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TitleCycles, Sequels, Spin-offs, Remakes, and Reboots: Multiplicities in Film and Television
PublisherUniversity of Texas Press
ISBN 139781477308172
CategoryArts - Film
File Size10.3 MB
Total Pages368
Table of Contents
1. Introduction (Amanda Ann Klein and R. Barton Palmer)
2. The Kissing Cycle, Mashers, and (White) Women in the American City (Amanda Ann Klein)
3. Descended from Hercules: Masculine Anxiety in the Peplum (Robert Rushing)
4. The American Postwar Semidocumentary Cycle: Factual Dramatizations (R. Barton Palmer)
5. Cycle Consciousness and the White Audience in Black Film Writing: The 1949–1950 "Race Problem" Cycle and the African American Press (Steven Doles)
6. Vicious Cycle: Jaws and Revenge-of-Nature Films of the 1970s (Constantine Verevis)
7. Familiar Otherness: On the Contemporary Cross-Cultural Remake (Chelsey Crawford)
8. Anime's Dangerous Innocents: Millennial Anxieties, Gender Crises, and the Shōjo Body as a Weapon (Elizabeth Birmingham)
9. It's Only a Film, Isn't It? Policy Paranoia Thrillers of the War on Terror (Vincent M. Gaine)
10. Doing Dumbledore: Actor-Character Bonding and Accretionary Performance (Murray Pomerance)
11. A Lagosian Lady Gaga: Cross-Cultural Identification in Nollywood's Anti-Biopic Cycle (Noah Tsika)
12. Re-solving Crimes: A Cycle of TV Detective Partnerships (Sarah Kornfield)
13. Smart TV: Showtime's "Bad Mommies" Cycle (Claire Perkins)
14. My Generation(s): Cycles, Branding, and Renewal in E4's Skins (Faye Woods)
15. Extended Attractions: Recut Trailers, Film Promotion, and Audience Desire (Kathleen Williams)
16. Retro-Remaking: The 1980s Film Cycle in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema (Kathleen Loock)
17. I Can't Lead This Vacation Anymore: Mumblecore's American Man (Amy Borden)
18. Serialized Killers: Prebooting Horror in Bates Motel and Hannibal (Andrew Scahill)
List of Contributors
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Cycles, Sequels, Spin-offs, Remakes, and Reboots

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doing dumbledore 173

popular appeal of the fi lms in which he has appeared. The audience
both expects and desires to see him again, and so the alteration visi-
ble when another actor takes his place must be accounted for. So it is
that we fi nd producers and marketers employing a variety of tactics
to make clear to paying customers why, in effect, they are not getting
the product they believe they have paid for; or else, why they might
reasonably be willing to pay afresh for a product that advance public-
ity warns them has changed. Such publicity will likely address par-
ticular questions—what sort of change is in the works, why it is hap-
pening, and how reassuring a claim can be made that no substantial
detraction will mar the overall narrative scheme—in some way, not
only in the screen credits but also through press reports, industrially
circulated gossip, or overt manipulations of screen action. Unless, of
course, actor substitutions can be hidden.

On January 12, 1977, for example, twenty-fi ve-year-old Mark
Hamill was scheduled to fi lm some work for George Lucas’s Star
Wars, involving some pickup shots with him as Luke Skywalker in
his landspeeder. But Hamill was undergoing emergency facial sur-
gery, having suffered a broken nose and cheek in a Malibu automo-
bile accident the previous day. The double who was engaged in his
place was indistinguishable from the original, and so he fully inher-
ited Hamill’s actor-character bond for those shots, in a sense becom-
ing “Hamill playing Skywalker.” Hamill’s face henceforward had vis-
ible scars and a slightly warped mouth, all this sufficiently detectable
to the lens that Lucas felt the need to produce a cover account for The
Empire Strikes Back (1980), the actor’s next appearance as Luke. On
the planet Hoth, he is attacked and ravaged by a wampa, suffering
“wounds to his face.” Now, and at least for the Lucas fi lms, what au-
diences would have seen on Mark’s face was transplanted to Luke’s.

