Download Constantinople to Cordoba: Dismantling Ancient Architecture in the East, North Africa and Islamic Spain PDF

TitleConstantinople to Cordoba: Dismantling Ancient Architecture in the East, North Africa and Islamic Spain
PublisherBrill Academic Pub
ISBN 139789004212466
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size14.5 MB
Total Pages573
Table of Contents
                            Contents
Preface
Introduction
	Why Constantinople to Córdoba?
	Scope of the Book
	Overview of Contents
	Importance of the Subject
	Discovering Under-Populated Landscapes
		Travelling with Texts
		Landscapes of Ruins
		But Which Antiquity?
		Antiquities on the Move
		Investigating Re-use
	Quality and Nature of the Evidence
		Pilgrims & Scholars
		New Reasons for Travel
		Improving Communications, Disappearing Monuments
	Varieties of Monuments and Remains
	Interesting and Useful Antiquities: A Brief Census
	Pride and Prejudice
		And to Make an End Is to Make a Beginning
		Mis-use in Re-use
		Autres Temps, Autres Moeurs
	Ruins and Re-use as Constants
Section One The Mediaeval Landscape and Its Features
Chapter One The Mediaeval Landscape: An Overview
	Dismantling to Destruction
	Population Levels and Ancient Buildings
		Smaller Populations in the Middle Ages
		Growing Towns, Diminishing Antiquities
		Carthage & Tunis
	Marble: The Stamp of Greece and Rome
		A Profusion of Antiquities
		Continuing Amazement
	Untouched Remains, Abandoned Towns
	Dismantling the Mediaeval Landscape
	Marble and Mortar
		Building in Brick
		A Plethora of Lime Kilns
		Statues to the Kilns
	Antiquities Feed New Building
		Deserted Towns as a Source
		Acquisitive Foreigners meet Avaricious Locals
		Town Expansion & Trade Bury Antiquities
	Attitudes to the Antiquities
		The Importance of Travellers’ Accounts
	Disappearing and Surviving Monuments
		Travellers Describe Dismantling
		Luxury Items Disappear
		North Africa
		Greece and its Islands
		Egypt and Syria
		Antiquities Near the Sea
	Survival, Dismantling and Destruction
	Shifting Landscapes
		Sand and Silting
		Archaeology: A Great Help to Looters
		Miscellaneous Pilfering
		New Landscapes Involve Dismantling
	Examples of Dismantling to Destruction
		Syria & Egypt
		Mediterranean Islands
		Libya
	“Passed Away in Ignominious Utility”: Re-uses for Antiquities
		Houses & Fortresses
		Compacting Roofs
		Supporting Trees
		Agricultural Work
		Millstones for Grain and Olive Presses
Chapter Two Greek and Roman Towns
	From Town to Countryside
		Primacy of Towns
		Move to the Countryside
		Discerning Town Plans
		Change over Time
	The Hunt for Iron and Lead
	Far from the Madding Crowd
	Uninhabited and Semi-intact – Until the 19th Century?
		Turkey
		Palestine
		North Africa
	Prominent Sites – Exiguous Remains
		Gaza
		Olympia, Sparta and Delphi
		Athens
		Morocco
	Egypt
	Constantinople
	Nineteenth-Century Egypt Dismantles Antiquities
		Industrialisation
		Alexandria and Continuing Thirst for Her Antiquities
		Cairo in the 19th Century
	Location Dictates Survival or Destruction
		New Towns near Ancient Ones
		Greece and the Islands
		Algeria
		Sites near Main Roads or Rivers
		Near-complete Destruction: The Crimea
	Disasters Natural and Human
		Earthquakes
		Bradysism
		Silting and Detritus
	War, Revolution and Invasion
	The Age of Archaeology – and Continuing Destruction
		Volubilis
		Egypt
		Vanishing Sites
	Islamic Settlements and Classical Antiquities
		Moslem Interest in the Past
		New Uses for Antiquities
Chapter Three Roads and Ports
	Roads
	The Disregarded Sinews of Empire
		Road Survival & Maintenance
		Recognising Roman Roads
		Rebuilding Roads
		Maps, Roads and Railways
		Milestones
		The French in Algeria
	Ports
		Harbours Natural and Artificial
		Caesarea
		Tyre & Beirut
		Other Harbours in Decline
	Antiquities in and around Ports
		Sidon and Acre
