Download Building Design and Construction Handbook, 6th Edition PDF

TitleBuilding Design and Construction Handbook, 6th Edition
File Size16.0 MB
Total Pages1722
Table of Contents
About the Editors
Table of Contents
1. System Fundamentals
	1.1 Principles of Architecture
	1.2 Systems Design and Analysis
	1.3 Traditional Design Procedures
	1.4 Traditional Construction Procedures
	1.5 Role of the Client in Design and Construction
	1.6 Building Costs
	1.7 Major Building Systems
	1.8 Value Engineering
	1.9 Execution of Systems Design
	1.10 Building Codes
	1.11 Zoning Codes
	1.12 Other Regulations
	1.13 Systems Design by Team
	1.14 Project Peer Review
	1.15 Application of Systems Design
2. The Building Team-Managing the Building Process
	2.1 Professional and Business Requirements of Architectural Engineers
	2.2 Client Objectives for Buildings
	2.3 Program Definition
	2.4 Organization of the Building Team
	2.5 Client-A/E Agreement
	2.6 A/E Liability and Insurance
	2.7 Definition of Project Phases
	2.8 Scheduling and Personnel Assignments
	2.9 Accelerated Design and Construction
	2.10 Design Management
	2.11 Internal Record Keeping
	2.12 Codes and Regulations
	2.13 Permits
	2.14 Energy Conservation
	2.15 The Interior Environment
	2.16 Cost Estimating and Value Engineering
	2.17 Technical Specifications
	2.18 Upfront Documents
	2.19 Quality Control for Architects and Engineers
	2.20 Bidding and Contract Award
	2.21 Construction Scheduling
	2.22 Shop Drawing Review
	2.23 Role of Architect or Engineer During Construction
	2.24 Testing and Balancing of Building Systems
	2.25 Postconstruction Operation and Maintenance
	2.26 Record Drawings
	2.27 Follow-Up Interviews
	2.28 Management of Disputes
	2.29 Professional Ethics
3. Protection against Hazards
	3.1 Risk Management
	3.2 Wind Protection
	3.3 Protection against Earthquakes
	3.4 Protection against Water
	3.5 Protection against Fire
	3.6 Lightning Protection
	3.7 Protection against Intruders
4. Building Materials
	Cementitious Materials
		4.1 Types of Cementitious Materials
		4.2 Portland Cements
		4.3 Aluminous Cements
		4.4 Natural Cements
		4.5 Limes
		4.6 Low-Temperature Gypsum Derivatives
		4.7 Oxychloride Cements
		4.8 Masonry Cements
		4.9 Fly Ashes
		4.10 Silica Fume (Microsilica)
		4.11 Normal-Weight Aggregates
		4.12 Heavyweight and Lightweight Aggregates
	Admixtures for Concrete
		4.13 Chemical and Mineral Admixtures
		4.14 Fibers for Concrete Mixes
		4.15 Miscellaneous Admixtures
	Mortars and Concretes
		4.16 Mortars
		4.17 Portland-Cement Concrete
		4.18 Polymer Concretes
		4.19 Concrete Masonry Units
	Burned-Clay Units
		4.20 Brick-Clay or Shale
		4.21 Structural Clay Tile
		4.22 Ceramic Tiles
		4.23 Architectural Terra Cotta
	Building Stones
		4.24 Properties of Building Stones
		4.25 Freezing and Thawing of Stone
	Gypsum Products
		4.26 Gypsumboard
		4.27 Gypsum Lath
		4.28 Gypsum Sheathing Board
		4.29 Gypsum Partition Tile or Block
		4.30 Gypsum Plank
	Glass and Glass Block
		4.31 Window Glass
		4.32 Glass Block
		4.33 Mechanical Properties of Wood
		4.34 Effects of Hygroscopic Properties of Wood
		4.35 Commercial Grades of Wood
		4.36 Destroyers and Preservatives
		4.37 Glues and Adhesives for Wood
		4.38 Plywood and Other Fabricated Wood Boards
		4.39 Wood Bibliography
	Steel and Steel Alloys
		4.40 Types of Irons and Steels
		4.41 Properties of Structural Steels
		4.42 Heat Treatment and Hardening of Steels
		4.43 Effects of Grain Size
		4.44 Steel Alloys
		4.45 Welding Ferrous Metals
		4.46 Effects of Steel Production Methods
		4.47 Effects of Hot Rolling
		4.48 Effects of Punching and Shearing
		4.49 Corrosion of Iron and Steel
		4.50 Steel and Steel Alloy Bibliography
	Aluminum and Aluminum-Based Alloys
		4.51 Aluminum-Alloy Designations
		4.52 Finishes for Aluminum
		4.53 Structural Aluminum
		4.54 Welding and Brazing of Aluminum
		4.55 Bolted and Riveted Aluminum Connections
		4.56 Prevention of Corrosion of Aluminum
		4.57 Aluminum Bibliography
