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TitleCompact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries
ISBN 139780203478622
File Size4.6 MB
Total Pages369
Table of Contents
                            Book Cover
Introduction Sustainable Urban Form in Developing Countries?
The Compact City Debate: A Global Perspective
Compact Cities in Developing Countries: Assessment and Implications
Compact City Policies for Megacities: Core Areas and Metropolitan Regions
The Regional Dimension of the Compact City Debate: Latin America
The Agricultural Consequences of Compact Development: The Case of Asian Cities
The Need for Compact Development in the Fast-Growing Areas of China: The Pearl River Delta
The Sustainable City as Metaphor: Urban Environmentalism in Medelln, Colombia
A High-Density 'Instant' City: Pudong in Shanghai
Urban Climate and Compact Cities in Developing Countries
Can Urban Management Deliver the Sustainable City? Guided Densification in Brazil versus Informal Compactness in Egypt
City Expansion Policy versus Compact City Demand: The Case of Dhaka
The Inverted Compact City of Delhi
Views from the Urban Fringe: Habitat, Quality of Life and Gender in Santiago, Chile
Minimising the Negative Effects of Urban Sprawl: Towards a Strategy for Brazil
Rethinking the Compact City: Informal Urban Development in Caracas
The Relevance of the Compact City Approach: The Management of Urban Growth in South African Cities
Cultural and Institutional Obstacles to Compact Cities in South Africa
From Fragmentation to Compaction? The Case of Durban, South Africa
High-Rise and High-Density Compact Urban Form: The Development of Hong Kong
The Compact City of Hong Kong: A Sustainable Model for Asia?
Transport Dilemmas in Dense Urban Areas: Examples from Eastern Asia
Bangkok Mass Transit Development Zones
Bulk Engineering Services: Costs and Densities
Compact City Environmental Strategies: Calcutta's Urban Ecosystem
Spatial Analysis of Urban Sustainability: Tainan City, Taiwan
Energy Use and Household Income: A Developing Country Perspective
Conclusion The Appropriateness of Compact City Concepts to Developing Countries
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Compact Cities

Page 184


Views from the Urban Fringe

phenomenon reached its maximum expression during Allende’s presidential period.
Over a three-year period more than 400,000 people settled in campamentos on
Santiago’s periphery, often exhibiting an unprecedented degree of social and
political organisation (Fadda and Ducci, 1993).

This process was abruptly interrupted by the military coup in 1973. During the
military regime (1973–1989), neoliberal policies privatising public utilities and
stimulating the free market were established. At the urban level, the market
displaced the state as the main force driving the expansion of the city. This process
was legitimised through legislation, particularly the National Urban
Development Policy of 1979 (MINVU, 1979), which adjusted all the instruments
and norms of urban planning in Chile to the market economy. Gross (1991) noted
that the main guiding principles of this policy were that:

• land was not a scarce resource, and that its apparent scarcity was due to the

lack of concordance between the current technical judicial norms and the
market conditions of supply and demand,

• it was necessary to apply a flexible planning system, with a minimum of state
intervention and the use of generic technical norms,

• procedures should be defined and restrictions eliminated in order to allow for
the natural growth of urban areas in line with market trends,

• the state should promote and support an open housing market, leaving the
construction process to the market.

The years 1979–1985
The previous plans and 1979 policies had a direct effect on the expansion of Santiago
(see Fig. 1). During the five-year period 1979–1985, the size of the Metropolitan
Area increased from 36,000 to 55,000 hectares. The Plan, along with the coercive
housing relocation methods used, had significant impacts, particularly in the social
reorganisation of Santiago. Although one of the main objectives was to reduce land
prices, the effects were the opposite and land prices rose rapidly (Gross, 1991).

Fig. 1. The projected growth
of Santiago, 1950–2010.
Source: Mecsa-Inecon, 1993

Page 185


Giulietta Fadda, Paola Jirón and Adriana Allen

Though some land invasions did take place in the 1980s in Santiago, most of them
were quickly removed (Gilbert, 1993), and invasion ceased to be a housing option.
Land regularisation and slum eradication programmes were initiated in the 1979
Urban Development Policy to promote the harmonious growth of the city and
peripheral housing development. The first programme allowed the legalisation of
property on occupied sites and the installation of sanitation. The second encouraged
the relocation of families from precarious settlements to conventional subsidised
multi-storey structures on the outskirts of the metropolitan area (Fig. 2). Between
1980 and 1987,139 campamentos were regularised, involving the construction of
53,322 units to relocate families away from the affluent northeast of the city towards
the peripheral neighbourhoods (de la Puente et al., 1990).

Approximately 150,000 families were resettled to distant locations, in districts
where local government had little capacity to provide infrastructure through this
mechanism. This process exacerbated the socio-spatial segregation of the city,
increased the distance between rich and poor neighbourhoods, broke social family
links, and made travel to centres of employment very difficult (Jirón, 1995).

