Download Architecture Theory since 1968 PDF

TitleArchitecture Theory since 1968
PublisherThe MIT Press
ISBN 139780262082617
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size11.9 MB
Total Pages825
Table of Contents
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Document Text Contents
Page 2

Architecture Theory since 1968

Page 412

virtue of the bridge, becomes a site. To build means to make place, to give rise to.
To build is to make a place for the Geviert and to stay there.

But what is problematic in all of this? Why should this dis-
course call building-dwelling into question? There is a vulgar, idiotically rationalis-
tic way of reading this part of Heidegger, reducing him to a “philosophy of
architecture” à la Spengler. Spengler spoke of the absence of “house” in the world-
city, the absence of houses where “Vesta and Janus, Penates and Lares” might be
able to reside. The house appears uprooted and man lives there only as tenant or
guest. The spirit is a stranger in this space, whose landscape is systematically de-
stroyed by mere aedificare, by mere ars aedificandi. This spirit, no longer a “plant,” no
longer organically connected to “heaven and earth,” becomes sterile and leads an
errant existence amid the “artificial natures” of the metropolis.7 All of this is at the
origin of “radical” architecture and the billions of pseudo-sociological pages on
“alienation.” But it is the exact opposite of the intention implicit in Heidegger’s
argument. The uprooted spirit of the metropolis is not “sterile,” but productive par
excellence. It is the definitive rupture of the Subject’s natural being that permits it
the will-to-power over nature. Heidegger knows this. And Simmel had already said
this. But there is an even more substantial difference. The problem is not with the
form of building in itself. What is absent is not the “fitness” of building to spirit,
in which case spirit would be foreign to its home. The problem lies in the fact that
spirit may no longer dwell—it has become estranged from dwelling. And this is
why building cannot “make” the Home (Dimora) “appear.”

How does Heidegger proceed? Simply by radically assuming
the claims and the intentions of architecture, carrying them to their logically extreme con-
sequences: “You say build. But perhaps building is simply a means to dwelling? You
build lodgings—and yet you assert that man ‘resides’ in these lodgings. Your end
is to make man ‘reside’. But how can you claim this end if you are unaware of the
fact that to pro-duce dwelling is conceivable only if dwelling is first connected to
building? You must then demonstrate to me the existence of this connection. And
does ‘to reside’ only mean ‘to shelter oneself’ or not also ‘to cultivate’ and to ‘build
bridges’ between the elements of the Geviert?” Such indeed is architecture’s response:
it preaches the relation between lodging and labor, between shelter and nature. It
appears to tend toward this end. And yet this end is never called into question; it is
assumed to be “natural” when instead it is part and parcel of the Fragwürdiges of
architecture’s present situation—not as a means with which to resolve the Fragwür-
diges, but as an end in itself and for itself. No nostalgia, then, in Heidegger—but
rather the contrary. He radicalizes the discourse supporting any possible “nostalgic”
attitude, lays bare its logic, pitilessly emphasizes its insurmountable distance from
the actual condition.

It is not a matter of changing the forms by means of which
architecture thinks of building homes. One must ask oneself what kind of thing the
Home (Dimora) is. The Home is only if residing (dimorare) exists as a precondition for

395CACCIARI 1980

Page 413

building, only if residing is connected at its origins to building. The Home is, only if
building pro-duces the place of the Geviert. “Aesthetic” or “economic” accommoda-
tions to this exigency are not possible. But this does not mean that such accommoda-
tions do not exist; what is illusory and mystifying is the belief that interior design or
the construction of housing resolves the problem of dwelling. To avert the housing
crisis is necessary and fundamental. But this program should be kept radically distinct
from any other claim, especially that of the problem of the home. The problem of
dwelling lies not in the quality of the edifice, of services, or of design. We should
either speak of it in its own language or not speak of it at all: dwelling is being in the
Geviert, experiencing dwelling as a fundamental condition of one’s own being, feeling
oneself to be a “dweller.” But is it possible to build for “dwellers”? Only “dwellers”
can do so. And it is precisely the “dweller” that is absent today.

Heidegger limits himself to reconfirming man’s uprootedness
in the face of false and useless attempts to recompose him organically, to make him
again organism, plant, root. That architecture which pretends to this “recomposi-
tioning” should be asked, “You want to produce homes [dimore]? Then do you know
how to dwell?” Heidegger says that it is necessary to “learn to dwell.” He keeps lis-
tening for the call to dwell. But no god calls. It is rather the present crisis itself that
calls. But how can the crisis call to dwell? Heidegger cannot say. In fact, his essay
confirms the non-existent logic of the dwelling-building-dwelling cycle—and thereby
dismantles a priori any claim that assumes such logic to be purposeful or denotative.
This logic, in a Wittgensteinian way, says nothing—it only forms premises.

