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TitleDigital Cinema : The Revolution in Cinematography, Post-Production, and Distribution
PublisherMcGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.9 MB
Total Pages225
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Digital Cinema

http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071467009

Page 112

Fig15-7.pdf


7

EFILM: A Case
Study in Digital

Intermediates

Digital technologies have been improving the motion-picture
postproduction process for more than a decade. Nonlinear edit-
ing, computer graphics and compositing, digital color correc-
tion, and high-definition film scanning and recording have all
improved the creative control filmmakers have over the final
look of their 35mm-originated images. As computer storage
continues to grow in capacity and decline in price, the ability to
“warehouse” all the uncompressed data of a theatrical motion
picture while it’s being creatively modified and manipulated
becomes increasingly feasible. This process, generally referred
to as “digital intermediate”—in which original film-acquired
images are scanned into data and then artistically processed
in what is literally an intermediate step before being output to
film again—has become a powerful new creative tool.

EFILM, a Hollywood-based facility, provides a good “snap-
shot” of the current state of the digital intermediate (DI)
process, as of 2005. According to EFILM’s Vice President of
Corporate Development Bob Eicholz, “What EFILM does is
acquire images, make them look better, and then deliver them
in one format or another. That’s our business.”

The simplicity of Eicholz’s statement belies the leading-
edge technology and highly sophisticated workflows that
EFILM has evolved during its nine-year history (Figure 7-1). It’s
a combination that’s empowering filmmakers with an unprece-
dented array of new visual storytelling tools while establishing
the company as one of the world’s leading practitioners of DI,
a term Eicholz defines by the sum of its parts.

In This Chapter…

Full Capabilities

The Science of Color

New Workflows

Conforming

Computer Power

It’s Worth It

McKernan 07 3/4/05 9:15 AM Page 97

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

In This Chapter…

Full Capabilities

The Science of Color

New Workflows

Conforming

Computer Power

It’s Worth It

Page 113

“The digital intermediate process is really all of our core-business
service lines wrapped into one, and it involves entire films instead of just
small pieces of them,” he explains. “One part of that core business is film
scanning, usually for production companies, postproduction facilities, and
visual effects houses.”

Full Capabilities

EFILM owns three IMAGICA IMAGER XE film scanners, which convert
35mm film frames into 10-bit RGB image data at the rate of one frame
every four seconds for 2,000-line (2K resolution) imaging and double that
for 4K. On the other end of the DI equation, EFILM is equipped with 13
ARRI Laser recorders to print finished digital motion-picture data back to
35mm film.

“We have the world’s largest installation of ARRI Lasers,” Eicholz con-
tinues. “Scanning clients return to us once they’ve finished creating their
effects so we can record their material back to film. That film then goes to
the lab for processing of negatives ready to print.”

98 Digital Cinema

Figure 7-1

EFILM President Joe
Matza (left) and VP of
Corporate Development
Bob Eicholz in one of
the Hollywood-based
company’s four digital
color-timing suites.
(Photo by William
Norton Photography.)

Page 224

undercranking, 42
Unity, by Avid, 45
universal digital master, 94
Universal Studios, 118, 171
University of Southern California, 132
University of Utah, 15
Usborne, Nicola, 146

vacuum tubes, 9
Valentino, Rudolph, 9
Van Helsing, 100, 185
variable-length encoding, 61
Varicam camera (Panasonic), 76–77,

76, 141–144
VariCamps, 143
vaudeville, 7
VHS tape, 17, 18
video, 10, 16, 17, 19–21
VideoCube workstation, 89
Videography, 11
videotape, 13, 88
videotape recorders (VTR), 13, 87
da Vinci, Leonardo, 2
Viper (Thomson), 72–73, 73, 145,

154, 156
Visionbox Media Group, 131–138.

See also independent film-mak-
ing; Manulius, John

visual effects, 19, 86–87, 90, 95–96,
127, 128

visually lossless compression, 54, 62
Vitaphone system, 9
Vol’fke, 12
VR-1000 VTR (Ampex), 87

Warner Brothers, 8, 9, 171, 174
watermarking, 185

Wavefront, 90
wavelets, in compression, 58–59, 59
We Were Soldiers, 102
Weiller, 11
Welcome Home Roxy Carmichael, 140
Welles, Orson, 118
Whitney, John Jr., 19
Whitney, Mark, 19
Whitney, Michael, 19
wide screen movies, 9
Wild Wild West, 153
Willow, 31
Wilson, Woodrow, 9
Windows Media 9 Series, 188
workflow evolution in postproduction,

102
World Cup Soccer, 191
WorldCam (Thomson), 77

XL2 camcorder (Canon), 81, 145, 158
XYZ color space, 57

Y, CB, CR video, 57
Y, CO, CG, 57
Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The,

27
Young Sherlock Holmes, 24
YUV format, 47

Zahn, Bob, 39, 154
ZCG Corporation, 147
Zezza, Alessandro, 137
Zezza, Lulu, 137
Zoetrope, 4
zoom, 128
Zoopraxiscope, 5
Zworykin, Vladimir Kosma, 12

Index 209

Page 225

Fig15-7.pdf


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Brian McKernan has been writing about media technologies for more than
25 years, and is the founding editor of Digital Cinema magazine. The
coeditor of McGraw-Hill’s Creating Digital Content, he was editor of
Videography magazine from 1988 to 1999 and the Age of Videography
twentieth anniversary edition (1996). He originated Day Two of the Digital
Cinema Summit at the annual National Association of Broadcasters’ con-
ference and is the cofounder of the Digital Cinema Society.

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

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