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TitleEncyclopedia of Early Cinema
ISBN 139780415234405
CategoryArts - Film
File Size11.0 MB
Total Pages1275
Table of Contents
                            Book cover
Thematic entry list
Entries A-Z
Document Text Contents
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File Attachment

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The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema is a unique one-volume reference work on the first
twenty-five years of the cinema’s international emergence, approximately from the early
1890s to the mid-1910s. These early years of the history of cinema have lately been the
subject of resurgent interest and a growing body of scholarship, and have come to be
recognized as an extraordinarily diverse period, when moving pictures were quite unlike
the kind of cinema that later emerged as the dominant norm.

This encyclopedia covers all aspects of scholarship on early cinema, both traditional
and revisionist. It contains articles on the technological and industrial developments, the
techniques of film production, the actors and filmmakers of the time, and on the changing
modes of representation and narration, as well as the social and cultural contexts within
which early films circulated, including topics such as distribution, exhibition, and
audience. Beyond the USA and Europe, attention is also given to the wider international
picture, including those regions in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and South and Central
America where filmmaking may have been relatively undeveloped but movie-going was

More than 950 entries have been commissioned from internationally recognized
specialists. Alphabetically organized, the entries range in length from short factual
articles to full essays that offer clear and stimulating discussions of the key issues,
people, practices, and phenomena of early cinema. A thematic list of entries is a useful
guide through the book, and all entries contain detailed cross-references. The longer
articles have considered suggestions for further reading, which are complemented by a
general bibliography of specialized works on early cinema.

The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema is an invaluable and fascinating resource for
students and researchers interested in the history of cinema.

Richard Abel is Robert Altman Collegiate Professor of Film Studies at the University
of Michigan, USA.

Page 637

mostly in Lyons and La Ciotat; Auguste, his wife, and daughter appeared in at least one
of them, Repas de bébé [Breakfast with Baby].

Auguste later devoted most of his work to chemistry and medical research: he was
responsible for the first working X-ray machine in France. By contrast, Louis pursued his
research on still as well as moving images with such endeavors as a photographic
panorama (Photorama, 1902), the Autochromatic process for color photography
(launched commercially in 1907), 3-D portraits using photostereosynthesis (a forerunner
of holograms), and a stereoscopic film process using anaglyphs, in the 1930s.

Further reading

Chardère, Bernard (1995) Le roman des Lumière, Paris: Gallimard.
Pinel, Vincent (1994) Louis Lumière inventeur et cinéaste, Paris: Editions Nathan.


Lundberg, Frans

b. 1851; d. 1922
exhibitor, distributor, producer, Denmark, Sweden
Frans Lundberg was a former wine merchant when he invested in a Copenhagen

moving picture theater in 1905, Nørrebro Filmtheater (by proxy due to the legal
ramifications for securing permission to exhibit films in Denmark). Later, Lundberg
bought a theater in Malmö, Stora Biografteatern, and organized an exchange for selling
and renting films. After producing a few actualités, he launched his two first features in
1910, in addition to several syncsound films. In 1911 and 1912, Lundberg had the leading
studio in Sweden, producing around ten features per year (in the main with Danish
actors), which then were marketed internationally by Robert Glombeck in Berlin.
Lundberg retired after the 1912–1913 season, partly due to conflicts with the newly
established national censorship board.



The public limited company Lux, which manufactured phonographs, cameras, and films
was established in Paris by engineer Henri Joly, on October 4, 1906, with a capital of
1,100,000 francs. In 1908, Joly left after a change in the majority of shareholders.
Thereafter managed by several administrators (including Chalupt and Bernheim), the
company produced cameras (developed by Léopold Löbel) and films, many directed by

Encyclopedia of early cinema 574

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Gérard Bourgeois. A studio was established on boulevard Jourdan in Paris and a
laboratory opened nearby in Gentilly. Despite the production of two or three films per
week by 1913 and distribution agreements outside France with Aquila (Italy) and
Kinografen (Germany), Lux had to be dissolved in October 1913.


Luxemburg, Grand Duché

In October 1896, the photographer Jacques-Marie Bellwald (1871–1945) organized the
first film screening with a Joly apparatus in an Echternach hotel and then several weeks
later in the capital. Shortly thereafter, another itinerant exhibitor, Adolphe Amberg,
began giving public film screenings, along with a special one for the family of the Grand
Duke. In 1899, the Lumière company produced an actualité of the way Mercier
champagne was made in the village of Epernay in Luxemburg. Shown at the world’s fair
in Paris in 1900, this film probably was the first film shot in Luxemburg.

