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TitleCinema 2: The Time-Image
PublisherUniv of Minnesota Pr
ISBN 139780816616763
CategoryArts - Film
LanguageEnglish
File Size5.9 MB
Total Pages360
Document Text Contents
Page 1

Cinema 2
The Time-lmage
Gilles Deleuze
Translated, by H ugh Tomlinson
and Robert Galeta

M
IN
NE
SO
TA

University of Minnesota Press
Minneapolis

Page 2

Copyright © 1989 The ÂtRlEme-Pres!
First published as Cinéma 2, L ’Image-temps
Copyright © 1985 by Les Editions de Minuit, Paris.
Published by the University o f M innesota Press
111 Third Avenue South, Suite 290, Minneapolis, MN 55401-2520
Printed in the United States o f America on acid-free paper
Fifth p rin ting 1997
Library o f Congress Number 85-28898
ISBN 0-8166-1676-0 (v. 2)
ISBN 0-8166-1677-9 (pbk.; v. 2)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, o r otherwise,
without the prior written permission o f the publisher.
T he University o f Minnesota is an
equal-opportunity educator and employer.

Page 180

164 Cinema 2
relation, and from the relation to the image: all the functions of
thought are included in this circuit. In accordance with the
English genius, this is definitely not a dialectic, it is a logic of
relations (which particularly explains the fact that ‘suspense’
replaces ‘shock’).13 T here are, therefore, many ways in which
cinema can carry its relationships with thought into effect. But
these three relationships seem to be well defined at the level o f the
movement-image.

2
How strangely the great declarations, o f Eisenstein, of Gance,
ring today; we put them to one side like declarations worthy of a
museum, all the hopes put into cinema, art o f the masses and new
thought. We can always say that cinema has drowned in the nul­
lity o f its productions. W hat becomes o f Hitchcock’s suspense,
Eisenstein’s shock and Gance’s sublimity when they are taken up
by mediocre authors? When the violence is no longer that o f the
image and its vibrations but that o f the represented, we move into
a blood-red arbitrariness. When grandeur is no longer that o f the
composition, but a pure and simple inflation of the represented,
there is no cerebral stimulation or birth of thought. It is rather a
generalized shortcoming in author and viewers. Nevertheless a
current mediocrity has never prevented great painting; but it is
not the same in the conditions of an industrial art, where the pro­
portion o f disgraceful works calls the most basic goals and capa­
cities directly into question. Cinema is dying, then, from its
quantitative mediocrity. But there is a still more im portant
reason: the mass-art, the treatm ent of masses, which should not
have been separable from an accession of the masses to the status
of true subject, has degenerated into state propaganda and ma­
nipulation, into a kind of fascism which brought together Hitler
and Hollywood, Hollywood and Hitler. T he spiritual automaton
became fascist man. As Serge Daney says, what has brought the
whole cinema of the movement-image into question are ‘the great
political mises-en-scene, state propaganda turned tableaux vivants,
the first handlings of masses o f hum ans’, and their backdrop, the
camps.IB This was the death-knell for the ambitions of ‘the old
cinema’: not, or not only, the mediocrity and vulgarity o f current
production but rather Leni Riefenstahl, who was not mediocre.

Page 181

Thought and cinema 165
And the situation is still worse if we accept Virilio’s thesis: there
has been no diversion or alienation in an art o f the masses initially
founded by the movement-image; on the contrary the move-
ment-image was from the beginning linked to the organization of
war, state propaganda, ordinary fascism, historically and essen­
tially.1' These two jo in t reasons, mediocrity o f products and
fascism o f production, can explain a great many things. For a
brief moment, Artaud ‘believes’ in cinema, and makes a num ber
o f declarations which seen to coincide with those o f Eisenstein or
Gance; new art, new thought. But he very quickly renounces it.
‘T he imbecile world of images caught as if by glue in millions of
retinas will never perfect the image that has been made o f it. The
poetry which can em erge from it all is only a possible poetry, the
poetry o f what might be, and it is not from cinema that we should
ex p ec t. . .’IH