	Copper and Copper-Based Alloys
		4.58 Copper
		4.59 Brass
		4.60 Nickel Silvers
		4.61 Cupronickel
		4.62 Bronze
		4.63 Copper Bibliography
	Lead and Lead-Based Alloys
		4.64 Applications of Lead
		4.65 Lead Bibliography
	Nickel and Nickel-Based Alloys
		4.66 Properties of Nickel and Its Alloys
		4.67 Nickel Bibliography
		4.68 General Properties of Plastics
		4.69 Fillers and Plasticizers
		4.70 Molding and Fabricating Methods for Plastics
		4.71 Thermosetting Plastics
		4.72 Thermoplastic Resins
		4.73 Elastomers, or Synthetic Rubbers
	Combination of Plastics and Other Materials
		4.74 High-Pressure Laminates
		4.75 Reinforced Plastics
		4.76 Laminated Rubber
		4.77 Plastics Bibliography
	Porcelain-Enameled Products
		4.78 Porcelain Enamel on Metal
		4.79 Porcelain Bibliography
	Asphalt and Bituminous Products
		4.80 Asphalts for Dampproofing and Waterproofing
		4.81 Bituminous Roofing
		4.82 Asphalt Shingles
		4.83 Asphalt Mastics and Grouts
		4.84 Bituminous Pavements
		4.85 Asphalt Bibliography
	Joint Seals
		4.86 Calking Compounds
		4.87 Sealants
		4.88 Gaskets
		4.89 Joint Seals Bibliography
	Paints and Other Coatings
		4.90 Vehicles or Binders
		4.91 Pigments for Paints
		4.92 Resins for Paints
		4.93 Coatings Bibliography
5. Structural Theory
	5.1 Design Loads
	5.2 Stress and Strain
	5.3 Stresses at a Point
	5.4 Torsion
	5.5 Straight Beams
	5.6 Curved Beams
	5.7 Buckling of Columns
	5.8 Graphic-Statics Fundamentals
	5.9 Roof Trusses
	5.10 General Tools for Structural Analysis
	5.11 Continuous Beams and Frames
	5.12 Load Distribution to Bents and Shear Walls
	5.13 Finite-Element Methods
	5.14 Stresses in Arches
	5.15 Thin-Shell Structures
	5.16 Cable-Supported Structures
	5.17 Air-Stabilized Structures
	5.18 Structural Dynamics
	5.19 Earthquake Loads
	5.20 Floor Vibrations
	5.21 Wiss and Parmelee Rating Factor for Transient Vibrations
	5.22 Reiher-Meister Scale for Steady-State Vibrations
	5.23 Murray Criterion for Walking Vibrations
6. Soil Mechanics and Foundations
	6.1 Introduction
	6.2 Field Exploration
	6.3 Laboratory Testing
	6.4 Effective Stress and Stress Distribution
	6.5 Settlement Analyses
	6.6 Bearing Capacity Analyses
	6.7 Retaining Walls
	6.8 Foundations
	6.9 Foundation Excavations
	6.10 Grading and Other Site Improvement Methods
	6.11 Geosynthetics
7. Structural Steel Construction
	7.1 Codes and Specifications
	7.2 Mill Materials
	7.3 Fasteners
	7.4 Fabrication
	7.5 Quality Assurance
	Structural Framing Systems
		7.6 Wall Bearing Framing
		7.7 Skeleton Framing
		7.8 Long-Span Framing
		7.9 Steel and Concrete Framing
	Frame and Member Bracing Systems
		7.10 Bracing Design Considerations
		7.11 Frame Bracing
		7.12 Bracing for Individual Members
	Floor and Roof Systems
		7.13 Floor-Framing Design Considerations
		7.14 Roof Framing Systems
	Design of Members
		7.15 Bases for ASD and LRFD
		7.16 Design Aids and References
		7.17 Serviceability Criteria
		7.18 Tension Members
		7.19 Columns and Other Compression Members
		7.20 Beams and Other Flexural Members
		7.21 Plate Girders
		7.22 Web or Flange Load-Bearing Stiffeners
		7.23 Bearing
		7.24 Combined Axial Compression and Bending
		7.25 Combined Axial Tension and Bending
		7.26 Composite Construction
		7.27 Members Subject to Torsion
		7.28 Members Subject to Cyclic Loading
	Design of Connections
		7.29 Combinations of Fasteners
		7.30 Load Capacity of Bolts
		7.31 Load Capacity of Welds
		7.32 Bearing-Type Bolted Connections
		7.33 Slip-Critical Bolted Connections
		7.34 Eccentrically Loaded Welded Connections
		7.35 Types of Beam Connections
		7.36 Beams Splices
		7.37 Column Splices
	Steel Erection
		7.38 Erection Equipment
		7.39 Clearance for Erecting Beams
		7.40 Erection Sequence
		7.41 Field-Welding Procedures
		7.42 Erection Tolerances
		7.43 Adjusting Lintels
	Corrosion Protection
		7.44 Corrosion of Steel
		7.45 Painting Steel Structures
		7.46 Paint Systems
		7.47 Field-Painting Steel
		7.48 Steel in Contact with Concrete