In every operative moment of an actor-character alignment, the
balance of the audience’s attention is thrown to one or the other pole,
in this case toward Skywalker or toward Hamill. Directors and pro-
ducers hope that the gaze fi xes on the character and perceives char-
acter stability. Yet viewers, no matter their ages, quickly learn that
characters themselves do not work in movies, and that when sequels
are made, the reprise of an adored performance can happen only if an
actor agrees to go along. In Hamill’s case, if there had been no account
explaining the facial alteration of Luke Skywalker, audiences would
have found themselves looking through Luke to the transmogrifi ed
Mark, whose face would have irrepressibly emerged from beneath the

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Page 185

174 murray pomerance

characterological mask. Once the account was provided, however, it
could be only Skywalker whose face had changed, the Skywalker who
inhabits the fi ctional world of Star Wars, where he had been, and now
presumably remains, embedded. To concentrate on Mark instead of
Luke is to withdraw to the production frame—to see editing, scor-
ing, budgeting, contracting, and the exchange of money, rather than
to experience the thrill of attacking the Empire. While viewers “see
money” when they read about fi lms in the newspapers or on Face-
book, they prefer not to see money, unless it is diegetic money, when
they are watching an actual fi lm. In his rather discourteous New
York Times review, Vincent Canby (1980) responded to the “new”
Luke by literally erasing the actor beneath him: “Hamill may one
day become a real movie star, an identifi able personality, but right
now it’s difficult to remember what he looks like.”

An interesting, purely visual accounting technique was used by
Tim Burton in managing the Harvey Dent character between his
original appearance in Batman (1989) and his succeeding one in Bat-
man Forever (1995).3 Billy Dee Williams, who had established an
actor- character bond as Dent in the fi rst fi lm, knew that in the en-
suing script Dent would suffer facial alteration and emerge as Two-
Face. He accepted the role, indeed, only on the proviso that in Bat-
man Forever it would be his privilege to do schizoid Harvey. Warner
Bros. made the decision, however, to use Tommy Lee Jones, who came
across as a “walking make-up marvel” (Maslin 1995). The transfor-
mation of the actor-character bond in this case was optically dra-
matic, since Williams is African American and Jones is Caucasian.
The scarred portion of Jones’s Two-Face face was designed by Rick
Baker and his team as a very dark purple fi eld, congruent with scar-
ring and circulatory problems but at the same time intermediate as a
color between normal Caucasian and normal African American skin
tones. The new Two-Face was a kind of hybrid of Jones and Williams
in the most superfi cial way, enough so to make it possible for viewers
to see continuity where in fact there was none.

Continuity accounting must often be unpremeditated. Having es-
tablished a healthy career by playing the athletically gifted Super-
man again and again between 1978 and 1987, Christopher Reeve
more or less retired to television for seven years and reemerged as
the wheelchair-bound Dempsey Cain in Above Suspicion (1995). On
May 27, 1995, only six days after this fi lm opened, he was thrown
from a horse in Virginia, received injuries to his spinal cord, and be-

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Page 367

356 index

Titanic (1997, James Cameron), 193,
261–262, 271–274, 276, 281

Titanic: The Sequel (2006, Mrderek-
johnson), 272, 274, 276

Titanic II: If Jack Had Lived (2009,
Ryoungjohn85), 272

Titanic 2: Rose’s Secret (2010, Rianiel-
tube), 274

Tommy Atkins in the Park (1898, Rob-
ert W. Paul), 28, 31, 39

Tony Manero (2008, Pablo Larrain),

Top Hat (1935, Mark Sandrich), 167
Top of the Lake (TV series), 228
Torv, Anna, 208
Touré, Petit, 185
Towering Inferno, The (1974, John

Guillermin), 98
Tracy, Keegan Connor, 324
Tracy, Spencer, 171
Transformers (2007, Michael Bay), 6,

167, 277, 281, 284
Trapeze Disrobing Act (1901, Edison

Manufacturing Co.), 34
Trasiter, Bryce. 300
Travolta, John, 170, 185
TRON (1982, Steven Lisberger), 283
TRON: Legacy (2010, Joseph Kosin-

sky), 277, 279, 281, 283–286, 296
Trowbridge, Robin, 285, 297
True Lies (1994, James Cameron), 262
Truffaut, François, 171
Tsika, Noah, vi, 17, 184–201, 338
Tunney, Robin, 205
Twentieth Century–Fox, 7, 65–67, 78,