		Repairing Ancient Ports
	Roads, Railways, Ports, Trade and Tourism
Chapter Four Fountains, Waterways and Irrigation
	Water, Fertility and Ruins
	Survival and Refurbishment of Water Systems
		Ruins = Water
		Roman Water Supplies in Algeria
	Aqueducts
		Demise and Destruction of Aqueducts
	Cisterns and Hydraulic Systems
	Baths & Fountains
		Grand and Long-Lived Structures
		Abandonment and Re-use
		Bathing in Islam
Chapter Five Tombs
	Tombs Survive Cities
	Christianity and Islam
		Statues, Columns and Crosses in Moslem Cemeteries
		Wahabi Destruction of Tombs
		Re-use of Antiquities for Funerary Purposes
		Re-use of Funerary Antiquities
	Monumental Tombs
	Sarcophagi
		Variable Interest
		Moslems and Sarcophagi
		Re-use of Sarcophagi – But Not for Burial
	Looting Tombs in the 19th Century
Chapter Six Palaces and Villas
	Ancient and Mediaeval Palaces
	Islamic Palaces
		Inherited Antiquities
		Decoration
	Buildings Fall Down, Decorations Are Re-used
		Descent into Ruin
		Movable Fixtures, Dispensable Buildings
	The Citadel at Cairo: Joseph’s Hall
	Constantinople
		Kiosks
	Eighteenth–Nineteenth-century Palaces and the Depletion of Antiquities
		Antiquities Still Feed New Constructions
		Local Antiquities, Local Palaces
	Villas Antique and Moslem
		Cairo and Competitors
Chapter Seven Inscriptions
	Popularity and Prestige of Inscriptions
	Inscriptions as Markers of Civilisation
	Inscriptions and the Identification of Ancient Sites
		Leo Africanus
	Inscriptions, Meanings, and Treasure
		Inscriptions and Land Ownership
	Copying Inscriptions
		Helpful and Obstructive Locals
	Various Re-uses of Inscriptions
		Inscriptions Re-used in Mediaeval Structures
		Inscriptions in Houses and Work-Buildings
		Inscriptions in Fortresses and Town Walls
		Inscriptions in Churches and Mosques
		Inscriptions in Cemeteries
	North Africa from Justinian to the French
	Conclusion: Too Late, Too Late!
Chapter Eight Quarries and Quarrying
	Knowledge and Re-use
		Continuing Knowledge of Quarries
		Continuing Use of Quarries
		Abandoned Quarries
	Alternatives to Fresh-quarrying
	Quarrying in Islam
	Cities and Monuments as Quarries
		Quarrying the Ruins
		Overview of Examples
	Dismantling Monuments
		Ramala & Lydda
		Paros
	Ancient Quarries in the 19th Century: Transport Costs versus Carrara
		Re-opening Quarries
		Algeria: Promotion of African Marbles
	Marble Skills and Re-use
		Importing Marble: Skill versus Sophistication?
Section Two Re-Using, Dismantling and Destroying the Landscape
Chapter Nine Temples, Churches and Mosques
	Marble and Limestone
	Survival of the Building Stock
	Travellers’ Opinions of Re-use
	Examples of the Conversion of Structures or Their Building-Blocks into Churches or Mosques
		Late Antiquity
		Christian Decline and More Re-use
	Temple and Church Conversions into Mosques
		Cohabitation and Dismantling
		Crime and Punishment
	Recycling from Churches: Moslem Revenge or Triumphalism?
		Mecca and Jerusalem
		Mosques with Christian Symbols
		Mosaics and Coloured Marbles
		Recycling from Classical Monuments: Haghia Sophia and Ottoman Mosques
	Antiquities Re-used in Churches: Convenience or Meaning?
		Churches as Collection-Points for Antiquities
		Select Re-use, Total Re-use?
		Christian Revenge or Triumphalism?
Chapter Ten Ancient Monuments: Superstition, Preservation, Degradation & Destruction
	Antiquities as Powerful Talismans
	Antiquities and Treasure
	Foreigners Equipped with Secret Knowledge
		Special Marbles
		Treasures and Magic
	Giants, Djinns and Ancient Monarchs
		How Were Such Monuments Erected?
		Solomon and the Djinns
		Other Famous Builders
		Christians, Moslems, and the Buildings of Jerusalem
		Christians and the Magical Past
		Statues and Magic
	Moslems, Christians and Magic
	Who Built the Antiquities?
	Tumuli
	The Defacing and Degradation of Antiquities
