Download Eurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C Buildings: Concepts, Commentary and Worked Examples with Flowcharts PDF

TitleEurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C Buildings: Concepts, Commentary and Worked Examples with Flowcharts
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
ISBN 139783319252704
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size23.6 MB
Total Pages499
Table of Contents
                            Preface
Contents
Chapter 1: Fundamental Principles for the Design of Earthquake-Resistant Structures
	1.1 Partial Protection Against Structural Damage as the Underlying Design Philosophy for Earthquake Resistance
		1.1.1 The Uncertain Nature of the Seismic Action
		1.1.2 Can an ``Absolute´´ Level of Protection Against the Seismic Hazard Be Achieved?
		1.1.3 Full and Partial Protection Against Structural Damage for a Given Design Seismic Action
			1.1.3.1 Regulatory Agencies and State Governments
			1.1.3.2 Building Owners
		1.1.4 Design Objectives and Requirements for Partial Protection Against Structural Damage in Current Seismic Codes of Practice
		1.1.5 Stiffness, Strength, and Ductility: The Key Structural Properties in Earthquake Resistant Design
			1.1.5.1 Dependency of Input Seismic Loads on Structural Properties
			1.1.5.2 Structural Properties Influencing the Design for Earthquake Resistance
			1.1.5.3 The Role of Ductility in Seismic Design
			1.1.5.4 The Use of Reduced ``Effective´´ Stiffness Properties for R/C Structures
	1.2 Implementation of the Partial Protection Against Structural Damage Seismic Design Philosophy in Current Codes of Practice
		1.2.1 Ductility Demand and Ductility Capacity
		1.2.2 The ``Interplay´´ Between Ductility Capacity and Force Reduction or Behaviour Factor
		1.2.3 The Relationship Among the Behaviour Factor, the Ductility Capacity and the Overstrength of R/C Buildings
		1.2.4 Force-Based Seismic Design Using a Linear Single-Seismic-Action-Level Analysis
		1.2.5 Additional Qualitative Requirements for Ductile Earthquake Resistant Design
		1.2.6 The Rationale of Capacity Design Requirements
			1.2.6.1 The Role of Plastic Hinges as the Structure´s ``Fuses´´ Against Failure
			1.2.6.2 Is Overstrength a Desirable Attribute?
			1.2.6.3 The ``Forgiving´´ Nature of R/C: Inherent Ductility Capacity
			1.2.6.4 The Role of Ductility Capacity to Resist Seismic Loads Beyond the Design Earthquake
	1.3 The Concept of Performance-Based Seismic Design: A Recent Trend Pointing to the Future of Code Provisions
		1.3.1 The Need for Performance-Based Seismic Design
		1.3.2 Early Guidelines for Performance-Based Seismic Design and Their Relation to the Traditional Design Philosophy
		1.3.3 Recent Guidelines on Performance-Based Seismic Design for New Structures (MC2010 and ATC-58)
	1.4 On the Selection of a Desired Performance Level in Code-Compliant Seismic Design of New R/C Buildings
	References
Chapter 2: Design of R/C Buildings to EC8-1: A Critical Overview
	2.1 Conceptual Design Principles for Earthquake-Resistant Buildings
		2.1.1 Desirable Attributes of the Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System and Fundamental Rules
		2.1.2 Frequently Observed Deficiencies in Structural Layouts
	2.2 Ductile Behavior Considerations and Preliminary Sizing of R/C Structural Members
		2.2.1 The Fundamental Question at the Onset of Seismic Design: What Portion of the Ductility Capacity Should Be ``Utilized´´?
		2.2.2 Local and Global Ductility Capacity
		2.2.3 Factors Influencing the Local Ductility Capacity of R/C Structural Members
		2.2.4 Capacity Design Rules for Ductile Global Collapse Mechanisms