Heidegger so detaches from us the idea of building-dwelling
that he renders absolutely problematic not only its eVectuality, but even the nostalgia
for it. There is no doubt that Heidegger keeps listening for the call to dwell. But this
listening is just silence. What speaks is not dwelling but the crisis of dwelling. And its
language is critical: to be exact, division, detachment, diVerence. In illustrating the
conditions of dwelling, Heidegger describes the diVerence that divides us from
dwelling—in demonstrating the built thing in terms of a bridge, he shows us the
actual inconceivability of a bridge. Indeed, he shows us the actual wretchedness of
accommodations that would call themselves bridges. He tells us of the total impo-
tence of shelters disguised as homes, of cities disguised as places.

In Heidegger, this critique appears in the form of listening, of
waiting. But this wait is recognized to be a priori indefinable. The reasons for our
separation from dwelling-building are contained in the overall history of Western
thought—in the very translation of Greek tekne into European technique. The repre-
sentation, the presentation of the present, has been up to this day the fundamental
characteristic of thought. Western thought treats being as presence.

But where does our thought relegate that which we call pres-
ence?8 Being-present presupposes an “unconcealedness.” In Being conceived as pres-
ence a fundamental unconcealedness is in force which, however, Western thought is
unable to grasp. Western thought assumes the equivalence of being and presence to
be natural, and its eVorts are concentrated on the technical analysis of this presence,
on its understanding, and on its use. On this note ends Heidegger’s essay “What Is
Thinking?” But what is building if not the bringing to presence of the fundamental
unconcealedness of dwelling? Dwelling and the thinking about the essential origins
of being are connected: thinking for dwelling. But this essential origin remains hid-
den and mysterious for Heidegger—his thought does not reach that far. In addition,
history and the destiny of Western thought are moving in the direction of tech-
nique—not in that of pro-duction, but in that of scientific productivity. Can a sense
of dwelling reemerge in this destiny, a sense of building as the pro-duction of the
unconcealedness of dwelling? In his waiting, Heidegger unmasks all false appeals—

Page 824

Chrysostome, 9, 11, 141, 194, 284,
382

Rabinow, Paul, 428
Rational architecture or neorationalism, 89,

124, 129, 221–222, 246, 291–294.
See also Tendenza

Rationalism, 9, 10, 435, 462, 469, 471–
472, 496, 526–527

Rauschenberg, Robert, 12, 163
Reagan, Ronald, 680
Realism, 15, 246–247, 248, 253, 254–

255, 256–260, 262, 513, 616
Regionalism, critical (Frampton), 358,

619, 687
Reichlin, Bruno, 246, 249–253
Reification, xi, xiv, 154, 522
Reinhart, Fabio, 246
Representation, 59, 192, 221, 234–235,

318, 345–346, 358, 366, 374, 387,
396, 409, 484–487, 507, 524–526,
530, 533, 544, 550, 582–583, 606,
607, 636, 653, 660, 664–665, 667,
668, 713–715, 719, 721, 750

Reproduction, 23, 382, 515, 624–625,
629, 631–632

Restany, Pierre, 30
Rhetoric, 37, 41, 42, 119, 268, 270, 315
Ricoeur, Paul, 358
Riegl, Alois, 385
Rizzi, Renato, 734
Robbe-Grillet, Alain, 154, 552, 561–562,

564
Rogers, Ernesto, 135–137, 251, 258
Romanticism, 15, 21, 348
Rossi, Aldo, xiv, 4, 124, 133–137, 139,

153–155, 156–159, 161, 222, 234,
246, 248–249, 252, 258–259, 267–
268, 284–285, 288, 292, 293, 332,
382, 385, 483–484, 486–487,
508–513, 522, 619, 623

Roussel, Raymond, 152
Rowe, Colin, xiv, 117, 200, 236, 240, 268,

281n17, 332–333, 684, 689, 752,
785–795

Rudolph, Paul, 161
Ruskin, John, 420
Rykwert, Joseph, 150, 464n2, 534n2

Saarinen, Eero, 36, 40, 44, 245
Sade, Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis

de, 146, 158, 162
Said, Edward, 558

807INDEX

Saint-Simon, Charles Henri, 457
Sant’Elia, Antonio, 370, 582–606
Sartoris, Alberto, 246
Sartre, Jean Paul, 446, 448, 509
Saussure, Ferdinand de, xii, 37, 38n2, 42,

47, 192, 487
Scarpa, Carlo, 47, 165
Scharoun, Hans, 123
Scheerbart, Paul, 389
Schmidt, Hans, 165
Schwitters, Kurt, 12, 163
Scolari, Massimo, 158, 161, 166
Scott, GeoVrey, 343, 592
Scott Brown, Denise, 164, 200, 231, 684.