	Fire Protection of Structural Steel
		7.49 Effect of Heat on Steel
		7.50 Fire Protection of Exterior
		7.51 Materials for Improving Fire Resistance
		7.52 Pierced Ceilings and Floors
		7.53 Fire-Resistance Ratings
		7.54 Bibliography
8. Cold-Formed Steel Construction
	Cold-Formed Shapes
		8.1 Material for Cold-Formed Steel Shapes
		8.2 Utilization of Cold Work of Forming
		8.3 Types of Cold-Formed Shapes
	Design Principles for Cold-Formed Steel Shapes
		8.4 Some Basic Concepts of Cold-Formed Steel Design
		8.5 Structural Behavior of Flat Compression Elements
		8.6 Unstiffened Cold-Formed Elements Subject to Local Buckling
		8.7 Stiffened Cold-Formed Elements Subject to Local Buckling
		8.8 Application of Effective Widths
		8.9 Maximum Flat-Width Ratios of Cold-Formed Steel
		8.10 Unit Stresses for Cold-Formed Steel
		8.11 Laterally Unsupported Cold-Formed Beams
		8.12 Allowable Shear Strength in Webs
		8.13 Concentrically Loaded Compression Members
		8.14 Combined Axial and Bending Stresses
	Joining of Cold-Formed Steel
		8.15 Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
		8.16 Arc Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
		8.17 Resistance Welding of Cold-Formed Steel
		8.18 Bolting of Cold-Formed Steel Members
		8.19 Self-Tapping Screws for Joining Sheet Steel Components
		8.20 Special Fasteners for Cold-Formed Steel
	Cold-Formed Steel Floor, Roof, and Wall Construction
		8.21 Steel Roof Deck
		8.22 Cellular Steel Floor and Roof Panels
		8.23 Corrugated Sheets for Roofing, Siding, and Decking
		8.24 Lightweight Steel Metric Sheeting
		8.25 Stainless Steel Structural Design
	Preengineered Steel Buildings
		8.26 Characteristics of Preengineered Steel Buildings
		8.27 Structural Design of Preengineered Buildings
	Open-Web Steel Joists
		8.28 Design of Open-Web Steel Joists
		8.29 Construction Details for Open-Web Steel Joists
9. Concrete Construction
	Concrete and Its Ingredients
		9.1 Cementitious Materials
		9.2 Cements
		9.3 Aggregates
		9.4 Proportioning Concrete Mixes
		9.5 Yield Calculation
		9.6 Properties and Tests of Fresh (Plastic) Concrete
		9.7 Properties and Tests of Hardened Concrete
		9.8 Measuring and Mixing Concrete Ingredients
		9.9 Admixtures
	Quality Control
		9.10 Mix Design
		9.11 Check Tests of Materials
		9.12 At the Mixing Plant - Yield Adjustments
		9.13 At the Placing Point - Slump Adjustments
		9.14 Strength Tests
		9.15 Test Evaluation
		9.16 Responsibility for Formwork
		9.17 Materials and Accessories for Forms
		9.18 Loads on Formwork
		9.19 Form Removal and Reshoring
		9.20 Special Forms
		9.21 Inspection of Formwork
		9.22 Reinforcing Bars
		9.23 Welded-Wire Fabric (WWF)
		9.24 Prestressing Steel
		9.25 Fabrication and Placing of Rebars
		9.26 Bar Supports
		9.27 Inspection of Reinforcement
	Concrete Placement
		9.28 Good Practice
		9.29 Methods of Placing
		9.30 Excess Water
		9.31 Consolidation
		9.32 Concreting Vertical Elements
		9.33 Concreting Horizontal Elements
		9.34 Bonding to Hardened Concrete
		9.35 Heavy-Duty Floor Finishes
		9.36 Concreting in Cold Weather
		9.37 Concreting in Hot Weather
		9.38 Curing Concrete
		9.39 Joints in Concrete
		9.40 Inspection of Concrete Placement
	Structural Analysis of Concrete Structures
		9.41 Analyses of One-Way Floor and Roof Systems
		9.42 Two-Way Slab Frames
		9.43 Special Analyses
	Structural Design of Flexural Members
		9.44 Strength Design with Factored Loads
		9.45 Allowable-Stress Design at Service Loads (Alternative Design Method)
		9.46 Strength Design for Flexure
		9.47 Shear in Flexural Members
		9.48 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members
		9.49 Development, Anchorage, and Splices of Reinforcement
		9.50 Crack Control
		9.51 Deflection of Reinforced-Concrete Beams and Slabs
	One-Way Reinforced-Concrete Slabs
		9.52 Analysis and Design of One-Way Slabs
		9.53 Embedded Pipes in One-Way Slabs
	One-Way Concrete-Joist Construction
		9.54 Standard Sizes of Joists
