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TitleDesign for Outdoor Recreation
PublisherTaylor & Francis
ISBN 139780415441728
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size38.0 MB
Total Pages241
Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Title
Copyright
Contents
Acknowledgements
Introduction
One Recreation planning
Two Design concepts for outdoor recreation
Three The journey to the destination
Four Providing visitor information
Five Parking the car
Six Toilet facilities
Seven Picnicking
Eight Children’s play
Nine Trails
Ten Water-based recreation
Eleven Wildlife viewing
Twelve Design for overnight visitors
Thirteen Interpretation
Fourteen Comprehensive site design
Bibliography
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Design for

Outdoor Recreation

Page 120

TRAILS 111

Strenuous: rough conditions underfoot and steep
slopes, making hiking boots essential. Where
paths lead to higher altitudes there may be sudden
changes in weather. Above the tree-line the path
may be difficult to detect, and so map and compass
skills are likely to be needed. These types of routes
include mountain paths, long-distance trails, miners
and stalkers paths.

• Beyond these categories come routes that demand
greater physical fitness, stamina and special equipment,
and so are beyond the scope of this discussion.

Once the trail has been categorized, a specification
can be developed for an appropriate type of surface.
This is most important for trails intended for use by
people with disabilities (barrier-free). To enable people
to choose trails suited to their individual capabilities, a

(a) The symbols make it clear what kind of trail conditions a walker

can expect. (b) These symbols help people with disabilities to decide

whether they want to attempt a particular trail. Both sets of symbols

are used by Forest Enterprise in Britain.

(a) These symbols are used in the USA. A useful way of showing the

actual trail conditions for anyone to decide if they want to follow it.

(b) Symbols showing the grading system � based on skiing grades � the

graphics are clumsy compared with the British example earlier.

a

b

a

b

Page 121

DESIGN FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION112

star rating system was devised by the British Forestry
Commission based on surface criteria set out by the
Royal Association for Disability and Rehabilitation:

Three stars indicates a walk with gradients no
greater than 1 in 40 (up to 1 in 20 for lengths no
longer than 10 m/11 yd) and with a smooth, hard
surface without obstruction or potholes.
Two stars indicates a walk with gradients up to 1
in 20 for stretches no longer than 100m/111 yd and
with a smooth, hard surface with few obstructions
or potholes.
One star indicates a walk with gradients of up to
1 in 12 for stretches no longer than 20m/22yd and
with sections of irregular surface no longer than
5m/5.3 yds.

It is a good idea to provide information about the
conditions so that people with a disability can decide
if it is likely to be accessible to them. A simple map
showing the different stretches of different surface,
gradient, side slope or obstacles can be very helpful.







This path in a Scottish forest has some problems for disabled users that

need to be checked. The gradient may be marginally acceptable as

long as the person pushing the chair is strong enough and the surfacing

generally �rm and smooth enough but the roots protruding from the

surface may be enough to create a barrier. This is something that could

easily be �xed by adding some surfacing.

This diagram shows a method of presenting information on path

conditions so that a potential visitor can decide beforehand if they are

capable of following all or part of the route.

Page 240

INDEX 231

flush 72–4
vault (pit or big drop) 72–3, 72

and vandalism 76
year round use 76, 76

Tongariro Crossing (New Zealand)
108

tourism agencies 14
traditional architecture 206–7
traffic jams 14
trailer caravans/tent-trailers

open sites for 180–1
spur sites for 182–4, 183

trails 23, 32, 105–55, 214
benches 139–41, 140
and boardwalks 118–20, 118, 119,

120
categorization of 110–12, 111
construction principles 110---13
construction and surfacing of path

115–24
cross-country ski 154–5
design of route 106–10

lengths of trail 107–8, 108
sequences of experiences

108–10, 109
survey of landscape 106, 106

and disabled visitors 106, 110, 112,
112, 141

and dogs 150–1, 150
drainage 113–15, 113, 114, 116
entrance 138
fitness or trim 149–50, 150
handrails 127, 128, 129
horse 151–3, 151, 152
information on 32, 111, 203–4, 203
play 98–9, 100
purpose of 105–6
sloping ground 120–3, 121
star rating system 112
steps, ramps and changes in level