			2.2.4.1 Plastic Mechanisms for Frame Lateral-Load Resisting Systems
			2.2.4.2 Collapse Mechanisms for Dual Lateral-Load Resisting Systems
			2.2.4.3 A Reminder of the ``Limits´´ of Capacity Design
	2.3 Structural and Loading Modeling for Seismic Design of R/C Buildings Using Linear Analysis Methods
		2.3.1 EC8-Compliant Loading Modeling for Seismic Design
			2.3.1.1 Reference Seismic Action αgR, Design Seismic Action αg and, Importance Factor gamma
			2.3.1.2 The Design Spectrum for Elastic Analysis
			2.3.1.3 Modification of the Design Seismic Action vis-a-vis the Behaviour Factor
			2.3.1.4 Inertial Properties for Seismic Design and Seismic Loading Combination
		2.3.2 EC8-Compliant Modeling of Superstructure, Foundation, and Supporting Ground
			2.3.2.1 Stiffness Reduction of R/C Members for Linear Analysis (§4.3.1(6) and (7) of EC8)
			2.3.2.2 On the Use of Planar Structural FE Models for Linear Analysis (§4.3.1 of EC8)
		2.3.3 Common Structural FE Modeling Practices of Multistorey R/C Buildings for Linear Methods of Analysis
			2.3.3.1 Modeling of Floor Slabs
			2.3.3.2 Modeling of Beams, Columns and Frames
			2.3.3.3 Modeling of Planar Walls
			2.3.3.4 Modeling of Cores
			2.3.3.5 Modeling of Footings and Foundation Beams on Flexible Ground
	2.4 Structural Analysis Methods for Seismic Design of R/C Building Structures
		2.4.1 Selection of Structural Analysis Methods for Seismic Design
			2.4.1.1 Linear Methods for Seismic Analysis
			2.4.1.2 Non-Linear Methods for Seismic Analysis
		2.4.2 Overview of EC8 Structural Analysis Methods
		2.4.3 Discussion and Recommendations on EC8 Analysis Methods
			2.4.3.1 The Range of Applicability of the ``Lateral Force Method of Analysis´´
			2.4.3.2 Spatial Combination of Peak Response Quantities from Individual Components of the Seismic Action
			2.4.3.3 Geometric Non-Linearity: Second-Order Theory and ``P-Delta´´ Effects
			2.4.3.4 Material Non-Linearity: The Inelastic Static ``Pushover´´ Analysis
		2.4.4 Overstrength Distribution Verification and Sensitivity Analyses
			2.4.4.1 Verification of Overstrength Distribution
			2.4.4.2 The Need for Parametric Sensitivity Analyses of Structural Models
	2.5 On the Use of Commercial Software for Routine Seismic Design
		2.5.1 Verification of Commercial Structural Analysis Software via Benchmark Structural Analysis and Design Problems
		2.5.2 Desirable Attributes and Use of Good Quality Software
	References
Chapter 3: Practical Implementation of EC8 for Seismic Design of R/C Buildings - Flowcharts and Commentary
	3.1 EC8-Compliant Seismic Analysis Steps and Flowcharts
		3.1.1 Conditions and Verification Checks for Structural Regularity
			3.1.1.1 Verification Checks for Regularity in Plan: FC-3.2
			3.1.1.2 Verification Checks for Regularity in Elevation: FC-3.3
		3.1.2 Classification of a Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System
		3.1.3 Selection of Ductility (Capacity) Class
		3.1.4 Determination of the Maximum Allowed Behaviour Factor
			3.1.4.1 Minimum Value of maxqallow (Maximum Allowable Behaviour Factor)
			3.1.4.2 Range of Values of the Maximum Allowable Behaviour Factor
			3.1.4.3 On the Reduced Maximum Allowable Behaviour Factor for Torsionally Sensitive Structures
			3.1.4.4 On the Use of Different Behaviour Factor Values Along Different Horizontal Directions of the Seismic Action (Principal...
		3.1.5 Selection and Implementation of Equivalent Linear Methods for Seismic Analysis
			3.1.5.1 Modal Response Spectrum Method (MRSM): FC-3.7
			3.1.5.2 Lateral Force Method (LFM): FC-3.8
		3.1.6 Accounting for the Vertical Component of the Seismic Action
