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TitleDepth of Field: Stanley Kubrick, Film, and the Uses of History
PublisherUniversity of Wisconsin Press
ISBN 139780299216108
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size1.9 MB
Total Pages342
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Acknowledgments
Introduction: Deep Focus - Geoffrey Cocks, James Diedrick, and Glenn Perusek
First Take: Words and Pictures
	The Written Word and the Very Visual Stanley Kubrick - Vincent Lobrutto
	Writing The Shining - Diane Johnson
	The Pumpkinifcation of Stanley K. - Frederic Raphael
Mazes and Meanings
	Kubrick’s Armies: Strategy, Hierarchy, and Motive in the War Films of Stanley Kubrick - Glenn Perusek
	Subjected Wills: The Antihumanism of Kubrick’s Later Films - Pat J. Gehrke and G. L . Ercolini
	2001: A Cold Descent - Mark Crispin Miller
	Deviant Subjects in Foucault and A Clockwork Orange: Criminological Constructions of Subjectivity - Pat J. Gehrke
	Pictures, Plurality, and Puns: A Visual Approach to Barry Lyndon - Bille Wickre
	Death by Typewriter: Stanley Kubrick, the Holocaust, andThe Shining - Geoffrey Cocks
	Full-Metal-Jacketing, or Masculinity in the Making - Paula Willoquet-Maricondi
Final Take: Eyes Wide Shut
	In Dreams Begin Responsibilities - Jonathan Rosenbaum
	Freud, Schnitzler, and Eyes Wide Shut - Peter Loewenberg
	Introducing Sociology - Tim Kreider
Filmography
Bibliography
Contributors
Index
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Depth of Field



Page 171

involving painful electric shocks, as a method to train people not to smoke,
not to drink, to be faithful in their marriages, and to avoid overeating.42
Pressures manifest in discourses and institutions drove individuals to desire
conformity and avoid social stigma or discrimination. Aversion therapy
became a means to surrender the self to science in order to aVect a “cure.”
In such circumstances, anything socially unacceptable can be deWned as
an illness needing to be cured. For example, Sansweet discussed the use
of aversion therapy to “cure” homosexuality. He described the case of
Martin, a homosexual male who was discriminated against and pressured
enough that he sought out a doctor to “cure” him of his sexual orienta-
tion.43 The doctor showed Martin slides of athletic nude men, and for as
long as he looked at them he received an intense electric shock to the inside
of one thigh. Upon switching to a picture of an attractive nude woman,
the shock would cease, only to resume as soon as another nude male ap-
peared. Doctors conditioned him to be unable to have a homosexual rela-
tionship, though they could not change his sexual preference. Anything
socially perceived as deviant can become an illness subject to the legitimacy
and authority of scientiWc cure.

Although Foucault and Kubrick recognize the violence of the law and
the economy, they are uniquely troubled by the power of behavioral sci-
ences to preclude choice on the part of subjects. In Alex’s world as a vio-
lent criminal, or even as prisoner, the broken body “restored the order of
the body politic and became a human sacriWce.”44 Alex accomplished this
through the violent discipline of his gang, as did the wardens and guards
through constant threats and occasional uses of violence. However, as a
patient and as a citizen it is no longer the broken body but the broken
mind that restores the body politic. This restoration is not completed
through fear or sacriWce, but rather through faith in the sciences and the
state as guardians of society’s progressive projects. Politics moves from the
body to the mind, and Alex moves from subject to object, until he can re-
politicize his new subjectivity.

This description of the subject as object, a media-saturated, norm-
regulated, pseudo-free and yet sentient being, describes the shift in contem-
porary culture outlined by Kenneth Gergen.45 In accepting the conditions
of being (post)modern citizens—media-subjects—we also become perfect
victims. Alex’s Wnal reaction to his conditioning is to take a leap from a win-
dow and dive headWrst (headlong) into the blacktop. He is reborn on the
other side, not as reincarnation or resurrection but in the Wnal surrendering
of the self. In the surrender of life itself one again Wnds ways to renew a

160 pat j. gehrke

Page 172

position as subject and agent in the world. Rather than Wght his condi-
tioning, Alex embraces it as the limits of a new subjectivity and a new pol-
itics. Alex’s desires are similar, though mutated with his subjectivity. That
he exerts his violence through political and economic channels rather than
with a Wst or knife only seems a cure because we are dull to the everyday
violence of our politics and economy.