However, political pressure from those affected, and the negative consequences
of these urban policies, forced the military government to modify the 1979 Urban
Development Policy. In 1985, it was replaced by the so-called adjusted policy (MINVU,
1985), which reasserted urban planning as an exclusive function of the state, and

Fig. 2. Residential relocation.
Source: Morales and Rojas, 1986

Page 368



polarisation reversal 22
pollution: Delhi 164; East Asia, transport

277–9; Hong Kong 262–3; Santiago
175, see also environmental factors

population: Asia 63; Caracas 195; Delhi,
migration 154; Dhaka 142, 143t; Hong
Kong 246–7, 246t, 256; Latin America
56t; Pudong (Shanghai), displacement
113–14; changes in major urban
agglomerations 39t; and densities 44t;
developed countries 25, 29t; and
economic growth 15; global
urbanisation process 11; growth 38–9;
growth in size of cities 2

poverty 13
Prescott, J.A. 248
Pretoria 220–1, 227, 345; infrastructure

costs 295–6, 301–8
privatisation: urban services in Latin

America 59–60, see also foreign direct
investment; globalisation

property market: Brazil 183–4; Dhaka, high
density 149–50; Pearl River Delta 75–6,
77, 80–1; Santiago 171, see also
agriculture; housing

public investment, Latin America 60
public transport see transport
Pudahuel (Santiago) 175–6
Pudong (Shanghai), instant city 103–14

quality of life: Delhi 163–4; Santiago 168,

174–8; and resource use 13
Quium, A.S.M.A. 151

Raia Jr., Archimedes A., urban sprawl in

Brazil 183–90
reclamation, Hong Kong 256–7, 257–8
Reddy, Sudhakara, energy use and income

Rees, Clarke, Bangkok mass transit

285– 93
regional planning, hostility of neo-liberal

development strategies 22–3
Reich, R., creative potential of proximity 56
rent control, Cairo 131
residential see housing
Richardson, Harry W. 65; assessment of

compact cities 25–34
Rio de Janeiro Summit (1992) 97
river maintenance, Medellín 97–8
road development, and urbanisation in

Dongguan 82
road network, Asia 275–6
Rogers, Richard 312

San Francisco 104–5
Santiago, quality of life 167–80
São Paulo, densification and social housing

134–6, 137, 184
Satterthwaite, D.: governance of cities 3;

high population densities 32
Schiller, Silvia de, urban climate 117–24
Schoonraad, Maria D., South Africa,

obstacles to compact cities 219–28
Seabrook, J. 343
S.E.Asia, high-density redevelopment 21
Senior, J.B. 223
Seoul, densities 26
Seraj, T.M. 149
service provision, efficiency in compact

cities 68
settlement systems, failure of 22–3
Shanghai, Pudong as instant city 103–14
shopping malls 3
Silva, Antonio N.R.da: infrastructure and

transportation costs 185–6, 188; urban
sprawl in Brazil 183–90

Silva, Toledo R. 61
Smit, J. 316
social housing, São Paulo 135–6
social organisation, high density cities 33
social services, impact of containment in

Asia 64, 65–6, 68–9, 70
socio-economic sustainability 13
Soleri, Paolo 312
South Africa 346–7; apartheid, legacy of

210–12, 219, 225, 232–3; infrastructure
costs 295–6, 301–8; urban growth
209– 17, see also Cape Town; Durban;
Johannesburg; Pretoria

Souza, L.C.L. 185
spatial change, Latin American cities and

globalisation 54–5
spatial development, large cities 37, 38
squatters: Delhi 154; Santiago 170–1, see

also informal settlements
Stren, R. 202
Stretton, H. 314
Sukrabad Residential Area, Dhaka, land

subdivision 149
sustainability 3, 32–4; Pearl River Delta

development 82–7; global 10–14;
indicators 323t; sustainable city as
metaphor 91–101; sustainable
development 3

Tainan 321–9
taxation, Brazil, transport and infrastructure

costs 185–90

Page 369



taxes, local development taxes 49
Taylor, N. 226
Third World see developing countries
Todes, Alison, Durban 231–42
Tokyo, urban sprawl 45–6
Trainer, T. 317
transfer of development rights (TDR):

Brazil 128, 132; Curitiba 133–4; São
Paulo 134–5

transnational firms see foreign direct

transport 30–2, 31t, 344; Bangalore 337;
Bangkok, mass transit 285–93; Brazil,
costs and taxation strategy 185; Calcutta
315; Caracas 202; Curitiba public
transport 132–3; Delhi 161–2, 161t,
163; Dhaka 146, 151; Durban 237–8;
East Asia, dense urban areas 271–82;
Hong Kong 264–6; Santiago, public
transport 177; South Africa 211,
212–13, 214–15; Tokyo, public
transport 45; congestion 34; and
densification 16, 188t; and infrastructure
347–8; travel time, limits to growth 40–
1, see also infrastructure

Tsai, Te-I Albert, Asia, agricultural
consequences 63–70

Tsou, Ko-Wan, Tainan 321–9

Ulam, Stanislaw M. 83
UN Declaration of Human Rights 13
UNCED Agenda 21 proposals 10
urban climate 117–24
urban development: Latin America, new

patterns 57; Pearl River Delta, loss of

agricultural land 73–88; developing and
developed countries 12; implications
11– 14

urban farming, effect of containment 68–9
urban form 19–20, 343–7; costs and

infrastructure 296–7; Hong Kong 261–4;
informal and compact 198–202; spatial
form 99–100; sustainable criteria 83

urban management: Brazil 128, 132–8;
Egypt 127–31, 137–8

urban sprawl 346–7; Brazil, minimising
effects 183–90; Delhi 162; Dongguan
79– 82; Pearl River Delta 76–9; South
Africa 209–17, 219–28

USA, growth management 65–6
Uytenbogaardt, R. 233

Vajpayee, Atal Behari 155
Viva o Centro, Sao Paulo 135–6
Von Neumann, John 83

Ward, J.H. 326
waste disposal: Cairo 129; Calcutta 316, see

also infrastructure
Wigmans, G. 226
Williams, K. et al., achievability of

sustainable urban forms 1
World Bank, urban poverty 13

Yeh, Anthony G., Pearl River Delta 73–88
Young, K. 169

Zhang, Xing Quan, Hong Kong, high-rise

development 245–52
Zillmann, Kerstin, Caracas 193–204

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