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TitleGilles Deleuze: Cinema and Philosophy (Parallax: Re-visions of Culture and Society)
ISBN 139780801888021
CategoryArts - Film
File Size2.9 MB
Total Pages152
Table of Contents
Preface to theEnglish-language Edition
Frequently Cited Texts
1 Images in Movement and Movement-Images
2 Cinema and Perception
3 The Montage of the Whole
4 Postwar Cinema
5 The Time-Image
6 Images and Immanence
Works Cited
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Gilles Deleuze

Cinema and Philosophy

Paola Marrati
Translated by Alisa Hartz

The Johns Hopkins University Press

Page 2

This book has been brought to publication with the
generous assistance of the Humanities Center and the
Krieger School of Arts and Sciences at the Johns Hopkins

Originally published as Gilles Deleuze: Cinima et
philosophies © 2003 Presses Universitaires de France

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Marrati, Paola.
Gilles Deleuze : cinema and philosophy / Paola Marrati;

translated by Alisa Hartz.
p. cm. — (Parallax, re-visions of culture and society)

Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-8018-8802-1 (hardcover : alk. paper)
ISBN-IO: 0-8018-8802-6 (hardcover : alk. paper)
1. Motion pictures—Philosophy. 2. Deleuze, Gilles,

1925-1995.1. Title.
PN1995.M296 2008
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Page 76

Gilles Deleuze: Cinema and Philosophy

to the object.8 It thus loses the pragmatic function of preparing an
adequate response to the milieu and the situation. In effect, accord-
ing to Deleuze, the characters in films by Rossellini, Visconti, Fellini,
or Antonioni do not act, or at least not in the sense of realist cinema,
which established the links between movement-images through sen-
sorimotor schema. In the old mode of realism, Deleuze writes, char-
acters were reacting to situations even when they were bound and
gagged; now, even when they are running and moving they no longer
have any hold on the world that surrounds them, the world that
makes them "see and hear what is no longer subject to the rules of a
response or an action* (C2, 3/9). In the place of sensorimotor links,
other links between images appear; action-images and even move-
ment-images tend to disappear or in any case become subordinate
to what Deleuze calls "purely optical [and] sound [situations],* the
"build-up" of which is what defines neorealism strictly speaking (C2,


What do these purely optical and sound situations produce, if they
are no longer prolonged into action? They are not simply affection-
images; they do not fill the gap between a perception that recognizes
and an action that responds: if they axe pure, it is because they only
give something to be seen and heard. But what, exacdy? For Bergson,
sensorimotor perception is in the service of the—legitimate—needs
of the living, but Deleuze is less concerned in this context with the
demands of life than with a system of values that clings to the very
perception of things, always at risk of letting thought slip into the
conformism of the doxa and letting affects slip into preestablished
patterns.10 Because, however violent sensorimotor situations might
be, everything becomes tolerable when it is caught in a system of ac-
tions and reactions:

We see, and we more or less experience, a powerful organization of
poverty and oppression. And we are precisely not without sensory-
motor schemata for recognizing such things, for putting up with
and approving of them and for behaving ourselves subsequendy,
taking into account our situation, our capabilities, and our taste.
We have schemata for turning away when it is too unpleasant,


Page 77

Postwar Cinema

for prompting resignation when it is terrible and for assimilating
when it is too beautiful. (C2, 20/31-32)

Purely optical and sound situations, to the contrary, surge up
when links between actions are undone and when we, along with
the character, are abandoned to what there is to see, to that which is
too beautiful or too unbearable, not only in extreme situations but
also in the smallest fragments of everyday life. This cinema of be-
coming-visionary produces images in which the critique of the order
of things as it is, is inseparable from an act of compassion, interest,
or love for things and beings, a way of warning us against forms of
cynicism whose critical power is illusory (C2,19/30). The action-im-
age is undone along multiple lines of fracture. We have already seen
that the sensorimotor link is broken or distended to the point that
responses are no longer pragmatically regulated, at the same time as
the global situation gives way to a dispersive reality in which events
are no longer connected to each other by a "line of the universe."
The links between characters and between events are weakened, gov-
erned by no other necessity than chance encounters. Space itself is
affected: well-defined and recognizable places disappear in favor of
what Deleuze calls "disconnected" spaces and' any-space-whatevers"
that are no longer the appropriate setting for an action or for a de-
termined situation.11 Postwar cities, demolished or in the midst of
reconstruction, provide such spaces in themselves, but their appear-
ance is not contingent, and they will not disappear with the traces of
the war. Certain directors make them a central element in their films:
in The Eclipse (1961), Antonioni makes characters and events disap-
pear, leaving a more and more empty space on the screen.

