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TitleBuilding codes illustrated : a guide to understanding the 2015 international building code®
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Total Pages451
Table of Contents
                            Building Codes ILLUSTRATED
Contents
Preface
1 Building Codes
	History and Precedents
	Model Codes
	Federal and National codes
	State and Local Codes
	Other Codes and Standards
	Legal Basis for Codes
	The Future for Code Development
2 Navigating the Code
	Intent and Interpretation
	Using the Code
	Code Components
	Code Analysis
3 Use and Occupancy
	Occupancy Classification
	Occupancy Groups
4 Special Uses and Occupancies
	special Uses and Occupancies
	Covered and Open Mall Buildings
	High-Rise Buildings
	Atriums
	Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies
	Group I-2 Occupancies
	Live-Work Units
	Health Care Clinics
	Ambulatory Care Facilities
5 Building Heights and Areas
	Definitions
	Exceptions to Building Height and Area Limitations
	Building Height and Area Limitations
	Allowable Building Heights
	Mezzanines
	Allowable Building Heights and Areas
	Area Modifications
	Building Height and Area Calculation Procedure
	Unlimited-Area Buildings
	Mixed Use and Occupancy
	Special Provisions
6 Types of Construction
	Types of Construction
	Construction Classification
	Passive Fire Protection
	Table 601
	Table 602
	Types I and II Construction
	Type III Construction
	Type IV Construction
	Type V Construction
7 Fire-Resistive Construction
	Fire-Resistive Construction
	Fire-Resistance Ratings
	Fire-Resistance of Structural members
	Exterior Walls
	Fire Walls
	Fire Barriers
	Fire Partitions
	Smoke Barriers and Horizontal Assemblies
	Fire Resistance of Interior Walls
	Vertical Openings
	Shaft Enclosures
	Penetrations and Joint Systems
	Opening Protectives
	Ducts and Air Transfer Openings
	Concealed Spaces
	Plaster and Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials
	Prescriptive Fire-Resistances
	Calculated Fire-Resistances
8 Interior Finishes
	Wall and Ceiling Finishes
	Interior Floor Finishes
	Decorations and Trim
	Acoustical Ceiling Systems
9 Fire-Protection Systems
	Fire-Protection Systems
	Fire-Protection Systems
	Automatic Sprinkler Systems
	Standpipe Systems
	Portable Fire Extinguishers
	Fire-Alarm and Detection Systems
	Smoke-Control Systems
	Smoke and Heat Removal
10 Means of Egress
	Means of Egress
	Egress Components
	General Egress Requirements
	Exit Access
	Exit-Access Design Requirements
	Exits
	Exit Design Requirements
	Exit Discharge
	Exit-Discharge Design Requirements
	Assembly Egress
	Aisle Accessways
	Emergency Escape
11 Accessibility
	Designing for Accessibility
	Americans with Disabilities Act
	Definitions
	Scoping Requirements
	Accessible Routes
	Accessible Entrances
	Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities
	Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units
	Special Occupancies
	Other Features and Facilities
	Signage
	Supplementary Accessibility Requirements
12 Interior Environment
	Ventilation
	Lighting
	Yards or Courts
	Sound Transmission
	Interior Space Dimensions
	Access and Materials
13 Energy Efficiency
14 Exterior Walls
	Exterior-Wall Envelope
	Performance Requirements
	Wall Materials
	Installation of Wall Coverings
	Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls
	Metal Composite Materials
	High-Pressure Laminate systems
15 Roof Assemblies
	General Requirements
	Requirements for Roof Coverings
	Asphalt Shingles
	Clay and Concrete Tile
	Metal Roof Panels
	Roll Roofing and Slate Shingles
	Wood Shingles
	Wood Shakes
	Built-Up Roofs
	Single-Ply Roofing
	Vegetative Roofs, Roof Gardens, and Landscaped Roofs
	Roof Insulation
	Rooftop Structures
	Reroofing
16 Structural Provisions
	Structural Design
17 Special Inspections and Tests
	Special Inspections: Steel
	Special Inspections: Concrete
	Special Inspections: Masonry
	Special Inspections
18 Soils and Foundations
	Soils and Foundations
	Dampproofing and Waterproofing
	Waterproofing
	Load-Bearing Values of Soils
	Footings and Foundations
	Deep Foundations
19 Building Materials and Systems
	Structural Materials
	Concrete
	Aluminum
	Masonry
	Steel
	Wood
	Glass and Glazing
	Gypsum Board, Gypsum Panel Products, and Plaster
	Plastics
	Building Systems
	Elevators and Conveying Systems
20 Existing Structures
Bibliography
Index
EULA
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 225

Means of egress / 209

• Per § 1011.12.1 roofs and penthouses
containing elevator equipment that must
be accessed for maintenance are required
to be accessed by a stairway. This
requirement applies even in smaller
buildings (3 stories or less) that normally
don’t need roof access.

