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Table of Contents
                            ARCHITECTURE : DESIGN NOTEBOOK
Copyright Page
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. PREAMBLE
CHAPTER 2. THE CONTEXT FOR DESIGN
CHAPTER 3. ARRIVING AT THE DIAGRAM
	RESPONDING TO THE SITE
	CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE ‘MODEL’
	ORGANISING THE PLAN
CHAPTER 4. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGIES
	STRUCTURE
	SERVICES
	HOW WILL IT STAND UP?
	HOW IS IT MADE?
	WILL IT BE COMFORTABLE?
	WILL IT BE GREEN?
CHAPTER 5. HOW WILL IT LOOK?
	EXPRESSION V SUPPRESSION
	ROOF
	OPENINGS
	ELEVATIONS
	WALL MEMBRANES
	THE CORNER
	SCALE
CHAPTER 6. THE SPACES AROUND
	CENTRIFUGAL AND CENTRIPETAL SPACE
	URBAN SPACE TYPOLOGY
CHAPTER 7. POSTSCRIPT: A WORKING METHOD
	TRADITION V THE VIRTUAL BUILDING
FURTHER READING
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

ARCHITECTURE :
DESIGNNOTEBOOK

Page 59

designer plenty of scope for architectural
expression, for just as architects of the func-
tionalist school decreed that the nature of
the ‘carcass’ should receive attention as an
expressive element, so did they tend towards
the view that the nature of materials making up
the building’s envelope, and more particu-
larly, the manner of their assembly, should
also contribute to ‘reading’ the building.
To the modernist there was something inher-

ently satisfying about a building which was so
explicit about its structure, its materials and its
assembly and construction that it is not surpris-
ing that the pioneers of modernism looked
to the work of contemporaneous structural,
mechanical or nautical engineers and its
naked expression of materials and assembly,
for an acceptable modus operandi (Figures
4.34�4.36). But the pluralist world of so-
called post-modernism in which we now find
ourselves allows for alternative forms of archi-
tectural expression where other pressures, be
they cultural or contextual, may well override

any perceived need to make an explicit display
of structure, or constructional method.

The envelope
The majority of our constructional concerns
relate to the design of the building’s external
envelope; the walls and roof membranes and
how these are pierced for lighting or access.
Decisions about the nature of this external

52 Architecture: Design Notebook

Figure 4.34 Robert Stephenson, Britannia Bridge, Menai
Strait, 1850. From Architecture of the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Century, Hitchock, Penguin.

Figure 4.35 1903 Renault.

Figure 4.36 The Flandre. From Towards a New
Architecture, Architectural Press, p. 81.

Page 60

‘skin’ to the building will not only interact with
other major decisions as the design develops,
but will also determine to a large extent how the
building will look.

The roof
Take the roof for example; will it be flat or
pitched, and in either case will it project
beyond the wall plane to afford some protec-
tion from the weather or will it be arrested
behind a parapet wall? Should the roof be con-
sidered as a lightweight ‘umbrella’ structurally
and visually separate from the principal struc-
tural idea (Figure 4.37), or does that idea also
produce the roof envelope merely by the appli-
cation of a waterproof membrane (Figure

4.38)? These fundamental questions of
whether the roof is a lightweight or a heavy-
weight envelope (with a considerable thermal
mass) have real consequences regarding the
building’s appearance but also its perfor-
mance.
Flat roof technology has developed so that

insulation is positioned at the ‘cold’ side of any
heavyweight roof, allowing the structural ther-
mal mass to work in favour of the building’s
thermal performance. Not surprisingly, the
flat roof (or a roof with minimum falls to points
of rainwater collection) will be considered as a
continuous impervious skin whether that skin is
applied to a heavyweight structure or to a light-
weight roof ‘deck’. But as to pitched roofs,
decisions regarding a lightweight imperme-
able and continuous membrane as opposed
to a heavy roof of traditional provenance
formed from individual tiles or slates which
are by their nature permeable, will again

Choosing appropriate technologies 53

Figure 4.37 Michael Hopkins, Inland Revenue Amenity
Building, Nottingham, 1995. Section. From Architectural
Review 5/95, p. 46.

Figure 4.38 P. L. Nervi, Palace of Sport, Rome, 1957.
From Visual History of the Twentieth Century Architecture,
Sharp, D., p. 213.

Page 118

FURTHER READING

Abel, C., Architecture and Identity; Towards a
Global Eco-culture, Architectural Press,
1997.

Ashihara, Y., Exterior Design in Architecture,
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970.

Banham, R., The Age of the Masters; a
Personal View of Modern Architecture.
Architectural Press, 1975.

Banham, R., The Architecture of the Well-
tempered Environment, Architectural Press,
1969.

Blanc, A., Stairs, Steps and Ramps,
Architectural Press, 1996.

Brawne, M., From Idea to Building,
Architectural Press, 1992.

Broadbent, G., Design in Architecture; John
Wiley and Sons, 1973.

Chilton, J., Space Grid Structures,
Architectural Press, 2000.

Cook, P., Primer, Academy Editions, 1996.
Curtis, W., Modern Architecture since 1900,

Phaidon, 1982.

Edwards, B., Sustainable Architecture,
Architectural Press, 1996.

Edwards, B., Rough Guide to Sustainability,
RIBA Publications, 2002.

Groak, S., The Idea of Building, E&F Spon,
1992.

Hawkes, D., The Environmental Tradition, E.
and F. N. Spon, 1996.

Howes, J., Computers Count, RIBA
Publications, 1990.

Hunt, A., Tony Hunt’s Structures Notebook,
Architectural Press, 1997.

Jencks, C., Modern Movements in
Architecture, Penguin Books, 1973.

Lawson, B., How Designers Think,
Architectural Press, 1998.

Lawson, B., Design in Mind, Architectural
Press, 1994.

MacDonald, A., Structure and Architecture,
Architectural Press, 1994.

Page 119

Moughtin, C., Urban Design: Street and
Square, Architectural Press, 1992.

Moughtin, C. et al., Urban Design; Method
and Techniques, Architectural Press, 1999.

Porter, T., Goodman, S., Design Drawing
Techniques for Architects, Graphic
Designers and Artists, Architectural Press,
1992.

Raskin, E., Architecturally Speaking, Bloch
Publishing Co., 1997.

Sharp, D., A Visual History of Twentieth-
century Architecture, Heinemann, 1972.

Smith, P., Options for a Flexible Planet,
Sustainable Building Network, Sheffield,
1996.

Smith, P., Architecture in a Climate of
Change, Architectural Press, 2001.

Sparke, P., Design in Context, Guild
Publishing, 1987.

Tutt, P., Adler, D. (eds), New Metric
Handbook: Planning and Design Data,
Architectural Press, 1979.

Vale, B., Vale, R., Green Architecture: Design
for a Sustainable Future, Thames and
Hudson, 1991.

Wilson, C., Architectural Re�ections,
Architectural Press, 1992.

112 Architecture: Design Notebook

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