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TitleDigital Drawing for Landscape Architecture: Contemporary Techniques and Tools for Digital Representation in Site Design
ISBN 139780470403976
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size29.0 MB
Total Pages323
Table of Contents
                            Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture: Contemporary Techniques and Tools for Digital Representation in Site Design
Contents
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Part 1: Concepts
	Chapter 1: Introduction/Overview
		Computing Basics
	Chapter 2: Analog and Digital Rendering Comparisons
		Efficiency and Editability
		Commonalities and Parallels
		Hybrid Techniques
	Chapter 3: Basic Overview of Digital Concepts
		Raster-Based Programs
		Vector Images
	Chapter 4: Digital Drawings in the Design Process
		Applications for Specific Tasks
		Moving between Analog and Digital Techniques
Part 2: Base Imagery
	Chapter 5: Setting up the Document
		Drawings at Multiple Sizes
	Chapter 6: Base Imagery and Scaling
		Aerial Photography
	Chapter 7: Hand-Drawn Linework
		Sketches in CAD
	Chapter 8: Source Imagery/Entourage
		Selections
Part 3: Design Diagrams
	Chapter 9: Introduction to Diagrams
		Passive Diagramming
		Active Diagramming
		Communication
		Abstraction
		Distilling and Culling
		Diagram Types
	Chapter 10: Setting up an Illustrator Drawing
		Document Size/Color Mode
		Based Programs for Design Diagrams
		Importing an Aerial Photo into Illustrator
		Link versus Embed
	Chapter 11: Linework in Illustrator
		Shape Tools
		Pen Tool
		Editing Tools
		Appearance of Lines and Shapes
		Stroke Weight and Dashed Lines
		Transparency
		Appearance Palette
	Chapter 12: Custom Linework
		Creating a Pattern Brush from Shapes
		Altering the Pattern Brush
		Updating the Pattern Brush with New Shapes
	Chapter 13: Symbols
		Creating Symbols from Custom Artwork
		Updating/Replacing Symbols
		Managing Symbols
		Creating Clipping Masks for Image Symbols
	Chapter 14: Text, Leaders, and Page Layout
		Text Tools
		Point Text
		Paragraph Text
		Differences between Point Text and Paragraph Text
		Formatting Text
		Custom Type Tools
		Creating Text with a Clipping Mask
		Leaders
		Effects versus Filters
		Layout
	Chapter 15: Exploded Axonometric Diagrams
		Creating an Exploded Axonometric Diagram
Part 4: Plan/Section Renderings
	Chapter 16: Introduction to Renderings
		Design Process
		Issues in Digital Media
		Illustrative Components
	Chapter 17: Importing PDF Linework
		PDF Linework
		Adjusting the Appearance of Linework
	Chapter 18: Applying Color to a Plan Rendering
		Technique 1: Applying Color with the Paint Bucket Tool
		Technique 2: Applying Color Using Adjustment Layers
		Saving Channels
	Chapter 19: Shading Techniques
		Selecting Fills
		Saving Selections
		Automating the Shading of Edges
	Chapter 20: Creating Textures
		Creating a Texture from an Existing Photograph
		Creating a Seamless Pattern Using the Offset Filter
		Creating the Pattern and Applying It to the Rendering
		Paint Bucket and Pattern Stamp
		Pattern Overlay
		Managing Patterns
		Texturing with Filters
	Chapter 21: Brushes
		Standard Brushes
		Custom Brushes
	Chapter 22: Plan Symbols with Smart Objects
		Creating Smart Objects
		Duplicating and Editing Smart Objects
		Managing Smart Objects
		Smart Filters
	Chapter 23: Managing Large Photoshop Files
		Flattening Layers
		Saving Layer Groups for Flattening
		Printing Issues
	Chapter 24: Creating a Section Elevation
		Methods
Part 5: Perspectives
	Chapter 25: Perspective Illustration
		Perspective Illustrations, Digital Sketches, and Design Communication
	Chapter 26: Creating a Base for a Perspective Drawing
		Composition
		Virtual Cameras
		Exporting and Rendering
	Chapter 27: Atmospheric Perspective
		Detail
		Color
		Contrast
		Brightness
		(2D) Photoshop Adjustment Layers, Opacity, and Screening
		(2D/3D) Z-Depth
		(3D) Atmosphere/Environment
		Understanding Level of Detail
	Chapter 28: Camera Match 3D Object to Site Photo
		Camera Match with 3ds Max 2009
		Match Photo with Google SketchUp
	Chapter 29: Create a Photoshop Perspective Collage
		Methods
	Chapter 30: Developing a Perspective Image in Photoshop from a 3D Model
		Base Model
		Adding Site Context
		Textures
		Adding Vegetation
		Adding Scale Figures
Bibliography
Image Credits
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

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Page 161

Chapter 16 Introduction to Renderings

147

scale, both vertically and horizontally. The cut line location of a section-elevation needs
to be marked, but an elevation can be designated by the direction it is viewing, for
example “Elevation North.”