Perhaps there is a third reason, oddly capable o f restoring hope
in a possibility o f thinking in cinema through cinema. We must
study the case o f Artaud more closely, because it may well be of
crucial importance. For, during the brief period that he believed,
^Aftaud seems at first sight to take up the great themes of the
movement-image in its relations with thought. He says specifically
that cinema must avoid _two pitfalls, abstract experimental
cinema, which was developing at the time, and commercial
figurative_cinema. which Hollywood was imposing. He says that
cinema is a m atter o f neuro-physiologicaL vibrations, and that the
image must produce a shock, a nerve-wave which gives rise to
thought, ‘for thoughris~a m atron who has not always existed’.
Thought has no o ther reason to function than its own birth,
always the repetition of its own birth, secret and profound. He
says that the image thus has as object the functioning of thought,
and that the functioning o f thought is also the real subject which
brings us back to the images. He adds that the dream as it appears
in the European rinem a inspired by surrealism, is an interesting
approximation, but inadequate in relation to this floak'tBe'dream
is too easy a solution to theJproblem- of-thought. Artaud believes
more Tn an appropriateness between cinema and automatic
writing, as long as we understand that autçınaticjvriting is not at
all an absence o f composition, but a higher control which brings
together critical and conscious thought and the unconscious in
thought: the spiritual autom aton (which is very different from
the dreanCwhich brings together a censure or repression with an
unconscious made up of impulses). He adds that his point o f view

Page 359

Index 343
The Rise to Power o f Louis XIV

(Rossellini) 247—8
The River (Renoir) 86
Rivette, Jacques 10-12 ,19 ,76—7,

194
Robbe-Grillet, Alain 12,21,44—5,

68, 76, 101-5, 109, 117, 120,
122, 126, 129-132, 134, 155,
182,243,247, 250,252,260,
266, 275

Rocco and his Brothers (Visconti) 4,
97

Rocha, Glauber 171,218, 220—3
Rohmer, Eric 176-8,183, 242—4,

247, 266
Roma (Fellini) 89
La ronde (Ophuls) 83
Rosier, Michèle 197
La rosière de Pessac (Eustache) 197
Rossellini, Roberto xi, 1-2, 19,

2 3 ,4 5 -6 ,1 7 1 -2 ,2 4 7 -8 , 251-2
Rota, Nino 93
R ouch.Jean 23 ,38 ,150-4 ,183 ,

223-4, 243, 275
Un royaume vous attend (Perrault)

244
Ruggles o f Red Gap (McCarey) 232
Une sale histoire (Eustache) 197—8
Salo (Pasolini) 174—5
Salomé (Bene) 190-1
Sandra (Visconti) 38, 95
Sartre, Jean-Paul 60 ,63 ,88 ,1 06
Satyricon (Fellini) 89—90
Sayat Nova (Paradjanov) 28
Schlondorff, Volker 136
Schmid, Daniel 21,136
Schroeter, W erner 136
Sembene, Ousm ane 222—3
Senso (Visconti) 3, 94—6
The Servant (Losey) 70
Severed heads (Rocha) 222
Shadows (Cassavetes) 154,192
Sherlock Junior (Keaton) 57—8, 76
The Shining (Kubrick) 205-6
The Ship Sails On (Fellini) 73
Shoot the Piano Player (Truffaut)

249

Singing in the Rain (Donen) 61-2
Sixfois deux (Godard) 179-80

183,248
Sleep (Warhol) 191
Slow Motion (Godard) 10,68,185

195, 203,248—9,276
Socrates (Rossellini) 247
Solaris (Tarkovsky) 75
Son nom de Venise dans Calcutta

desert (Jiuras) 257
sonsign 6, 8-9, 12-13,15, 22-3

34 ,41 ,62 , 66,69, 272-3
Spellbound (Hitchcock) 57
Spiral (Zanussi) 71
The State o f Things (Wenders)

76-8
Les statues meurent aussi (Resnais)