• Minimum headroom is the same as for stairs,
80" (2032).

• Ramps in a means of egress may not exceed
a 1-in-12 (8%) slope.

• Other ramps may not exceed a 1-in-8 (12.5%)
slope. It is recommended that the designer
never use ramps steeper than 1 in 12 (8%),
even in nonaccessible paths of travel. The
use of 1-in-12 ramps makes those paths of
travel accessible and safer for all building
users.

• The width of ramps in a means of egress
shall not be less than the width of corridors
as required by § 1020.2; this width is
typically 44" (1118) measured between
handrails, if provided.

• Other ramps may have a minimum clear
width of 36" (914) between handrails.
Once the width of an egress ramp is
established, it should not be reduced in
the direction of egress.

gEnEral EgrEss rEquIrEMEnts

roof access
§ 1010.12 requires that, in buildings four or more
stories in height above grade plane, at least one
stairway must extend to the roof, unless the
roof is sloped at more than a 4-in-12 pitch. An
exception allows access to unoccupied roofs by
a hatch not less than 16 sf (1.5 m2) in area and
having a minimum dimension of 2' (610).

ramps
§ 1012 contains provisions that apply to all
ramps that are part of a means of egress, except
when amended by other provisions where indi-
cated. For example, § 1029 governs ramps in
assembly areas. As for stairs, all interior exit
ramps are to be enclosed per the applicable
provisions of § 1023. Exit access ramps are to
be enclosed in accordance per the provisions of
§ 1019.3 for enclosure of stairways.

• Cross slopes in a ramp may
not exceed 1 in 48 (2%).

• Ramps are limited to a vertical rise of 30"
(762) between intermediate landings.

Page 226

210 / Building Codes illustrated

gEnEral EgrEss rEquIrEMEnts

• Landings are to be provided at the top and
bottom of each ramp and at changes in
direction.

• The width of the landing shall be no less
than the width of the adjoining ramps.

• The length of landings shall be a minimum
of 60" (1525). This means that ramp
landings are typically much longer than they
are wide.

• Landings that accommodate a change of
direction must be at least 60" by 60" (1525
× 1525).

• Landings may have a 1:48 slope (2%) for
drainage.

• Doors opening onto a landing must not
reduce the clear width to less than 42"
(1067).

• Ramps having a rise greater than 6”
(152) are to have handrails on both sides.
Handrail requirements are the same as for
stairs; see § 1014.

• Where edge protection is required a curb,
rail, wall, or barrier is to be provided to
serve as edge protection.

• A curb must be a minimum of 4" (102) in
height.

• Barriers must be constructed so that
the barrier prevents the passage of a 4"
diameter (102) sphere, where any portion of
the sphere is within 4" (102) of the floor or
ground surface.

• Edge protection is not required for curb
ramps, and landings abutting ramps or
stairs, and where the ramp is close to an
adjacent surface such that the drop-off from
the edge is less than 1⁄2” (12.7 mm).

• Guards are to be provided where required by
§ 1015.2. This requirement applies to drop-
offs of 30" (762) or more along ramp sides
and where ramps are adjacent to glazing.

• At sloped grading conditions,
measurement criteria is applied
at less then 36" (914) horizontally
from the open side.

>
30

" (
76

2)
to


ad

ja
ce

nt
g

ra
de

4"
(1

02
) m

in
im

um

ramps (continued)

Page 450

434

Index

Toilet facilities:
accessibility, 259–260, 268
gypsum board and plaster, 411
materials, interior environment, 282
plumbing systems, 417
privacy, 282
safety glazing, 407, 408
space dimensions, 280
ventilation, 275

Topography, wind speed and (structural design
requirements), 333

Torsion, 338, 342
Towers (rooftop structures), 320
Townhouses, 254
Transient lodging, accessibility of, 267
Transit facilities, accessibility of, 270
Transit platforms, 262
Trash chutes, 168
Travel distance, exit-access, 216–217
Treads (stairs), 206
Trim (interior finishes), 157
TTY, see Hearing impairment
Tutoring centers (occupancy), 23
Two-way communication systems (accessibility,

supplementary requirements), 268
Type A buildings, 16, 57, 58, 247
Type B buildings, 57, 58, 247
Type of construction. See also Construction type

Type I construction, 104–105
Type II construction, 104–105
Type III construction, 106
Type IV construction, 107–109
Type V construction, 110

