Download Art and Architecture of the World's Religions PDF

TitleArt and Architecture of the World's Religions
ISBN 139780313342868
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size11.1 MB
Total Pages435
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Copyright
Contents
Introduction
	SCOPE AND PURPOSE
	WHAT IS RELIGION?
	WHAT IS RELIGIOUS ART?
	THE IMPORTANCE OF ART IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES
	HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
1. Prehistoric Belief Systems
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
	EXAMPLES
		Mnajdra Temple complex, Malta, ca. 3300–2500 BCE
		Stonehenge, England, ca. 3000…1500
		Minoan Snake Goddess, ca. 1600
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
2. Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
		Geography
		Chronology
		Religion
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Temples and Ziggurats
		Deities and Devotees
	EXAMPLES
		The Warka Vase, ca. 3500 –3000 BCE
		The Ziggurat at Ur, Iraq, ca. 2100
		Clay Mask of the Demon Humbaba, ca. 1800 …1600
		Section of the Facade of the Eanna Temple from Uruk, ca. 1415
		Relief from the Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad, Late Eighth Century
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
3. Religion in Ancient Egypt
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
		Gods and Goddesses
		The Pharaoh and the Priests
		Death and the Afterlife
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Tombs and the Funerary Arts
		Temples
	EXAMPLES
		The Temples of Amun at Luxor and Karnak
		The Pharaoh-Queen Hatshepsut
		The Papyrus of Ani ( Book of the Dead), ca. 1275–1250 BCE
		The Sacred Cat (Goddess Bastet), Bronze Statuette, after 600
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
4. Religion in Ancient and Classical Greece and Rome
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
		The Olympian Pantheon
		Mystery Cults
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Temples
		Images of Deities
	EXAMPLES
		The Parthenon in Athens, Greece (447–438 BCE) and the Pantheon in Rome, Italy (ca. 125 CE)
		Frescoes from the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60…50
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
5. Mesoamerican and Andean Religions
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Pyramid-Temple Complexes
		Symbols and Glyphs
	EXAMPLES
		Las Limas Monument 1: “The Lord of Las Limas,”ca. 800 –300 BCE
		Drawing of the Lid of the Sarcophagus of Lord Pacal of Palenque, ca. 684
		The Codex Fejérváry-Mayer, 15th Century
		The Aztec Calendar Stone, Early 16th Century
		Nazca Lines, Peru, ca. 200 …600
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
6. Native American Religions
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
	EXAMPLES
		Great Serpent Mound
		Navajo Sand Painting Textile
		Hopi Kachina
		Northwest Coast Totem Poles
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
7. Indigenous Religions of Oceania
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
		Creation and Dreamtime
		Gods, Spirits, and Ancestors
		Mana and Tapu
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Environmental and Ephemeral Art Forms of Oceania
	EXAMPLES
		Uli Figure
		Malagan Image
		Maori Wood Carvings
		Easter Island Moai Figures
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
8. Indigenous Religions of Africa
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
		Terminology: Issues and Challenges
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Masks and Masking Performances
		Shrines, Sanctuaries, and Power Figures
	EXAMPLES
		Bamana Chi Wara Headdress Mask
		Kongo Nkisi Nkondi Figure
		Ashanti Akua Ma Figurines
		Kota Mbulu-Ngulu Figure
		Yoruba Iroke Ifa Divination Wand
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
9. Judaism
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		The Temple and the Synagogue
	EXAMPLES
		Dura Europos Synagogue, Interior, Fresco Paintings, ca. 250 CE
		Two Hebrew Manuscripts from the 14th Century
		Marc Chagall, Moses Receives the Tablets of the Law, 1960 –1966
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
10. Christianity
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
	EXAMPLES
		Three Images of Mary and Jesus
		Three Images of the Crucifixion of Jesus
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
11. Islam
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Definitions and Dilemmas
		The Mosque
		The Word in Islamic Art
	EXAMPLES
		The Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, begun 691
		Two Persian Manuscripts with Narrative Illustrations
		An Ottoman Prayer Rug, Late 16th Century
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
12. Hinduism
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		The Hindu Image
		The Hindu Temple
	EXAMPLES
		The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho, ca. 1025–50
		Images of Hindu Deities
		Krishna and Radha, Miniature Painting, ca. 1760
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
13. Buddhism
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
	EXAMPLES
		Two Great Stupas: The Great Stupa at Sanchi, India, Third to First Centuries BCE and Borobudur, Java, ca. 800 CE
		Three Buddhas and Two Bodhisattvas
		A Tibetan Mandala, 15th Century
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
14. Taoism
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
	EXAMPLES
		The White Cloud Monastery, Beijing, 14th –15th Century
		Divine Immortals of the Five Paths and Transcendents Who Have Obtained the Tao , 1454
		Vase with the Eight Taoist Immortals, 14th Century
		The Lady of the Highest Primordial and the Empress of the Earth, ca. 1600
		Jade Plaque of a Taoist Paradise, 17th Century
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
15. Confucianism
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Temples
		Images of Confucius and Confucian Themes in Art
	EXAMPLES
		The Imperial City and Temple of Heaven, Beijing
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
16. Shinto
	ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT
	PRINCIPAL BELIEFS AND KEY PRACTICES
	TRADITIONAL ART AND ARCHITECTURAL FORMS
		Sacred Places and Spaces
		Religious Festivals
	EXAMPLES
		Ise Shrine (ca. 680–Present)
		Kasuga Mandara ca. 1300
		Deified Princess Nakatsu-Hime, Ninth Century
	NOTES
	BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READING
	NOTES
Conclusion
Selected Bibliography
	Print Resources
	Web Resources
Index
About the Author
Color Plates
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Art and Architecture
of the World’s Religions