124
Stavisky (Resnais) 125,132-4,

207-8
A Story from Chikmatsu

(Mizoguchi) 234
A Story o f Floating Weeds

(Ozu) 16—17
A Story of a Love Affair

(Antonioni) 5, 8, 23—4
Lastrada (Fellini) 92
Straub, Jean Marie xiii, 23,

215-16, 244-7, 252-61, 267-8,
278

The Stranger (Welles) 139
Strike (Eisenstein) 1607 228
Stromboli (Antonioni) xi, 2, 18, 46
The Structure of Crystals (Zanussi)

70
Suddenly Last Summer (Mankie-

wicz) 50
Sunrise (M urnau) 233
Swingtime (Stevens) 61
Syberberg, H ansju rgen xiii, 109,

126,264,267-70,278
Tabu (M urnau) 225—6, 233
Tarkovsky, Andrei xii, 42—3,75,

129
Tati, Jacques 9 -1 0 ,66—7,234
T6chin6, A ndre 212,214
The Tender Enemy (Ophüls) 83

Page 360

344 Index
The Testament o f Dr Mabuse

(Lang) 233,237,263
That Night’s Wife (Ozu) 17
That Obscure Object of Desire

(Bunuel) 103
Theorem (Pasolini) 174—5
Three on a Couch (Lewis) 66
time-image xi-xiii, 27,34, 39,

41 -2 ,7 8 ,9 8 -9 , 101,103-5,
109, 125,129-33,135,137,
152-3 ,155,181,189 ,195 ,205,
207,214 ,250 ,261 ,263-4 ,
266-7, 270-1, 273-5 ,278-9

To Have and Have Not (Hawks)
233

Touch of Evil (Welles) 115,
139-40, 142,144-5

Toute révolution est un coup de dés
(Straub) 256

Toute une nuit (Akerman)
196

Traffic (Tati) 66-7
Trans-Europe Express (Robbe-

Grillet) 101,134
The Trial (Welles) 110,114-5,

139, 144-5
Trop tôt, trop tard (Straub) 244
T ruffaut, Francois 3, 74,85,202,

231,249
Twelve Angry Men (Lumet) 138
Twilight (Rivette) 11
The Two English Girls (Truffaut)

202
Two or Three Things I Know About

Her (Godard) 10 ,12,19,186,
267

Umberto D (De Sica) 1 ,3 ,7
Undercurrent (Minnelli) 63
Under the Roofs of Paris (Clair) 235
The Unholy Three (Browning) 72
The Unknown (Browning) 72
Unreconciled (Straub) 216, 254

Vampyr (Dreyer) 169-70,267
Van Gogh (Resnais) 119—21,209
Varda, Agnes 135,197
Vera Baxter (Duras) 257
Vertov, Dziga 40, 76, 157, 204,

216,226
Vertigo (Hitchcock) 82
Vidor, King 216
Violette Noziére (Chabrol) 50
Visconti, Luchino xii, 3—4, 9, 39,

94-7, 135,270
Les visiteurs du soir (Carné) 48
Vivre sa vie (Godard) 186,193,

249
Weekend (Godard) 182,186,234
Welles, Orson xii, 22,38—9,42,

54, 70,76, 88 ,99 ,105-7 , 120,
137,139-49,155, 169,173,
176,181-2, 209,240,275-6 ,
278

W enders, Wim 76-8 ,136
What did the Lady Forget ? (Ozu) 16
Whispers in the City (Mankiewicz)

49,51
White Nights (Visconti) 9
The Whole Town’s Talking

(Ford) 227
Who’s Minding the Store?

(Lewis) 66
Why Alexandria? (Chachine) 220
A Woman’s Decision (Zanussi) 71
The Woman of Tokyo (Ozu) 16
A Woman under the Influence

(Cassavetes) 193
Workshop Experiment in Animated

Sound (McCIaren) 215
Yol (Güney) 218
Yolande (Minelli) 63
Zanussi, Kristof 70, 75
Zvenigora (Dovzhenko) 82

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