For several years, a number of travelling showmen from neighbouring countries
operated in Luxemburg. Among them was the German family of Marzen, which became
a regular visitor in theaters and hotels between 1899 and 1906. They also filmed scenes in
the capital city and interesting events such as Rosenfest in Luxemburg (1905). In 1907,
the Marzen family opened the first moving picture theater in the German city of Trier
and, four years later, a second one named Cinema Parisiana in the city of Luxemburg.
Several other travelling showmen who worked the hotels, cafés and theaters came from
France, among them the Megemont’s Cinemato français and the Bio Royal (Grand Ciné-

At the important fair/fairground held annually in Luxemburg, showmen (mostly
from Germany) appeared with canvas tent theaters as early as 1898. One of the first was
Bläser with his Bläser’schen Kinematographen. In 1902 he even produced local films
such as Auf dem Paradeplatz in Luxemburg am Sonntagmittag. Soon he had competitors
from other fairground showmen such as Philipp Leilich (1905), Hirdt (1907) and
W.Kling (1907–1909). There also were entrepreneurs who toured the small country with
their canvas theaters outside the normal fair period. The Oceanic Vio Company (1908–
1909) was one such enterprise with a tent that seated 2,500 spectators. The German
showman, Alexandre Flaschenträger, who operated mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium,
and northern France, also worked the fairs in Luxemburg. There, he even opened a
moving picture theater in 1910; when it failed, he went back to the fairgrounds with a
canvas Luna Park.

In December 1907, the first moving picture theater opened in Luxemburg as the
Cinéma Modern. Two years later the second opened its doors, the Cinéma Pathé. The
Swiss company Elektrische Lichtbühne A.G., based in Zürich, opened the fourteenth
theater in its cinema chain in Luxemburg in 1910. Before 1914, most of the films shown
in the cinemas came from Germany, France, the USA, and Scandinavia. In 1910, Pathé-
Frères offered its clients in Luxemburg the first four fiction films ever made in this small
country: Le séducteur, L’arbre creux, Le guide, and La conversion du braconnier. Film

Entries A-Z 575

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Yokota Einosuke 344, 708
Yokota Shokai 344, 345, 362, 412, 481, 489, 708
Yoshizawa Shoten 199, 344, 345, 481, 564, 623, 708
Youdale, William Henry 18
Young, Clara Kimball 104, 680
Young Deer, James 503, 690, 692, 708
Young, James 680
The Young Rajah (1924) 320
Your Country Needs You (1914) 59
Your Girl and Mine (1914) 700
Za Gostinoi Dveriami (1913) 426
Za la Mort serial 277, 339
Zaccaria, Gino 709
Zacconi, Ermete 333, 338, 501, 677, 709
Zahn, Johannes 405
Zamecnik, J.S. 463
Zangenberg, Ejnar 360
Zapatas Bande (1914) 481
Zaza (1915) 490
Zecca, Ferdinand 84, 232, 384, 460, 482, 569, 709–10;

Andréani 24;
Capellani 103;
Chomon 27;
“director-unit” system 249;
films sonores 242;
Hatot 296;
intertitles 327;
Pathé-Frères 502, 506;
Riche 552;
Robinne 553;
screenwriting 577;
set design 585

Zetkin, Clara 697
Zeugfärberei 36
Zhang Shichuan 39, 115, 546, 710
Zheng Zhengqiu 39, 115, 710
Zhizn za zhizn (A Life for Life) (1916) 61, 357
Zhongyang Film Company 546
Zhungzi shiqi (1913) 115
Ziegfeld’s Follies (1907) 446
Zigomar (1911–1913) 25, 39, 158, 198, 347, 454, 583;

distribution in the United States 661;
Japan 345, 362;
master criminal genre 179, 180;
sensational melodrama 251, 425

Zigomar contre Nick Carter (1912) 180, 347
Zigomar, le peu d’anguille (1913) 347, 640
Zigoto series (1911–1912) 194
Zille, Heinrich 150
Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) 12
Zimmerman, Henry 676, 677
Zimovoi, V. 148

Index 1211

Page 1275

Zingara (1912) 343
Zionism 498–9, 549
Ziyarat al-khidiwi li-masjid al-Mursi Abu al-’Abbas bi-l-Iskandariyya (1907) 216
Zoograph 63, 64, 170
Zotti, Laura Minici 133
Zubeida 362
Der Zug des Herzens (1912) 302
Zuhra (1922) 217
Zukor, Adolph 67, 302, 372, 413–14, 432, 479, 511, 710;

Brady partnership 82;
critique of Porter 527;
distribution 446, 660;
Famous Players 229;
legitimate theater 628;
multiple- reel films 456

A Zulu’s Devotion (1916) 138
Zum Paradies der Damen (1914) 687
Zweimal gelebt (1912) 373
Zwischen Himmel und Erde (1913) 373

Index 1212

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