		Destruction: Scholars Lead the Charge, Tourists Follow
		Target Practice and Gunpowder
		Hammer and Chisel
		The Cutting-Up Trade
		Graffiti: Making One’s Mark
		Souvenirs and Archaeology
Chapter Eleven Town and Fortress Walls, Projectiles and Cannon
	Town Walls as Town Status Symbols
	Antique Gates and Marble Display
	Fortresses
		Antiquities Piled on Antiquities
		New Forts from Antiquities
		Constantinople
		Thessaloniki
		Column Shafts in Fortifications
	Projectiles and Cannon
		Projectiles Pre-gunpowder
		Marble Projectiles Around the Mediterranean
Chapter Twelve The Mechanics of Dismantling and Transport
	Building, Dismantling and Destruction
		Conservation
		Dismantling and Demolition
		Si le souvenir d’un peuple ne survit pas à ses monuments
		Declining Technical Skill?
		Dismantling Large Blocks
		Triumphalism in Dismantling?
	Harbours, Rivers, and Breakers’ Yards
		Waterside Breakers’ Yards
	Moving Great Weights Before the 19th Century
	Shifting Great Weights from the 19th Century
		Roads and Sledges
		Failed Operations
	Rail, Road, Steam and Speed
		Reaching Ancient Landscapes Quickly
		Destroying Monuments Quickly
		Hard-core Ironies of Modernisation
	French versus British Triumphalism
Section Three Travelling, Collecting, Digging
Chapter Thirteen Collecting Antiquities
	Grandeurs and Miseries of Travel
		“Other Shapeless Heaps . . .”
		Mosques and Fortifications
		Access to Mosques
		Access to Fortifications
		Catering for the Armchair Traveller
	Collecting
		Seventeenth & Eighteenth Centuries
		Nineteenth Century
		Evading Local Regulations
		Trading Antiquities
		Figured Antiquities
		Souvenir Hunting
	Who Owned Antiquities?
		Local Interests
	Who Owned Antiquities?
		Local Interests
		The State
		Antiquities and Their Cash Value
	Local Pride – Eastern Collecting, and Museums
	Western Museums: Britain and France
	Leaving Antiquities in Their Original Context
		Antiquities Lost in Translation
	“Lepsius and Other Scientific Attilas”
	Collecting Cedes to Recording: Enter “Archaeology”
Chapter Fourteen The French Invasion of Algeria and the Roman Past
	Nineteenth-Century Algeria and the Middle Ages in Europe
	The Romans Over Their Shoulders
	A Monumental Disaster
		Refurbishing Roman Forts throughout Algeria
	The Pace of Destruction in Algeria
		Population and the Ancient Monuments
		A Мodern Аrmy Мeets Roman Мonuments, and Destroys Them
		A Romano-Byzantine Landscape
		The Οfficer Class Records and Destroys the Roman Monuments
	A Catalogue of Ironies
	The Stages of the Destruction of Roman Algeria
		First Stage: Making Good Roman Constructions
	The Stages of the Destruction of Roman Algeria
		First Stage: Making Good Roman Constructions
		Second Stage: Building on Top of the Ruins, and Re-using Materials
		Third Stage: Destruction in Order to House Colons
	Security behind Roman Walls: Constantine and Philippeville
		Stora-Russicada – Philippeville
		Constantine
	What to Conserve from the Past?
Chapter Fifteen Conclusion: The Transformation of the Mediaeval Mediterranean
Bibliography
Index of People
Index of Places
Index of Subjects
Illustrations
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Constantinople to Córdoba

Page 286

section two

Re-Using, dismantling and destRoying the landscape

Page 572

(top left & right) Kairouan, Great Mosque, enlarged in the 9th century: 86. arcading of courtyard,
with plentiful re-used columns, capitals and bases; 87. spolia both architectural and inscriptional
in the lower courses of the minaret. 88. Manisa, portico of sultan Camii, of 1512, with the variety

of shafts variously disguised.

86 87

88

Page 573

89. interior of the temple at Bassae, by Cockerell, 1860. 90. the acropolis of Pergamum in a
drawing of 1900. 91. athens, temple of Hadrian, in Blouet’s Morée, of 1833.

89

90

91

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