		9.55 Design of One-Way Concrete-Joist Construction
		9.56 Reinforcement of Joists for Flexure
		9.57 Shear in Joists
		9.58 Wide-Module Joist Construction
	Two-Way Slab Construction
		9.59 Analysis and Design of Flat Plates
		9.60 Flat Slabs
		9.61 Two-Way Slabs on Beams
		9.62 Estimating Guide for Two-Way Construction
		9.63 Definitions of Flexural Members
		9.64 Flexural Reinforcement
		9.65 Reinforcement for Shear and Flexure
		9.66 Reinforcement for Torsion and Shear
		9.67 Crack Control in Beams
		9.68 Bearing Walls
		9.69 Nonbearing Walls
		9.70 Cantilever Retaining Walls
		9.71 Counterfort Retaining Walls
		9.72 Retaining Walls Supported on Four Sides
		9.73 Types of Foundations
		9.74 General Design Principles for Foundations
		9.75 Spread Footings for Walls
		9.76 Spread Footings for Individual Columns
		9.77 Combined Spread Footings
		9.78 Strap Footings
		9.79 Mat Foundations
		9.80 Pile Foundations
		9.81 Drilled-Pier Foundations
		9.82 Basic Assumptions for Strength Design of Columns
		9.83 Design Requirements for Columns
		9.84 Column Ties and Tie Patterns
		9.85 Biaxial Bending of Columns
		9.86 Slenderness Effects on Concrete Columns
		9.87 Economy in Column Design
	Special Construction
		9.88 Deep Beams
		9.89 Shear Walls
		9.90 Reinforced-Concrete Arches
		9.91 Reinforced-Concrete Thin Shells
		9.92 Concrete Folded Plates
		9.93 Slabs on Grade
		9.94 Seismic-Resistant Concrete Construction
		9.95 Composite Flexural Members
	Precast-Concrete Members
		9.96 Design Methods for Precast Members
		9.97 Reinforcement Cover in Precast Members
		9.98 Tolerances for Precast Construction
		9.99 Accelerated Curing
		9.100 Precast Floor and Roof Systems
		9.101 Precast Ribbed Slabs, Folded Plates, and Shells
		9.102 Wall Panels
		9.103 Lift Slabs
	Prestressed-Concrete Construction
		9.104 Basic Principles of Prestressed Concrete
		9.105 Losses in Prestress
		9.106 Allowable Stresses at Service Loads
		9.107 Design Procedure for Prestressed-Concrete Beams
		9.108 Flexural-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
		9.109 Shear-Strength Design of Prestressed Concrete
		9.110 Bond, Development, and Grouting of Tendons
		9.111 Application and Measurement of Prestress
		9.112 Concrete Cover in Prestressed Members
10. Wood Construction
	10.1 Basic Characteristics of Wood
	10.2 Sectional Properties of Wood Products
	10.3 Design Values for Lumber and Timber
	10.4 Structural Grading of Wood
	10.5 Adjustment Factors for Structural Members
	10.6 Pressure-Preservative Treatments for Wood
	10.7 Design Provisions for Flexural Members
	10.8 Wood Compression Members
	10.9 Tension Members
	10.10 Combined Bending and Axial Loading
	10.11 Bearing Stresses
	10.12 Structural Panels
	10.13 Design Values for Mechanical Connections
	10.14 Adjustment of Design Values for Connections
	10.15 Bolts
	10.16 Lag Screws
	10.17 Split-Ring and Shear-Plate Connectors
	10.18 Wood Screws
	10.19 Nails and Spikes
	10.20 Structural Framing Connections
	10.21 Glued Fastenings
	10.22 Wood Trusses
	10.23 Design of Timber Arches
	10.24 Timber Decking
	10.25 Wood-Frame Construction
	10.26 Permanent Wood Foundations
	10.27 Post Frame and Pole Construction
	10.28 Design for Fire Safety
	10.29 Timber Fabrication and Erection
	10.30 Engineered Glued Wood Products
11. Wall, Floor, and Ceiling Systems
	Masonry Walls
		11.1 Masonry Definitions
		11.2 Quality of Materials for Masonry
		11.3 Construction of Masonry
		11.4 Lateral Support for Masonry Walls
		11.5 Chimneys and Fireplaces
		11.6 Provisions for Dimensional Changes
		11.7 Repair of Leaky Joints
		11.8 Masonry-Thickness Requirements
		11.9 Determination of Masonry Compressive Strength
		11.10 Allowable Stresses in Masonry
		11.11 Floor-Wall Connections
		11.12 Glass Block
		11.13 Masonry Bibliography
	Stud Walls
		11.14 Stud-Wall Construction
		11.15 Sheathing
	Curtain Walls
		11.16 Functional Requirements of Curtain Walls
		11.17 Wood Facades
		11.18 Wall Shingles and Siding
		11.19 Stucco