UBC, see Uniform Building Code
Under-floor spaces, ventilation, 274
Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 317

building materials, 414
elevators and conveying systems, 414
exit design requirements, 229
exterior walls, 302
fire-resistance ratings, 112, 113, 138, 139
interior finishes, 154
roof assemblies, 316, 317, 322

Uniform Building Code (UBC):
construction type, 95, 97
IBC compared, xi
ICBO historical perspective, 2, 3
state building codes, 5

United States Department of Commerce, 156, 387
United States Department of Housing and Urban

Development (HUD), 4
United States Department of Justice, 4, 244
U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), 7
Unlimited-area buildings (building heights and areas),

84–85
Unobstructed accessible route, 246
Unoccupied spaces, access to, 281
Unprotected opening, 103, 118–120
Upgrading (Americans with Disabilities Act), 4, 7
Urinals, accessibility and, 282
Use, see Occupancy groups; Special-use occupancies;

specific occupancy uses
USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council), 7
Utility and miscellaneous group U, 32
Utility studs, wood (wall framing), 396

Vapor retarders (exterior walls), 289
Vegetative roofs, 316
Vending machines, accessibility of, 268
Veneers (exterior walls):

adhered masonry, 295

anchored masonry, 292
earthquake loads, 345
exterior, 295
glass, 297
interior, 296
metal, 296
slab-type, 294
stone, 293
wood, 291

Ventilation:
institutional group I occupancies, 49
interior environment, 272–275
masonry fireplaces, 382–383
motor-vehicle-related occupancies, 45–46
roof assembly requirements, 304

Vertical assemblies (gypsum board and plaster), 411
Vertical continuity, fire walls, 124
Vertical distribution (earthquake loads), 342
Vertical enclosures:

exit, fire-resistive construction of, see Building
separations and shafts

exterior walls (exit design), 227
Vertical exposure, exterior walls (fire-resistive

construction), 120
Vertical openings, 131–132
Vertical separation of openings (exterior walls, fire-

resistive construction), 118–119
Vestibules, 183
Vinyl siding, 298
Visual alarms (fire-protection systems), 176, 181. See

also Detectable warnings; Emergency voice/
alarm systems; Fire-alarm and detection
systems

Visual impairment, egress requirements and, 190

Waiting areas:
egress requirements, 195
I-2 occupancy, 47

Walkways, 33
Wall(s). See also Exterior walls

anchorage, 328
interior finishes, 154–155
light-transmitting plastics, 415
load bearing, 327

Wall assemblies, prescriptive fire-resistances for,
145–146

Wall coverings, exterior walls, 289–298
adhered masonry veneers, 295
anchored masonry veneer, 292
exterior veneers, 295
fiber-cement siding, 298
flashing, 290
glass veneers, 297
interior veneers, 296
metal veneers, 296
polypropylene siding, 298
slab-type veneer, 294
stone veneer, 293
terra-cotta, 294
vapor retarders, 289
vinyl siding, 298
wood veneers, 291

Wall framing, wood, 396–397
Wall ties, masonry construction, 378
Water closets, accessibility and, 282. See also Toilet

facilities
Waterproofing (soils and foundations), 357–358
Water slides, accessibility, 265
Water tanks (rooftop structures), 319
Weak story, 339
Weather protection:

concrete, 373

exterior walls, 287
roof assembly requirements, 304

Weep holes, masonry construction, 378
Weight (metric equivalencies), xiv
Weight irregularity, 339
Width requirements, egress, 191, 196–197, 209–210
Winds, roof assembly requirements and, 305
Wind conditions (inspection), 354
Wind load (structural design requirements), 332
Windows. See also Glass and glazing

dormers, 323
light-transmitting plastics, 415
sill heights, 214–215

Window protection (fire-resistive construction), 137–138
Wind speed (structural design requirements), 333
Wired glass, defined, 404
Wood, 386–403

bracing, 399–401
construction requirements, 388–389
cripple walls, 398
cutting, notching or boring, 398
decay and termite protection, 390–391
fasteners, 389
floor joists, 394–395
floor sheathing, 388
foundation plates/sills, 393
generally, 386
girders, 393
headers, 398
light-frame construction, 392
roof and ceiling framing, 402–403
roof sheathing, 388
standards and quality, 387
wall framing, 396–397

Wood assemblies, calculated fire-resistances for, 152
Wood members, size equivalencies for, 107
Wood shakes (roof covering materials), 313
Wood shingles (roof covering materials), 312
Wood veneers (exterior walls), 291
World Trade Center disaster, 39
Wrestling rings (accessibility), 265

Yards, 277

Page 451

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