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TitleEarly Russian Cinema and Its Cultural Reception (Soviet Cinema)
ISBN 139780203992890
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size2.8 MB
Total Pages239
Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Title
Copyright
Dedication
Contents
Illustrations
General editors’ preface
Acknowledgements
Abbreviations
Note on transliteration, translation and the Russian calendar
Foreword
Introduction
	CULTURAL RECEPTION
	THE TROPES OF FILM RECEPTION
	CINEMA AND SYMBOLIST SENSIBILITY
	MECHANICAL VERSUS ORGANIC
	THE IMAGE OF THE TEXT
	OVERLAPPING IMAGES
Part I
	Chapter 1  Early cinema architecture and the evolution of the social composition of cinema
		THE INNER SPACE OF CINEMA, 1904–8
		THE EARLY CINEMA AUDITORIUM AS AN OBJECT OF CULTURAL RECEPTION
		THE ‘LONG AUDITORIUM’ PERIOD
		THE EVOLUTION OF NAMES
		RECEPTION SHIFT
		THE CITY CENTRE LUXURY CINEMAS: THE BEGINNING OF THE ‘RECTANGULAR’ PERIOD
		‘CENTRE AND PERIPHERY’ IN THE SOCIAL TOPOGRAPHY OF CINEMA
		THE CONCEPT OF THE CITY-CENTRE LUXURY CINEMA
		THE SOCIAL TOPOLOGY OF THE AUDITORIUM
		THE IMAGE OF THE CINEMA PUBLIC
		CINEMA AND THE PROSTITUTE
		‘GOING TO THE PICTURES’: THE EVERYDAY BEHAVIOUR OF THE CINEMAGOER
		THE EVOLUTION OF THE FOYER
	Chapter 2  Projection technique as a factor in aesthetic perception
		THE IMAGE OF THE PROJECTIONIST
		PROJECTION SPEED
		TEMPUS REVERSUS
	Chapter 3  The acoustics of cinema performance
		FILM MUSIC
		MUSIC REVIEWS
		FILM IN THE ABSENCE OF MUSIC
		THE BLIND ACCOMPANIST
		‘MECHANISM’ VERSUS ‘ORGANISM’
		IMPROVISATION VERSUS SPECIALLY WRITTEN MUSIC
		FILM FOR MUSIC
		A COMPILER’S GLOSSARY AND THE THEMATIC RANGE OF EARLY CINEMA
		MUSIC AND COLOUR
		RHYTHM
		SOUND EFFECTS
		THE RECEPTION OF RECORDED SOUND
	Chapter 4  The reception of interference
		OPTICAL INTERFERENCES: ‘RAIN’ AND ‘FOG’
		TREMOR, FLICKERING, BLINKING, VIBRATION
		A BREAK IN THE FILM
		ACOUSTIC INTERFERENCE: ‘LIVE ILLUSTRATION’
		THE NOISE OF THE PROJECTOR
		‘THE METRONOME OF WORLD TIME’
Part II
	Chapter 5  Shifting textual boundaries
		PERFORMANCE VERSUS FILM
		FILM VERSUS SHOT
	Chapter 6  The reception of the moving image
		ORIGINS OF THE MYTH
			ANNA KARENINA AND THE ARRIVAL OF A TRAIN AT LA CIOTAT STATION
			THE ARRIVAL OF A TRAIN: DISTORTED SPACE AND YAWNING FOREGROUND
		THE TEMPORAL BOUNDARY OF THE MOVING IMAGE
		UNRELIABLE REALITY
		THE EMPTY SCREEN (A BLANK SHOT)
		AWARENESS OF THE SCREEN
		A SHADOW ON THE SCREEN
		THE UTTERANCE, PAST AND PRESENT
	Chapter 7  The reception of narrative categories
		IMAGES OF CINEMATIC NARRATIVE: THE CHASE
		IMAGES OF CINEMATIC NARRATIVE: THE PROBLEM OF COHERENCE
		THE IMAGE OF THE SPECTATOR
		THE IMAGE OF THE NARRATOR?
		THE RHETORICAL AUTHOR: THE COMING HAM
	Chapter 8  The reception of narrative devices
		THE RECEPTION OF NARRATIVE DEVICES: ELLIPSIS
		DISCONTINUITY CUES
			FERMATA
		THE CLOSE-UP
		LEGENDS OF ORIGIN
		RESISTANCE TO CLOSE-UP: FACE VERSUS SPACE
		CLOSE-UP AND NORM
		THE RULE OF MISREADING
		COMING INTO THE FOREGROUND
		PROPRIOCEPTION
		TRACK-IN
		TRAILING A MOVING FIGURE
		IMAGES OF MOVEMENT
Postscript
Notes
Bibliography
	UNPUBLISHED ARCHIVE MATERIALS AND DISSERTATIONS
	UNSIGNED ARTICLES AND REVIEWS
	UNTITLED ARTICLES AND REVIEWS IN:
	SIGNED ARTICLES, POEMS AND STORIES
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Poster advertising Stenka Razin [Sten’ka-Razin, 1908]

Page 119

Part II

Page 120

Chapter 5
Shifting textual boundaries

PERFORMANCE VERSUS FILM

Part I of this book dealt with the reception of cinema as performance. Reception can be defined as the
blurring of boundaries. The preceding chapters have attempted to demonstrate just how contingent and
mobile the boundaries between the world of the screen and the acoustic, social and architectural spaces
around the screen really were. I have argued that each of these spaces was always ready to enter into a
‘reception game’ with what took place on the screen. The game consisted in making the main semiotic
boundary—that between the text and everything that was not the text—diffuse and unstable.