87, 93, 164, 202, 208, 219–220, 224,

21 Jump Street (2012, Phil Lord and
Chris Miller), 277, 281, 287, 289–

Twilight (fi lm series), 42, 262
Twin Peaks (TV series), 324–325

Ueda, Shigeru, 131
“Umbrella” (song), 195
Uncle Josh at the Moving Picture

Show (1902, Edwin S. Porter), 29

Uncle Kent (2011, Joe Swanberg), 300–
301, 304, 308–309, 311

Uninvited, The (2009, Charles and
Thomas Guard), 115, 319

United States of Tara (TV series), 17,
223, 225, 229, 233, 238

Universal Pictures, 7, 20, 97, 100–102,

Urbanski, Heather, 13, 21

Vadim, Roger, 185
Valentino (2002, Adim Williams), 193
Valette, Eric, 115
VanDerWerff, Todd, 10, 20–21
van Heijningen, Mathijs Jr., 277
Van Peebles, Melvin, 85
Van Voorhis, Westbrook, 63
Veep (TV series), 228
Verbinski, Gore, 112, 119–120, 319
Verevis, Constantine, v, 13, 16, 21, 96–

111, 278, 280, 283, 286, 290, 295,
297–298, 322, 334, 338

Verhoeven, Paul, 184
Vidor, King, 84
Voight, Jon, 153

Wahlberg, Mark, 155
Walk East on Beacon (1952, Alfred L.

Werker), 15, 70
Walker, Robert, 172
Wallem, Linda, 229
Walters, Julie, 176
Walton, Fred, 318
Waltz, Tom, 284
Ward, Mateus, 232
Warner Bros., 7, 174, 297
Washington, Denzel, 152
Wasserman, Lew, 100
Watson, Emma, 177, 217–218
Watts, Naomi, 119, 156
Waxman, Heather, 106
Wayne, John, 166
Weber, Brenda, 11, 20–21
Wee, Valerie, 245, 259
Weed, A. E., 34
Weeds (TV series), 17, 222–225, 229–

234, 238

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Page 368

index 357

Weixler, Jess, 305
Wendy and Lucy (2008, Kelly Reich-

ardt), 299
Werker, Alfred L., 15, 70–71, 80, 92
West Africa, 185, 188, 190, 192, 338
Westwick, Ed, 245
What Happened in the Tunnel (1903,

Edwin S. Porter), 28, 34–37, 39
What the Vicar Saw (1899, Robert W.

Paul), 28
Wheel of Fortune (TV series), 206
When a Stranger Calls (1979, Fred Wal-

ton), 318
Whishaw, Ben, 175
White, Merry, 134, 146
Whitfi eld, Andy, 55
Whole Dam Family and the Dam Dog,

The (1905, Edwin S. Porter), 8–9
Wicker Man, The (1973, Robin Hardy),

Widow Jones, The (1895, John J. Mc-

Nally), 27
Wilbur, Crane, 69
Wilder, Billy, 83
Wilkins, Rhett, 310
Williams, Adim, 184, 187, 193
Williams, Billy Dee, 174
Williams, Deniece, 288
Williams, Kathleen, vi, 17–18, 260–

277, 338
Williams, Linda, 28, 36, 38–40, 53, 59
Williams, Tennessee, 10
Willis, Sharon, 313, 315
Wilson, Larissa, 246
Winer, Jason, 277
Winslet, Kate, 261, 271–273, 275
Wise, Robert, 7
Witherspoon, Reese, 152
Wizard of Oz, The (1939, Victor Flem-

ing), 200
WMD: Weapons of Mass Deception

(2004, Danny Schechter), 153, 163
Wonderfalls (TV series), 320
Woo, John, 170

Woods, Faye, vi, 18, 240–259, 338
Wormald, Kenny, 288
Wrath of the Titans (2012, Jonathan

Liebesman), 58, 281
Wuthering Heights (2011, Andrea Ar-

nold), 257
Wyler, William, 80
Wynn, Marty, 70

X-Files, The (TV series), 202, 204, 207–
208, 219, 319, 332

X-Men Evolution (TV series), 317

Yamaguchi, Yuji, 141
Yates, Peter, 101
Yor, the Hunter from the Future/Il

mondo di Yor (1983, Antonio Mar-
gheriti), 50

Young Adult (2011, Jason Reitman),

Young Hercules (TV series), 317
Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, The

(TV series), 317
Young Mr. Lincoln (1939, John Ford),

168, 183
You Only Live Twice (1967, Lewis Gil-

bert), 169, 172
YouTube (website), 18–19, 145, 158,

192, 194, 197–198, 201, 260, 262–
263, 270–271, 275–276

Y Tu Mamá También (2001, Alfonso
Cuarón), 180

Zanuck, Darryl F., 65–68, 73, 78, 93,

Zebersky, Laura, 284
Zemeckis, Robert, 260
Zero Dark Thirty (2012, Kathryn Bi ge-

low), 162
Zimbalist, Stephanie, 219
Zinnemann, Fred, 69
Zombie, Rob, 323
Zwart, Harold, 277

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