124–7, 124, 125
stiles and gates 148–9, 149
and storytelling 201
stream crossings 129–36
trailside design and management

141–2, 141, 142
trailside shelters 146–8, 147
tree-top 145–6, 146
viewpoints 142–5
waymarking see waymarking
zoning of 19

travelling to destination see journey to
destination

tree-top trails 145–6, 146
trees

and campsites 177, 179
and car parks 57
fastening of signs to 138
opportunities for play 97
painting of with markings 138
and picnic areas 81–2, 82

Trollheimen (Norway) 194
Troodos Mountains (Cyprus) 79
trussed beam bridges 130, 133, 133
tundra regions 16
turnstiles 148
typeface

leaflets 202
threshold signs 36
webpages 33

United States
Interstate system 4
Mexican immigration 11
national forests 21
national parks 3, 4, 27, 200 see

also US National Park Service
strategic planning 9

urban setting 20–1, 22
urbanization 3, 5
US Forest Service 19, 27
US National Park Service 34, 50, 197,

205

vandalism 52
and toilet blocks 76

vault (pit or big drop) toilets 72–3,
72

vegetation 16
and campsites 179
trailside management of 141–2
types of 15
and wildlife management 169

vehicle control devices 62–4
earth mounds 61, 62, 64
fences 64, 64
hedges 63, 64
log barriers 62–3, 63, 64
log posts 63–4, 63
rocks 62, 62, 64
walls 64, 64

vehicle management 64–5

vehicle management signs 45, 64–5,
65

vehicle dimensions 57
vernacular architecture 206–7
viewing platforms 145, 145, 168
viewing towers 144–5, 144
viewpoints, trail 142–5

canopied 143, 143
feature 144
filtered 143, 143
focal 143–4, 143
framed 143, 143
panoramic 142, 142

visitor centres 4, 42, 199, 200, 205–7,
207

visitor charges 14
visitor information see information,

visitor
visitor monitoring 210
volcanic lava 16

walls
rockwork 160, 160
toilet block 78
as vehicle control device 64, 64

Walls of Jerusalem National Park
(Tasmania) 127

warning signs 31, 38
water

attractiveness of 15
and children’s play 97, 101–2, 102
crossing of see stream crossing
drinking 91

water-based recreation 157–72
bathing areas 159–62
boating facilities 162–6
fishing 157–9
lakeshore protection 160
site layout 157

wayfinding 35, 43
waymarking 22, 23, 45, 136–9, 137

and cycle trails 154
fastening signs to trees 138
painting rocks 138
painting trees 138
posts 138, 138, 139

weather see climate
web-cams 206
websites 33–4
Westskoven (Copenhagen) 88
wetlands 170, 170

Page 241

DESIGN FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION232

Whistler (British Columbia) 160
wilderness

contrast between city and 25–6
wildlife

and ecological analysis 214
wildlife viewing 98, 110, 167–72

design of wildlife areas 169–72,
170, 171

hide layout and design 167–8, 168
protecting of wildlife 167

Williamson Lake Provincial Park
(Alberta) 159

wind-down stretch of road 41–2, 42
windows

in hides 168
in timber cabins 195
in toilet blocks 75

wood see timber
wood chips 104, 123
wood stains 52, 85
wooden bridges 131–2

wooden posts
used for on-site panels 203–4
used for waymarking 138, 138,

139
wooden signboards 48–9, 51–2, 51
work patterns 12
Working Time Directive 12
Wyoming 4

Yosemite National Park (California)
3, 199

youth camping sites 184, 184

zoning 15, 19–20, 19
and children’s play areas 98
lakes 161
and Recreation Opportunity

Spectrum 20–2
rivers 161
seasonal 19
trails 19

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