	3.2 Deformation-Based Verification Checks
		3.2.1 Verification Check for Second Order (P- Delta) Effects (FC-3.10a and FC-3.10b)
			3.2.1.1 Calculation of Interstorey Drift Sensitivity Coefficients Using the Lateral Force Method (LFM)
			3.2.1.2 Calculation of Interstorey Drift Sensitivity Coefficients Using the Modal Response Spectrum Method (MRSM)
		3.2.2 Verification Check for Maximum Interstorey Drifts (FC-3.11a and FC-3.11b)
	3.3 Special Requirements for Infill Walls in R/C Building Structures
	3.4 Practical Recommendations for EC8 Compliant Seismic Analysis and Verification Checks
	3.5 Determination of Design Seismic Effects for r/c Walls
		3.5.1 Envelope Bending Moment Diagram for Seismic Design of r/c Walls
		3.5.2 Envelope Shear Force Diagram for Seismic Design of r/c Walls
	3.6 Detailing Requirements and Verification Checks for r/c Structural Members
	References
Chapter 4: EC8-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design Examples
	4.1 Example A: Five-Storey Single Symmetric In-Plan Building with Dual Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System
		4.1.1 Geometric, Material, and Seismic Action Data
		4.1.2 Modeling Assumptions
			4.1.2.1 Structural Modeling Assumptions
			4.1.2.2 Vertical Load Modeling Assumptions
			4.1.2.3 Mass/Inertial Modeling Assumptions
		4.1.3 Verification Checks for Regularity for Building A
			4.1.3.1 Verification Checks for Regularity in Elevation
			4.1.3.2 Verification Checks for Regularity in Plan
		4.1.4 Classification of the Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System of Building A
		4.1.5 Selection of Ductility (Capacity) Class of Building A
		4.1.6 Determination of the Maximum Allowed Behaviour Factor for Building A
		4.1.7 Selection of an Equivalent Linear Method of Seismic Analysis for Building A
		4.1.8 Static Analysis for Gravity Loads of the Design Seismic Loading Combination (G ``+´´ psi2Q) for Building A
		4.1.9 Seismic Analysis of Building A Using the Modal Response Spectrum Method and Deformation-Based Verification Checks
			4.1.9.1 Modal Analysis Results
			4.1.9.2 Selected Design Seismic Effects (Sectional Stress Resultants)
			4.1.9.3 Verification Check of the Influence of Second Order Effects
			4.1.9.4 Verification Check for Maximum Interstorey Drift Demands
		4.1.10 Seismic Analysis of Building A Using the Lateral Force Method and Deformation-Based Verification Checks
			4.1.10.1 Check of Lateral Force Method Applicability Conditions
			4.1.10.2 Determination of the Lateral Seismic Forces and Points of Action
			4.1.10.3 Selected Design Seismic Effects (Sectional Stress Resultants)
			4.1.10.4 Verification Check of the Influence of Second Order Effects
			4.1.10.5 Verification Check for Maximum Interstorey Drift Demands
		4.1.11 Comparison of Design Seismic Effects for Building A Obtained from the MRSM and the LFM
	4.2 Example B: Five-Storey Torsionally Sensitive Building with Dual Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System
		4.2.1 Geometric, Material, and Seismic Action Data
		4.2.2 Modeling Assumptions
			4.2.2.1 Structural Modeling Assumptions
			4.2.2.2 Vertical Load Modeling Assumptions
			4.2.2.3 Mass/Inertial Modeling Assumptions
		4.2.3 Verification Checks for Regularity for Building B
			4.2.3.1 Verification Check for Regularity in Elevation
			4.2.3.2 Verification Check for Regularity in Plan
		4.2.4 Classification of the Lateral Load-Resisting Structural System of Building B
		4.2.5 Selection of Ductility (Capacity) Class of Building B
		4.2.6 Determination of the Maximum Allowed Behaviour Factor for Building B
		4.2.7 Selection of an Equivalent Linear Method of Seismic Analysis for Building B