See also Venturi, Robert
Scully, Vincent, 240, 245, 559
Self-reflexiveness, 222, 248–253, 269,

272, 276, 531, 692–693, 764
Semiotics, xi, 36–38, 42–54, 175, 183–

186, 198, 200–212 passim, 251,
262–263, 480, 487, 509, 642, 721,
780–781, 786, 796. See also Linguis-
tic analogy

Semper, Gottfried, 469
Serra, Richard, 788
Serres, Michel, 555–557, 564
Shklovsky, Viktor, 161, 250
Shock as urban condition (Benjamin), 2, 3,

10, 16–18, 27
Simmel, Georg, 2, 316, 392, 395, 457
Simulacrum (Baudrillard), 262, 530
Sitte, Camillo, 364, 423
Siza, Alvaro, 512, 614
Slutzky, Robert, 752
Smithson, Alison and Peter, 151, 205
Soane, Sir John, 89
Solà-Morales, Manuel de, 382
Speer, Albert, 103
Spinoza, Benedictus de, 218
Stam, Mart, 257
Starobinski, Jean, 298
Stern, Robert A. M., 232, 687, 694–696
Stirling, James, 149–153, 161, 165, 267, 686
Structuralism, xiii, 42, 262–264, 442–443,

468. See also Semiotics
Sturm, Der (group), 127
Sullivan, Louis, 767–773
Superstudio, 124–129

Tafuri, Manfredo, xi, 124, 132–134, 174,
222, 259–268, 276–277, 336, 382,
390–403, 440–461, 509–514, 616,
633, 639n14

Page 825

Taut, Bruno, 22–28
Taylor, Mark, 382, 390–391, 765
Team X, 75, 205–207
Technology, 26, 27, 30, 128–129, 163,

358, 433, 437, 439, 462–463, 467,
540, 542–550, 586–587, 588–591,
617, 627, 684, 686, 693

Teige, Karel, 513
Tendenza, 124–125, 131–132, 136–143,

618. See also Rational architecture or
neorationalism

Terragni, Giuseppe, 117, 161, 340, 343
Tessenow, Heinrich, 155
Textuality, xi, 36, 214–215, 448, 515, 522,

566, 568, 570–581, 582–585, 642,
692–693, 708, 719–720, 780

Tinguely, Jean, 163
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 97
Tonka, Hubert, 509
Total design, 41, 76, 97
Translation, 658, 660–673
Tschumi, Bernard, 190, 566–579, 581,

692, 710, 712, 715–716, 720,
734–736

Type and typology, 9, 10, 38, 68–69, 95,
124, 133, 139, 141–143, 231, 259,
279–280, 284–286, 288–294, 350,
353, 356–357, 511–512, 517, 689

Ulmer, Gregory, 234, 764
Ungers, Oswald Matthias, 418
Unwin, Raymond, 14
Utopianism, xiv, 3, 4, 6–33 passim, 60, 75,

89, 99, 100–102, 107, 109, 128,
138, 148, 150, 434, 442–461 pas-
sim, 532, 557, 696

Valéry, Paul, 130, 398–399
Van Eyck, Aldo, 70, 83, 156
Vasarely, Victor, 12
Vasari, Giorgio, 88
Vattimo, Gianni, 615, 616
Venturi, Robert, xiv, 116–117, 153, 164,

184, 200, 234, 243, 267, 273, 309,
312, 332, 338, 364, 418, 424–425,
459–460, 524, 559–560, 684–687,
786

Vesely, Dalibor, 462
Vidler, Anthony, 232–233, 234
Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène-Emmanuel, 192
Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus, 12, 184, 195,

202, 469–470

Wagner, Otto, 76
Weak thought, 614–615, 616–623 passim
Weber, Max, 2, 303, 412, 424, 446, 457
Wenders, Wim, 552
Wiener, Norbert, 52
Wigley, Mark, 190, 677, 691
Wilford, Michael, 686
Williams, Raymond, 446
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 154, 156, 424
Wittkower, Rudolf, 36
Wolfe, Tom, 456
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 76, 150, 165, 337,

387–388, 790
Writing, architecture as, 533, 552, 561–

564, 570–581 passim, 644, 648–
650, 652–653, 711, 714, 715, 721,
727, 758. See also Textuality

Zevi, Bruno, 125, 163, 174, 180–181, 388

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