Page 218

195

9

Judaism

ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT

Judaism is the oldest of the three major monotheistic religions of the world.
Both Christianity and Islam later evolved from the foundations of Judaism.
Although Judaism today is one of “the smallest of the world religions . . . it
has had an influence and a geographical distribution inversely proportional
to its size.” 1 With a lengthy, often unsettled, and dramatic history of dispersal,
assimilation, and persecution, Judaism’s survival and tenacity are remarkable
evidence of the strength of this ancient faith.

The origins of the Jewish faith are traditionally traced back to the second
millennium bce as recounted in the Hebrew scriptural accounts of the lives and
deeds of the great patriarch and prophet Abraham and the eminent prophet
Moses. Both of their lives are set in the mid-second millennium bce . Abra-
ham, who lived in ancient Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), is considered to
be the first to receive direct revelations from the one true God, the creator
of the universe. The belief in the primacy of this one God posed a contrast to
the contemporary polytheistic practices of the other ancient peoples of Mesopo-
tamia and established Judaism as the world’s oldest monotheistic belief system.
According to tradition, God entered into a covenant (pact, agreement) with
Abraham, whose absolute trust in and loyalty to God would be rewarded by
prosperity and a homeland for his descendants. Abraham was originally named
Abram, and the covenant with God was symbolized by his taking on the new
name, Abraham (“Father of Many Nations”). The peregrinations of Abraham
and his wife, Sarah, through the eastern Mediterranean regions, the births of

Page 434

Plate 29 The Hall of Supreme Harmony, the Imperial City, Beijing, China, early 15th
century. Vanni / Art Resource, NY.

Plate 30 Zhu Bang, Officials in front of the
Forbidden City, ca. 1500, Ming Dynasty, silk
painting. The Art Archive / British Museum,
London.

Page 435

Plate 31 Utagawa Kunisada (1785–1864), Amaterasu, Shinto Goddess of the Sun, wood-
block print, ca. 1860. Victoria & Albert Museum, London / Art Resource, NY.

Plate 32 Kasuga Shrine mandara, ca. 1300, Kamakura period,
hanging scroll. The Art Archive / Sylvan Barnet and William
Burto Collection.

Similer Documents