		4.2.8 Static Analysis for Gravity Loads of the Design Seismic Loading Combination (G ``+´´ psi2Q) for Building B
		4.2.9 Seismic Analysis of Building B Using the Modal Response Spectrum Method and Deformation-Based Verification Checks
			4.2.9.1 Modal Analysis Results
			4.2.9.2 Selected Design Seismic Effects (Sectional Stress Resultants)
			4.2.9.3 Verification Check of the Influence of Second Order Effects
			4.2.9.4 Verification Check for Maximum Interstorey Drift Demands
	4.3 Example C: Four-Storey Building with Central R/C Core and a Basement on Compliant Supporting Ground
		4.3.1 Geometric, Material, and Seismic Action Data
		4.3.2 Modeling Assumptions
			4.3.2.1 Structural Modeling Assumptions
			4.3.2.2 Supporting Ground Modeling Using Linear Springs (Compliant Soil)
			4.3.2.3 Vertical Load Modeling Assumptions
			4.3.2.4 Mass/Inertial Modeling Assumptions
		4.3.3 Verification Checks for Regularity for Building C
			4.3.3.1 Verification Check for Regularity in Elevation
			4.3.3.2 Verification Check for Regularity in Plan
		4.3.4 Classification of the Lateral Load-resisting Structural System of Building C
		4.3.5 Selection of Ductility (Capacity) Class of Building C
		4.3.6 Determination of the Maximum Allowed Behaviour Factor for Building C
		4.3.7 Selection of an Equivalent Linear Method of Seismic Analysis for Building C
		4.3.8 Static Analysis for Gravity Loads of the Design Seismic Loading Combination (G ``+´´ psi2Q) for Building C
		4.3.9 Seismic Analysis of Building B Using the Modal Response Spectrum Method and Deformation-Based Verification Checks
			4.3.9.1 Modal Analysis Results
			4.3.9.2 Selected Design Seismic Effects (Sectional Stress Resultants)
			4.3.9.3 Verification Check of the Influence of Second Order Effects
			4.3.9.4 Verification Check for Maximum Interstorey Drift Demands
		4.3.10 Determination of Normal Stresses Transferred from Pad Footings to Supporting Ground
			4.3.10.1 Determination of Pad Footing Normal Stresses Assuming Uniform Distribution Over a Reduced Footing Area
			4.3.10.2 Determination of Pad Footing Normal Stresses Assuming Linear Distribution Over the Total Footing Area
		4.3.11 Detailing and Design Verifications of Typical Structural Members of Building C
		4.3.12 Envelope Bending Moment and Shear Force Diagram for the Ductile Wall W3X of Building C
			4.3.12.1 Calculation of Bending Moment Diagram for Wall W3X
			4.3.12.2 Calculation of Shearing Force Diagram for Wall W3X
	References
Appendix A - Qualitative Description of EC8 Non-Linear Static (Pushover) Analysis Method
	A.1 Derivation of the Pushover Curve of the Building
	A.2 Determination and Analysis of an Equivalent SDOF System
	A.3 Seismic Performance Level Assessment
	References
Appendix B - A Note on Torsional Flexibility and Sensitivity
	B.1 Definitions of Torsional Stiffness, Torsional Radius, and Radius of Gyration
	B.2 The Concept of Torsional Sensitivity
	B.3 Illustrative Numerical Examples
	References
Appendix C - Chart Form of Eurocode 2 and 8 Provisions with Respect to the Sectional Dimensions and the Reinforcement of Struc...
	C.1 Floor Slabs
	C.2 Beams
		C.2.1 Sectional Dimensions
		C.2.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement
		C.2.3 Shear Reinforcement
	C.3 Columns
		C.3.1 Sectional Dimensions
		C.3.2 Longitudinal Reinforcement
		C.3.3 Shear and Confining Reinforcement
	C.4 Ductile Walls
		C.4.1 Sectional Dimensions
		C.4.2 Web Reinforcement
		C.4.3 Reinforcement of the Confined Boundary Elements
	C.5 Beam-Column Joints
	C.6 Foundation Elements
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering

