , 197
shot complexity increase , 24
vs. tracking shot , 128 – 130

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