Figure 16.2. AutoCAD and Photoshop section-elevation, Perkins Road underpass, Baton Rouge, LA.

Design Process
In the early stages of the design process, analysis and site definition normally rely on
the plan for mapping or spatial analysis. As a recording tool, the plan provides a high
degree of accuracy and precision in order to map known site features. Plans are also
deployed at early stages when developing conceptual diagrams or design sketches. It
is important that site representation not be limited solely to the plan in the early stages
of the design process. Sections and elevations can be used to map or illustrate existing
conditions and test concepts postulated in the plan. The plan will inform the elevation,
and explorations in elevation should come back to inform the plan.

During design development, orthographic drawings play a significant role in com-
municating design intent. The plan typically is used as the centerpiece, annotated and
expanded through sections and elevations. In most cases, care will be taken to render
the plan in order to represent pragmatic items such as architecture, materials, and veg-
etation, as well as experiential qualities of the site. The plan, section, and elevations no
longer inform one another, but instead create a clear representation of the proposed
design concept.

During construction documentation, the plan and section become legal documents,
intended to precisely represent the environment that will be built. The drawings must
communicate information without any room for interpretation. A line in the drawing
represents an edge of an object or condition that will be constructed in the real world.
The plan and associated sections and elevations must represent every aspect of the site
in order to be completely unambiguous.

Issues in Digital Media
When orthographic drawings are being created with analog media, a physical scale
is determined and the drawing is crafted at a specific size. This allows the designer to
understand the amount of detail necessary to represent the site and add or subtract

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Part 4 Plan/Section Renderings

148

as necessary. When the drawings are physical entities, it is easy to step away from the
drafting table or pin the work up on a wall in order to evaluate how well the drawing
communicates.

Digital media is different in this regard, as the workspace is a virtual space with a
tenuous tangible relationship to the real world. Applications such as AutoCAD allow
the designer to work in real-world units in order to create models at 1:1 that can be
viewed at any scale or from any vantage point. Photoshop and Illustrator create repre-
sentations of the real-world output. It is important to know what the output size will
be for the drawing as it is being created. In many cases, it is easy for a designer to focus
on details that will not be readily apparent when the illustration is printed or to lack the
necessary details to properly represent a space. It is advisable to run test prints, espe-
cially for novice digital artists in order to comprehend what the final results will be.

Figure 16.3. AutoCAD and Photoshop site-plan texturing, Bedford, MA.

Illustrative Components
The plan follows most conventions of graphic or illustrative standards in order to cre-
ate depth, materiality, and experience. Depth can be represented through a variety of
methods including lineweights, saturation, and screening. Typically, objects that are
the closest to the viewer will have the strongest lineweights and will be more saturated
in color. This can vary slightly in a landscape plan, as it may be necessary to render veg-
etation canopies slightly transparent in order to clearly represent the conditions on the
ground plane below. Simple shading on the shadow side of edges, vegetation, or archi-
tecture will begin to articulate the complexities of a three-dimensional landscape. The
sense of depth can also be heightened with consistent shadows, where the length of
the shadows are proportional to the elements casting the shadows.

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Page 322

Index

308

sky, 76–78, 285–288
Smart Filters, vi, 216
smart object file, 215

embedded, 214
smart object layer, 213
smart objects, vi, 213–217, 290, 293

new, 214–215
software, iii, ix–x, 2–5, 7–8, 11–14, 16–18,

27, 32, 34, 39, 44, 51, 53, 61, 63, 65
motion–graphics, 14
vector, 32, 34
vector–editing, 3, 13

Solid Color, 58–60, 78, 156, 158,
173–175, 179, 181, 222

Solid Color Adjustment Layer, 59
Source Imagery/Entourage, iv, 68–69, 71,

73, 75, 77, 79
spacing, 111, 122–123, 192, 205
speculative projects, 43
Standard Selection, 70–75
stroke, 13, 92, 100–104, 112, 126–127,

186, 188, 192, 197
Stroke colors. 100–101, 127, 130
stroke weight, 101–103, 109, 128, 130
Stroke Weight and Dashed Lines, v, 101
strokes palette, 101–102
style, 13, 190, 198, 200, 232, 281, 294
Stylize, 108–109, 127, 130
subject, 10, 28, 44, 237, 239
surface, 9, 14, 17, 22, 38, 186, 189,

193, 232
swatches, 101, 124, 199
swatches palette, 101
switch, 71–72, 75, 102, 187–188, 192,

214, 216, 284, 288, 292
symbol instances, 114–117
symbol library, 113, 118, 215
symbols, v, 17–18, 89, 105, 113–119, 213,

215–217
master, 113, 115
new, 115–116

symbols menu, 116–117
symbols palette, 113–119
synchronization, 260, 264

T
technologies, 7, 9, 297
TEMP layer, 168–169, 174
Temporal diagrams, 90
text, v, 34, 67, 69, 74, 92, 105, 112,