Kubrick’s Wlm makes plain to us, through the narrative of a single sub-
ject, the instability of the lines between criminal, convict, patient, and
citizen. Likewise, Foucault sought to destabilize our common distinctions
between these positions. As a political activist Foucault sought to “question
the social and moral distinction between the innocent and the guilty.”46
Blurring the lines between these roles, as Foucault and Kubrick do, destabil-
izes the acceptance of the violence in law, science, economics, and politics
as uniquely legitimate. It also opens new ways of thinking about ourselves
as subjects and the politics of (post)modern subjectivity.

Power itself is not bad, and its omnipresence marks it as an intrinsic part
of social existence. However, a Wxed relationship of domination is contrary
to what Foucault perceives as a necessary prerequisite for ethics: choice.47
Foucault notes that many relationships in contemporary society increas-
ingly approach a state of domination, which he deWned as when the power
relationship becomes invariable, radically restricting any possible eVective
resistance.48 Foucault describes the role of the intellectual and the goal of
discourse in general as the minimization of domination and the opening
of the game of truth to as many voices as possible.49 The focus on the sub-
ject is critical to this project for Foucault and for Kubrick. Just as Kubrick
gives us the direct voice of Alex, through voice-over, so does Foucault seek
to open spaces where the silenced might speak. For example, his work with
the Information Group on Prisons was not a humanist call for better prison
conditions but sought to include the voices of the prisoners themselves in
the discourse of prison policies.50

In the 1960s and 1970s, these projects were just beginning points of re-
sistance against the dominating inXuence of behavioral sciences. It is impor-
tant to remember that in roughly the same period as Foucault’s work on
madness and discipline and Kubrick’s Orange, aversion therapy went from
being an obscure and unpopular Weld to one of the most popular elements
of psychology. In 1960 it was unheard of, but between 1965 and 1975 hun-
dreds of aversion therapy studies were printed in psychological and medical
journals.51 Both Foucault and Kubrick were articulations of this historical
moment. Today we still confront these issues. Yet, when we invoke scholars

Deviant Subjects in Foucault and A Clockwork Orange 161

Page 341

will: A Clockwork Orange and investi-
gation of, 19, 44, 112, 149, 156–57;
domination and loss of free, 161; as
illusion, 113; as reactive rather than
proactive, 112–13; subjection of, 18,
108–14, 117–88, 156

Williams, Dale, 114
Williams, Tony, 226, 234
Willingham, Calder, 13–14, 51n12;

collaboration with, 37, 38, 51n13
Willoquet-Maricondi, Paula: cited,

21–22, 118; on otherness, 118
Wise, Robert, 198
wolves, 201
women: in Eyes Wide Shut, 23, 24, 113;

in Fear and Desire, 34; German
singing girl in Paths of Glory, 89, 95,
193; Kubrick representation of,
21–22; misogyny, 110, 212, 219,

237n4; motherhood in Barry Lyn-
don, 176, 178, ���; relative absence
of, 22; sexual objectiWcation of, 110,
287–88, 292; sniper in Full Metal
Jacket, 104, 115, 118, 219, 220, 226,
234, 237n4, 292; strength of charac-
ters, 22; in ����, 130–31, 132

Writer’s Guild Award, 41
writing credits: for A.I., 49; auteur

status and, 41; black list and, 38; for
A Clockwork Orange, 45; for Dr.
Strangelove, 41; for early Wlms, 34,
35, 36, 37, 50n10; for Eyes Wide
Shut, 48–49; for Full Metal Jacket,
47; for Lolita, 39; for Paths of Glory,
36, 50n13; for Spartacus, 38–39; for
����, 43

Zweig, Stefan, 37

330 index

Page 342

Wisconsin Film Studies
patrick mcgilligan

Marked Women: Prostitutes and Prostitution in the Cinema
russell campbell

Depth of Field: Stanley Kubrick, Film, and the Uses of History
Edited by

geoffrey cocks, james diedrick, and glenn perusek

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