In Part II I am going to deal with the reception of cinema as text as a specific dimension of early film
history. Why ‘cinema as text’ and not ‘film as text’, a term habitually used in film studies? This chapter will
attempt to explain. I will argue that the very notion of ‘text’ needs to be historicised and redefined in order
to make it a subject of reception studies.

As I have already noted, throughout the 1900s we frequently observe an apparently paradoxical situation:
cinema and its reception in the cultural consciousness of the age developed along two autonomous lines.
This has special relevance to the way the boundaries of the cinematic text were defined. The early film-
maker and the early viewer did not share the same concept of text: for those who produced films it was of
course the film itself that constituted the text, while for the viewer the actually experienced cinematic text was
the performance. In the 1900s one did not go ‘to the film’, but ‘to the cinematograph’.1 The performances
consisted of a number of short unconnected films, but the differences between the pictures comprising the
performance were overshadowed by what they all had in common: the fact that they were all part of the new
spectacle. In this respect early cinemagoers resembled those European travellers who were convinced that
all Chinese looked more or less the same.

In these circumstances viewers had to have a certain semiotic skill in order to differentiate one film from
another, and the organiser of the show had to make a special effort to separate them within the performance.
In the early years, when cinema was establishing itself in Russia, the Lumière programmes had short
intervals between pictures. For example, in an 1898 performance described by Vladimir Tyurin, the pictures
were separated acoustically:

The manager rings a bell; the first living picture vanishes and is replaced by another. Instead of a
station we see a broad forest clearing filled with cavalry and artillery… Another ring and the clearing
gives way to a long avenue with an elderly man on a bench, reading a newspaper.2

Page 238

Stravinsky, Igor 97
Stray Dog, The (St Petersburg cabaret) 109
Surguchov, Ivan 183, 194
Swartz, M. 25
Swift, Jonathan 196
Symbolism, Symbolists xix, xxii, 3, 5–7, 8–10, 19, 34, 39,

50, 83, 109, 121, 149–50, 160, 172–3, 210–11
‘synchronised opera’ 91
Synchrophone, The (Riga cinema) 22, 117
Tanya Skvortsova, Student (Turkin, 1916) 183, 193

Tavrichanin, Pavel 43
Tchaikovsky, Peter 99
tempus reversus 57–65
text, images of 10–11
textual boundaries 125–34
That Fatal Sneeze (Hepworth, 1907) 151–2, 203
Thaumatograph, The (Moscow cinema) 22, 31
Thompson, Kristin 188, 194, 207
Tigris, The (Denizot, 1913) 203
Timenchik, Roman 50, 103, 115, 156
Tivoli, The (St Petersburg cinema) 33
Tolstoi, Alexei 4, 160
Tolstoy, Lev 3, 5, 107, 116, 129, 137, 141, 144
Tomashevsky, Boris 107
Town of N, The (Dobychin novel) 43
‘track-in’, reception of 201–7
‘trailing’ shots (panning), reception of 207–9
Trauberg, Leonid 190
tremor, reception of 108–9
Tretyakov, Sergei 210
Trotsky, Lev 64
Tsivian, Yuri xv–xxii
Tsvetayeva, Marina 149
Tun, R. 58
Turkin, Nikander 183
Turkin, Nikolai 22
Turkin, Valentin 22, 195
Turner, Otis 194
Tynyanov, Yuri 82–3, 103, 118
Tyrrell, Henry 148
Tyurin, Vladimir 126

Umov, N. 58–60
‘Uncrumpled Pillows’ (Surguchev essay) 194
Universal, The (Russian cinema name) 23
Urania, The (St Petersburg cinema) 128
Uricchio, William xvi
‘utterance’ [l’énonciation], past and present 157–61

Vache, Jacques 40
Vakhtangov, Yevgeni 80
Varlamov, Konstantin 38
Vasilyeva, F. 24
Vechorka, T. 25
Verdi, Giuseppe 99
Vertov, Dziga 10, 58, 60, 120
Veselovsky, Sergei 178, 197
vibration, reception of 108–9
Vitagraph pictures 185
Volkonsky, Count Sergei 28
Voloshin, Maximilian 10, 39, 109
Voznesensky, Alexander 145
Vulcan, The (Moscow cinema) 17, 69
Vyaltseva, A. 165
Vysotskaya, Olga 4

Wagner, Richard 10, 18
Wandering Jew, image of 204
Wanton Wife, The (1915) 137
War and Peace (Tolstoy novel) 144
War and the World (Mayakovsky poem) 61
We Are Not Guilty of Their Blood! (Bonch-Tomashevsky,

1917) 275
Wedekind, Frank 174
Welles, Orson 106
Werner, Alexander 16, 114
Wild Force, A (Chaikovsky, 1916) 214
Wilde, Oscar 47
Wilhelm II (Kaiser) 65, 128, 130
Winter, O. 145–6, 184
Wise Man, The (Eisenstein theatre production) 101
Woolf, Virginia 159
World Reversed, The (Khlebnikov play) 60

Yablonsky, Sergei 63–4
Yampolsky, Mikhail 62, 120
Year 1812, The (Goncharov, Hansen, Uralsky et al., 1912)

56
Yermoliev, Iosif 108, 208
Young Person’s Guide to Letter-Writing 132
Yutkievich, Sergei 171

Zavelyov, Boris 207
Zeppelin, The (Russian cinema name) 2
Zhdanov, Ya. 32
Zhelyabuzhsky, Yuri 55

218 INDEX

Page 239

Zozulya, Yefim 96

INDEX 219

Zola, Emil 174
Zorkaya, Neya 26

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