		11.20 Precast-Concrete or Metal and Glass Facings
		11.21 Sandwich Panels
		11.22 Types of Partitions
		11.23 Structural Requirements of Partitions
	Plaster and Gypsumboard
		11.24 Plaster and Gypsumboard Construction Terms
		11.25 Plaster Finishes
		11.26 Gypsumboard Finishes
		11.27 Isolation and Control Joints in Gypsumboard Construction
	Ceramic-Tile Construction
		11.28 Types of Ceramic Tile
		11.29 Tile Installation Methods
	Panel Finishes
		11.30 Plywood Finishes
		11.31 Other Types of Panel Finishes
	Floor Systems
		11.32 Asphalt Tiles
		11.33 Cork Tiles
		11.34 Vinyl Flooring
		11.35 Rubber Flooring
		11.36 Installation of Thin Coverings
		11.37 Carpets
		11.38 Terrazzo
		11.39 Concrete Floors
		11.40 Wood Floors
		11.41 Industrial Floors
		11.42 Conductive Flooring
		11.43 Specifications and Standards for Flooring
		11.44 Window Selection
		11.45 Window Definitions
		11.46 Modular Coordination of Windows
		11.47 Window Sash Materials
		11.48 Glazing
		11.49 Window Types
		11.50 Windows in Wall-Panel Construction
		11.51 Mechanical Operators for Windows
		11.52 Traffic Flow and Safety
		11.53 Structural Requirements for Openings and Doors
		11.54 Ordinary Doors
		11.55 Fire and Smokestop Doors
		11.56 Revolving Doors
		11.57 Large Horizontally Sliding Doors
		11.58 Large Vertically Sliding Doors
		11.59 Large Swinging Doors
		11.60 Horizontally Hinged Doors
		11.61 Radiation-Shielding Doors
	Builders' Hardware
		11.62 Selection of Hardware
		11.63 Effects of Codes and Regulations on Hardware
		11.64 Standards for Finishing Hardware
		11.65 Hinges and Butts
		11.66 Door-Closing Devices
		11.67 Locks, Latches, and Keys
		11.68 Window Hardware
		11.69 Inserts, Anchors, and Hangers
		11.70 Nails
		11.71 Screws
		11.72 Welded Studs
		11.73 Powder-Driven Studs
		11.74 Bolts
		11.75 Sound Production and Transmission
		11.76 Nomenclature for Analysis of Sound
		11.77 Sound Characteristics and Effects on Hearing
		11.78 Measurement of Sound
		11.79 Sound and Vibration Control
		11.80 Acoustical Performance Data
		11.81 Acoustical Criteria
		11.82 Helpful Hints for Noise Control
		11.83 Acoustics Bibliography
12. Roof Systems
	12.1 Roof Decks
	12.2 Vapor Retarders
	12.3 Roof Insulation
	12.4 Low-Slope Roof Coverings
	12.5 Steep-Slope Roof Coverings
	12.6 Need for Familiarity with Roof Design
	12.7 Building Owners' Responsibility
	12.8 Building-Code Provisions for Roofs
	12.9 Effects of Climate
	12.10 Effects of Roof Size, Shape, and Slope
	12.11 Deck Suitability
	12.12 Effects of Rooftop Traffic
	12.13 Esthetic Considerations
	12.14 Effects of Wind on Roofs
	12.15 Protected Membrane Roofs and Plaza Decks
	12.16 Preroofing Conference
	12.17 Warranties
	12.18 Roof Maintenance
	12.19 Reroofing
	12.20 Roofing Industry Associations and Related Organizations
	12.21 Roof Systems Bibliography
13. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
	13.1 Definitions of Terms of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
	13.2 Heat and Humidity
	13.3 Major Factors in HVAC Design
	13.4 Ventilation
	13.5 Movement of Air with Fans
	13.6 Duct Design
	13.7 Heat Losses
	13.8 Heat Gains
	Methods of Heating Buildings
		13.9 General Procedure for Sizing a Heating Plant
		13.10 Heating-Load-Calculation Example
		13.11 Warm-Air Heating
		13.12 Hot-Water Heating Systems
		13.13 Steam-Heating Systems
		13.14 Unit Heaters
		13.15 Radiant Heating
		13.16 Snow Melting
		13.17 Radiators and Convectors
		13.18 Heat Pumps
		13.19 Solar Heating
	Methods of Cooling and Air Conditioning
		13.20 Sizing an Air-Conditioning Plant
		13.21 Refrigeration Cycles
		13.22 Air-Distribution Temperature for Cooling
		13.23 Condensers
		13.24 Compressor-Motor Units
		13.25 Cooling Equipment-Central Plant Packaged Units
		13.26 Zoning
		13.27 Packaged Air-Conditioning Units
		13.28 Absorption Units for Cooling
		13.29 Ducts for Air Conditioning
		13.30 Built-Up Air-Conditioning Units
		13.31 Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) Systems