120–127, 129, 131, 133, 150, 244, 280
creating, v, 120, 124–125
vertical, 124

text box, 120–124, 127–129
paragraph, 121–122
regular, 125

text layers, 218
texture layer, 193, 195, 199

wetland, 290
textures, vi–vii, 4, 10, 18, 20–21, 32, 42,

68, 149, 164, 184, 189, 193–195,
197–201, 288, 290
grass, 292

texturing, vi, 17, 19–20, 193, 201, 281, 295
tiling, 44, 47–48, 61
tint, 29, 113
title, 120–121, 123–124
tolerance, 64–66, 170
Tolerance/Fuzziness, 64
tones, 11, 20–21, 29, 61, 67, 192, 267
Tool Presets, 203, 212
tools, ix–x, 2–5, 12–13, 15–17, 31–32,

62–63, 69, 88, 95–96, 105, 113, 120,
124, 131–132, 199–200, 249
basic Text, 120
common, 69
digital, viii–ix, 2, 257
distort, 274–275, 280
image–adjustment, 57
rectangle, 95–96

tools palette, 71, 73, 75, 100–101, 166,
203, 207

tracing, 18, 61, 282–283
tracking, 10, 122–124, 258
tracking changes, 122–123
transformations, 13, 17–19, 52, 113, 115,

289
transparency, v, 20, 45, 57, 71, 100–104,

130, 184, 215, 237, 244, 251, 267, 280

transparency palette, 102–103
trees, 62, 68, 75–80, 80, 162–163, 179,

181–182, 184, 188, 221–222, 246,
290, 293–294

type tool, 95, 105, 112, 120, 123–124

U
upsample, 26–27
upsampling, iii, 25–28, 39, 49–50

V
vanishing point lines, 264
vanishing points, 265–267, 282
vector, 23, 32, 34, 39, 238
vector–based programs, iii, 28, 39, 91,

124
Vector Images, iii, 27, 213
vector linework, 28, 102, 105, 214
vellum, 20–21, 38
versatility, 3, 230
video–editing software, 14
viewer, 148–149, 170, 188, 239–240,

245–248, 254, 257, 270, 282
viewport, 151–153, 238, 260, 266

W
warp, 284
water, 22, 285, 288
watercolor, 2, 22
water’s edge, 283–284, 288, 290
window, 51, 93, 103, 122, 261, 265,

285–286
work path, 186, 188, 191–192
workspace, iii, 15, 91, 95–97, 106, 115,

124, 132, 148

Z
z–depth, vii, 237, 254–255
zoom, 67, 79, 265–266, 289

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Page 323

DIGITAL DRAWING for
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

BRADLEY CANTRELL • WES MICHAELS

Foreword by Ken Smith

Contemporary Techniques and Tools
for Digital Representation in Site Design

4-COLOR GLOSSY ISBN 978-0-470-40397-6

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For a hundred years, pencil, pen, markers, and watercolor have been the principal tools of representation
for landscape architects and urban planners. Today, those hand-powered aids have been replaced by an
array of digital tools. Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture bridges the gap between the traditional
analog and the new digital tools and shows you how to apply timeless concepts of representation to
enhance your design work in digital media.

Building on the tried-and-true principles of analog representation, Digital Drawing for Landscape Architec-
ture explores specifi c techniques for creating landscape representation digitally. It explains the similarities
and differences between analog and digital rendering, and then walks you through the steps of creating
digitally rendered plans, perspectives, and diagrams. You’ll explore:

• Computing basics
• Raster and vector images
• Setting up the document
• Base imagery and scaling
• Hand-drawn linework and diagrams
• Text, leaders, and page layout
• Color, shading, and textures
• Creating a section elevation
• Perspective drawing
• Techniques for using the newest vers ions of Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop,

and Acrobat as well as older versions

With more than 500 full-color drawings and photographs alongside proven techniques, Digital Drawing
for Landscape Architecture will help you enhance your skills through a unique marriage of contemporary
methods and traditional rendering techniques.

BRADLEY CANTRELL is Principal of and Partner in Visual Logic Inc. and a founding partner in LND Digital
Workshop, digital media training and consulting. He is also Assistant Professor, School of Landscape
Architecture, Louisiana State University. He received an MLA II from the Harvard University Graduate
School of Design with a concentration in digital site representation and interactive spaces.

WES MICHAELS is a principal of Spackman Mossop+Michaels Landscape Architects and a partner in LND
Digital Workshop, digital media training and consulting. He is also an Assistant Professor of Landscape
Architecture, Louisiana State University. He received an MLA from the Harvard University Graduate School
of Design.

Architecture/Landscape

A full-color guide to digital landscape representation

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Cover Image: Scout Island Strategic Plan by Spackman Mossop+Michaels

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