But what happened such that cinema changed in this way? Why,
after the war, did tendencies that were always present, if isolated,
in cinema rush headlong toward an irreversible crisis of the action-
image and the emergence of a new type of image? For Deleuze, there
is no doubt that what happened to cinema cannot be undone. He
knows, of course, that all kinds of action films are still being made
and will continue to be made, but "the soul of cinema no longer


Page 151


perception-images, x, 34-35, 38
phenomenology, 1-2, 29, 31-32,

Plato and Platonism, 82, 84, no,

point of view, 21-22
political philosophy, x-xv
present, the, 15-16, 66-68, 73-76,

Priogine, Uya, and Isabelie Stengers,

Prochiantz, Alain, 114ml
Proust, Marcel, 51, 66y 68, 83, in
pure optical and sound images,

60-62, 68, 70-72, 85-86,107

Ranciere, Jacques, 40, n6n24,

Rawls, John, xii
realism, 52-53, 57, 60, 86,100-101,

104,108. See also neorealism
recognition, 59-60, 82-83, IO7>

Reformation, the, 87
relativity, theory of, 30-31. See also

Einstein, Albert
Renoir, Jean, 22
Renouvier, Charles-Bernard, 88
representation, 3, 27-28,40, 87,

H5n5; organic, 45-46, 53, 63, 68,

Resnais, Alain, 71, 77
Riefenstahl, Leni, 81
Robbe-Grillet, Alain, 70-71
Rodowick, D. N., H9n5
Rohmer, Eric, 87, 88
Rorty, Richard, 1231122
Rossellini, Roberto, 56-60,71,85,

87, 88, 97,107,109,122ni7

Sartre, Jean-Paul, 31
Saussure, Ferdinand de, 21,1161131
Scarface (Hawks), 53

Schefer, Jean-Louis, n8n2
sections: immobile, 12,15,17-18;

mobile, 18-19, 25> 39
sensorimotor images, 61-62, 70-71
sensorimotor links, 40, 53; weaken-

ing of, 61-64, 85
sensorimotor schema, 49, 55, 60,

set, 20, 22-23
shot, 24-25, 44, 57
Smith, Daniel, 1221114
sovereignty, theories of, xii
Soviet cinema, 45, 53,79,104. See

also Eisenstein, Sergei
Spellbound (Hitchcock), 21
Spinoza, Baruch, 5,90,92
Stalinism, 55
Stengers, Isabelie. See Priogine, Uya,

and Isabelie Stengers
Straub, Jean-Marie, I2in8
Stromboli, terra di Dio (Rossellini),

subjectivity: and affection, 35,72; in

Bergsonian-Deleuzian universe,
42; and images, 28-32,45-56;
and liberalism, xi-xii; material
levels of, 34-35, 59; and percep-
tion, 3-4, 27-37; ̂ d representa-
tion, 27-28; and time, 76. See also
living images

Syberberg, Hans-Jurgen, I2in8

Tarkovsky, Andrei, 39, 56, 77,

thought, xiii-xiv, 9, 63-64,94-96,
100. See also image of thought

Thousand Plateaus, A (Deleuze and
Guattari), x

time: ancient and modern view of,
14-16; and history, 65, 78, 81,85;
non-chronological, 4, 74,76,78;
as number or measure of move-
ment, xii, 15-16,39,45, 66-67;


Page 152


time (continued)
ontological nature of, 72-77;
pure, 78; and truth, 83. See also
future; past; present; time-
images; and under Bergson

Time and Free Will: An Essay on the
Immediate Data of Consciousness
(Bergson), 17

time-images, 2, 20, 66-77, 78; di-
rect, 39-40,45, 59, 67; indirect,
39> 45-55> 67

transcendence, 63, 81, 93, no
truth, 83-84

Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche),
54> 102

Vernant, Jean-Pierre, 90
Vertov, Dziga, 37-38, 51, 79, 97,

Vidor, King, 101

virtual images, 71-74,120n9
Visconti, Luchino, 60,107

^velles, Orson, 20, 57, 68, 76-77,
97, H9n3

What Is Cinema? (Bazin), 25. See
also Bazin, Andre'

What Is Philosophy? (Deleuze and
Guattari), 4-5, 89-93, 95-96

Whole, the, 17-18, 23, 25, 39; mon-
tage and, 44-45, 47-48, 50-51, 54

world, 79-80, 85, 87, 88-89,104-n,

world-becoming, 121114
World War II, x, 55, 61-63, in
Worms, FreMeVic, H5n6
Wyler, William, 20, 97

Zeno, n, 16
Zourabichivili, Francois, n6m8,



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