		13.32 Air-Water Systems
		13.33 Control Systems for Air Conditioning
		13.34 Heating and Air Conditioning
		13.35 Control of Computerized HVAC Systems
		13.36 Direct Digital Control
		13.37 Industrial Air Conditioning
		13.38 Chemical Cooling
		13.39 Year-Round Air Conditioning
14. Plumbing - Water-Supply, Sprinkler, and Wastewater Systems
	14.1Plumbing and Fire Prevention Codes
	14.2 Health Requirements for Plumbing
	Water Supply
		14.3 Water Quality
		14.4 Water Treatment
		14.5 Water Quantity and Pressures
		14.6 Water Distribution in Buildings
		14.7 Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
		14.8 Water Demand and Fixture Units
		14.9 Water-Pipe Sizing
		14.10 Domestic Water Heaters
	Wastewater Piping
		14.11 Wastewater Disposal
		14.12 Sewers
		14.13 Wastewater-System Elements
		14.14 Waste-Pipe Materials
		14.15 Layout of Waste Piping
		14.16 Interceptors
		14.17 Piping for Indirect Wastes
		14.18 Rainwater Drainage
		14.19 Waste-Pipe Sizing
		14.20 Venting
		14.21 Plumbing-System Inspection and Tests
	Gas Piping
		14.22 Gas Supply
		14.23 Gas-Pipe Sizes
		14.24 Estimating Gas Consumption
		14.25 Gas-Pipe Materials
	14.26 Sprinkler Systems
	14.27 Automatic Sprinklers
	14.28 Types of Sprinkler Systems
	14.29 System Design
	14.30 Standpipes
	14.31 Water Supplies for Sprinkler and Standpipe Systems
	14.32 Central Station Supervisory Systems
	14.33 Additional Information
15. Electrical Systems
	15.1 Electrical Power
	15.2 Direct-Current Systems
	15.3 Alternating-Current Systems
	15.4 Electrical Loads
	15.5 Emergency Power
	15.6 Electrical Conductors and Raceways
	15.7 Power System Apparatus
	15.8 Electrical Distribution in Buildings
	15.9 Circuit and Conductor Calculations
	15.10 Light and Sight
	15.11 Quality of Light
	15.12 Color Rendering with Lighting
	15.13 Quantity of Light
	15.14 Lighting Methods
	15.15 Daylight
	15.16 Characteristics of Lamps
	15.17 Characteristics of Lighting Fixtures
	15.18 Systems Design of Lighting
	15.19 Special Electrical Systems
	15.20 Electrical Systems Bibliography
16. Vertical Circulation
	16.1 Classification of Vertical Circulation Systems
	16.2 Ramps
	16.3 Stairs
	16.4 Escalators
	16.5 Elevator Installations
	16.6 Definitions of Elevator Terms
	16.7 Elevator Hoistways
	16.8 Elevator Cars
	16.9 Electric Elevators
	16.10 Hydraulic Elevators
	16.11 Planning for Passenger Elevators
	16.12 Dumbwaiters
	16.13 Conveyers and Pneumatic Tubes
	16.14 Mail Chutes
17. Construction Project Management
	17.1 Types of Construction Companies
	17.2 Construction Company Organization
	17.3 Contractors' Business Consultants
	17.4 Sources of Business
	17.5 What Constitutes the Contract Documents?
	17.6 Major Concerns with Building Codes
	17.7 Estimating, Bidding, and Costs
	17.8 Types of Bids and Contracts
	17.9 Professional Construction Managers
	17.10 Contract Administration
	17.11 Purchase Orders
	17.12 Scheduling and Expediting
	17.13 Fast Tracking
	17.14 Changes, Claims, and Dispute Resolution
	17.15 Insurance
	17.16 Construction Contract Bonds
	17.17 Trade Payment Breakdowns and Payments
	17.18 Cost Records
	17.19 Accounting Methods
	17.20 Safety
	17.21 Community Relations
	17.22 Relations with Public Agencies in Executing Construction Operations
	17.23 Labor Relations
	17.24 Social and Environmental Concerns in Construction
	17.25 Systems Building
	17.26 Basics of Successful Management
18. Communications Systems
	18.1 Glossary
	18.2 Grounding
	18.3 Communications Room and Communications Closet Layout
	18.4 Wiring Diagrams
	18.5 Fiberoptic Cable
	18.6 Fiberoptic Connectors
	18.7 Horizontal Cabling
	18.8 Budget
	18.9 Links
19. Construction Cost Estimating
	19.1 Composition of Project Price
	19.2 Estimating Direct Costs
	19.3 Estimating Contingency Costs
	19.4 Estimating Margin (Markup)
	19.5 Sample Estimate
	19.6 Reviewing Estimates
	19.7 Computer Estimating
Appendix: Factors for Conversion to the Metric System (SI) of Units
Document Text Contents
Page 2