Ioannis Avramidis
Asimina Athanatopoulou
Konstantinos Mor� dis
Anastasios Sextos
Agathoklis Giaralis

Eurocode-Compliant
Seismic Analysis and
Design of R/C Buildings
Concepts, Commentary and Worked
Examples with Flowcharts

Page 2

Geotechnical, Geological and
Earthquake Engineering

Volume 38

Series editor

Atilla Ansal, School of Engineering, Özyeğin University, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Advisory Board

Julian Bommer, Imperial College London, U.K.

Jonathan D. Bray, University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A.

Kyriazis Pitilakis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Susumu Yasuda, Tokyo Denki University, Japan

Page 249

Flowchart 3.16b Design of column for shear (2/4)

236 3 Practical Implementation of EC8 for Seismic Design of R/C Buildings. . .

Page 250

Flowchart 3.16c Design of column for shear (3/4)

3.6 Detailing Requirements and Verification Checks for r/c Structural Members 237

Page 498

Index

A
Analysis

EC8 methods of, 146–157

inelastic static, 153–157

lateral force method, 141, 148–149,

202–204

linear methods, 140–142

modal response spectrum method, 195–202

non-linear methods, 142–146

pushover, 153–157

sensitivity, 158–160

B
Beams, modeling, 119–127

Behaviour factor, 18–26

maximum allowable, 192

C
Capacity design, 34–41

limits, 90–91

rules, 81–91

Collapse mechanism, 81–91

Columns, modeling, 119–127

Cores, modeling, 129–134

D
Design

conceptual, 64–73

earthquake, 3–5, 39–41

objectives, 5–8

philosophy, 2–41

requirements, 5–8, 32–41

spectrum, 94–97

Ductile behaviour, 74–91

Ductility, 8–10, 13–14

capacity, 16–18, 39–41

local, 75–79

class, 186–188

demand, 16–18

F
Floor slabs, modeling, 113–119

Force-based seismic design, 28–32

Force reduction factor, 18–26

Frames, modeling, 119–127

I
Importance factor, 92–94

Infill walls, 216–218

Interstorey drift, 212–216

L
Lateral force method, 202–204

Lateral load resisting system, 181–186

M
Modal response spectrum method, 195–202

Modeling, 91–136

assumptions, 253–255, 321–323, 360–374

beams, 119–127

columns, 119–127

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
I. Avramidis et al., Eurocode-Compliant Seismic Analysis and Design of R/C
Buildings, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering 38,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-25270-4

487

Page 499

Modeling (cont.)
cores, 129–134

flexible ground, 135

floor slabs, 113–119

foundation, 99–109, 135

frames, 119–127

loading, 91–99

structural, 99–135

walls, 127–128

N
Nonlinearity

geometric, 150–153

material, 153–157

O
Overstrength, 26–28, 37–38

distribution, 157–158

P
Performance-based seismic design, 41–52

Performance level, 41–55

Plastic hinge, 37

Pushover analysis, 153–157, 453–462

Pushover curve, 457–459

P-Δ effects, 150–153, 209–215

R
Radius of gyration, 463–466

Regularity

in elevation, 181

in plan, 177–181

structural, 176–181

S
Second-order effects, 209–215

Second-order theory, 150–153

Seismic action, 2

design, 92–94, 97–98

reference, 92–94

vertical component, 204–206

Seismic design

performance-based, 41–52

software, 160–165

Seismic load(s), 11–12

Seismic loading, combination, 98–99

Seismic performance, 461–462

Stiffness, 8–14

effective, 14

reduced, 14

Strength, 8–14

Structural layout, 70–73

Structural regularity, 176–181

T
Torsional flexibility, 463–466

Torsional radius, 463–466

Torsional sensitivity, 25, 466–467

Torsional stiffness, 463–466

W
Walls

infill, 216–218

modeling, 127–128

r/c, 219–225

seismic design, 219–225

488 Index

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