Frederick S. Merritt (Deceased) Editor

Jonathan T. Ricketts Editor

Sixth Edition


New York San Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogotá

Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan

Montreal New Delhi San Juan Singapore

Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Page 861


The advantages of counterfort walls are the large effective depth for the canti-
lever reinforcement and concrete efficiently concentrated in the counterfort. For
very tall walls, where an alternative cantilever wall would require greater thickness
and larger quantities of reinforcing steel and concrete, the savings in material will
exceed the additional cost of forming the counterforts. Accurate design is necessary
for economy in important projects involving large quantities of material and requires
refinement of the simple assumptions in the definition of counterfort walls. The
analysis becomes complex for determination of the division of the load between
one-way horizontal slab and vertical cantilever action.

See also Art. 6.7 (F. S. Merritt, ‘‘Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers,’’
McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York.)


For walls more than 10 in thick, the ACI 318 Building Code requires two-way
layers of bars in each face. Two-way slab design of this reinforcement is required
for economy in basement walls or subsurface tank walls supported as vertical spans
by the floor above and the footing below, and as horizontal spans by stiff pilasters,
interior cross walls, or end walls.

This type of two-way slab is outside the scope of the specific provisions in the
Code. Without an ‘‘exact’’ analysis, which is seldom justified because of the un-
certainties involved in the assumptions for stiffnesses and loads, a realistic design
can be based on the simple two-way slab design method of Appendix A, Method
2, of the 1963 ACI 318 Building Code.


Building foundations should distribute wall and column loads to the underlying soil
and rock within acceptable limits on resulting soil pressure and total and differential
settlement. Wall and column loads consist of live load, reduced in accordance with
the applicable general building code, and dead load, combined, when required, with
lateral loads of wind, earthquake, earth pressure, or liquid pressure. These loads
can be distributed to the soil near grade by concrete spread footings, or to the soil
at lower levels by concrete piles or drilled piers.


A wide variety of concrete foundations are used for buildings. Some of the most
common types are illustrated in Fig. 9.41.

Spread wall footings consist of a plain or reinforced slab wider than the wall,
extending the length of the wall (Fig. 9.41a). Plain- or reinforced-concrete individ-
ual-concrete spread footings consist of simple, stepped, or sloped two-way con-
crete slabs, square or rectangular in plan (Fig. 9.41b to d). For two columns close
together, or an exterior column close to the property line so that individual spread
or pile-cap footings cannot be placed concentrically, a reinforced-concrete, spread

Page 862


FIGURE 9.41 Common types of foundations for buildings.

combined footing (Fig. 9.41e) or a strap footing (Fig.. 9.41ƒ) can be used to
obtain a nearly uniform distribution of soil pressure or pile loads. The strap footing
becomes more economical than a combined footing when the spacing between the
columns becomes larger, causing large bending moments in the combined footing.

For small soil pressures or where loads are heavy relative to the soil capacity,
a reinforced-concrete mat, or raft foundation (Fig. 9.41g) may prove economical.
A mat consists of a two-way slab under the entire structure. Concrete cross walls
or inverted beams can be utilized with a mat to obtain greater stiffness and economy.

Where sufficient soil strength is available only at lower levels, pile foundations
(Fig. 9.41h) or drilled-pier foundations (Fig. 9.41i) can be used.


The area of spread footings, the number of piles, or the number of drilled piers are
selected by a designer to support actual unfactored building loads without exceeding
settlement limitations, a safe soil pressure qa, or a safe pile or drilled-pier load. A
factor of safety from 2 to 3, based on the ultimate strength of the soil and its
settlement characteristics, is usually used to determine the safe soil pressure or safe
pile or drilled-pier load. See Art. 6.8.

Soil Pressures. After the area of the spread footing or the number and spacing
of piles or drilled piers has been determined, the spread footing, pile-cap footing,
or drilled pier can be designed. The strength-design method of the ACI 318 Build-

Page 1721

Index Terms Links

Wood: cont.
proportional limit 4.42 4.43
rupture modulus of 4.42 4.43
shakes in 4.44
shrinkage of 10.2 10.3
species for construction 4.42 4.43
specific gravities of 10.7
splits in 4.45
strength of 4.41
weights of 4.42 4.43 5.4 10.7 10.8 10.9
(See also Connections; Framing; Lumber;

Timber, and specific types of
wood construction, for example:
Wood beams; Wood floors; Wood

Wood arches:
bases for 10.73
crown connections for 10.72
economy of 10.73
moment splices for 10.73
spacings for 10.5
spans for 10.5
types of 10.72 10.73
(See also Arches)

Wood beams:
bearing stresses in 10.25 10.26
camber of 10.25
checks in 4.45
compression perpendicular to grain of 10.28 10.29
deflection of 10.23 10.24
design provisions for 10.21
lateral support for 10.22 10.23
slenderness ratio for 10.22
spacings for 10.5
spans for 10.5 10.6
stability of 10.21
(See also Beams; Deflections)

Wood block 5.4 11.81 11.84
Wood columns 4.46 10.28

(See also Columns)
Wood decking (see Wood floors; Wood

Wood domes 10.5
Wood floors:

connections to 11.21 11.31
decking 10.5 10.37 10.73
finish (see Floor coverings, wood)
underlayment 4.51
weight of 5.4

Wood framing (see Framing)

Page 1722

Index Terms Links

Wood joists 5.4 10.77 10.78 10.92 10.93
Wood piles 6.45
Wood roofs 10.5
(See also Sheathing, plywood; Wood

floors; Wood shingles; Wood shakes)
Wood shakes 12.17

Wood sheathing 1.14 5.5 10.5 10.40
10.41 10.43 10.45
Wood shingles 4.48 5.5 12.17
Wood stairs 16.9
Wood structural panels:

allowable loads for 10.44 10.45
basic categories of 10.33 10.34
composite 10.33
defined 10.33
exposure classifications for 10.34
mat-formed 10.33
oriented strand board 10.33
plywood (see Plywood)
standards for 10.34
wood types in 10.33

Wood studs 5.5
Wood tension members 10.30
Wood trusses 10.5 10.68
Wood walls:

shear (see Shear walls)
sheathing for (see Sheathing)
siding for 10.41
stud 1.15 1.18 10.42 10.43 11.3511.36
sturd-I-Wall 10.42
(See also Partitions; Walls)

least 5.69 5.70
virtual 5.67 5.68

Workmen’s compensation 17.44
Wythes 11.3 11.5

Yield point 4.50

(See also Steel reinforcement; Strength
yield; Structural steels)

Zoning 1.38 3.32

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