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Table of Contents
                            Architectural Theory
CONTENTS
	Preface
	General Introduction
	Part I: Classicism and the Renaissance
		A. The Classical and Medieval Traditions
			Introduction
			1. Vitruvius from On Architecture, Book 1 (c.25 BC)
			2. Vitruvius from On Architecture, Book 2 (c.25 BC)
			3. Vitruvius from On Architecture, Book 3 (c.25 BC)
			4. Vitruvius from On Architecture, Book 4 (c.25 BC)
			5. Old Testament from I Kings
			6. Old Testament from The Book of Ezekiel (c.586 BC)
			7. New Testament from The Revelation of Jesus Christ to Saint John (c.95 AD)
			8. Abbot Suger from The Book of Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis (c.1144)
			9. William Durandus from The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments (1286)
		B. Renaissance and Baroque Ideals
			Introduction
			10. Antonio di Tuccio Manetti
from The Life of Brunelleschi (1480s)
			11. Leon Battista Alberti from On the Art of Building, Prologue and Book I (1443–52)
			12. Leon Battista Alberti from On the Art of Building, Book 6 (1443–52)
			13. Leon Battista Alberti from On the Art of Building, Book 9 (1443–52)
			14. Il Filarete from Book 1 of his untitled treatise on architecture (1461–3)
			15. Il Filarete from Book 8 of his untitled treatise on architecture
			16. Sebastiano Serlio from Book 3, The Complete Works on Architecture and Perspective (1540)
			17. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola from Preface to Rules of the Five Orders of Architecture (1562)
			18. Palladio from The Four Books of Architecture (1570)
			19. Juan Bautista Villalpando from Ezekiel Commentaries (1604)
			20. Georgio Vasari from Preface to Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors (1550, 1568)
			21. Georgio Vasari from ‘‘Life of Michelangelo’’ in Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, Painters, and Sculptors (1550, 1568)
			22. Peter Paul Rubens from Preface to Palaces of Genoa (1622)
	Part II: Classicism in France and Britain
		A. French Classicism: Ancients and Moderns
			Introduction
			23. Rene´ Descartes from Rules for the Direction of the Mind (1628)
			24. Roland Fre´art de Chambray from Preface to A Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the Modern (1650)
			25. Paul Fre´art de Chantelou from Diary of the Cavaliere Bernini’s Visit to France (1665)
			26. Franc¸ois Blondel from ‘‘Inaugural Lecture to the Academy of Architecture’’ (1671)
			27. Franc¸ois Blondel, from Architecture Course (1675)
			28. Rene´ Ouvrard from Harmonic Architecture (1677)
			29. Claude Perrault annotations to French translation of The Ten Books of Architecture of Vitruvius (1673)
			30. Franc¸ois Blondel from Architecture Course, Vol. II (1683)
			31. Claude Perrault from The Ten Books of Architecture of Vitruvius, second edition (1684)
			32. Claude Perrault from Ordonnance for the Five Kinds of Columns After the Method of the Ancients (1683)
			33. Jean-Franc¸ois Fe´libien from Preface to Historical Survey of the Life and Works of the Most Celebrated Architects (1687)
			34. Charles Perrault from Preface to Parallel of the Ancients and Moderns with Regard to the Arts and Sciences (1688)
			35. Charles Perrault from ‘‘Design of a Portal for the Church of Sainte-Genevie`ve in Paris’’ (1697)
			36. Michel de Fre´min from Critical Memoirs on Architecture (1702)
			37. Jean-Louis de Cordemoy from New Treatise on All Architecture or the Art of Building (1706, 1714)
		B. British Classicism and Palladianism
			Introduction
			38. Henry Wotton from The Elements of Architecture (1624)
			39. Christopher Wren from Tract I on architecture (mid-1670s)
			40. Christopher Wren from Tracts II and IV on architecture (mid-1670s)
			41. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury from Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times (1711)
			42. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury from ‘‘A Letter Concerning Design’’ (1712)
			43. Colin Campbell Introduction to Vitruvius Britannicus, Vol. I (1715)
			44. Nicholas Du Bois Translator’s Preface to The Architecture of A. Palladio (1715)
			45. William Kent ‘‘Advertisement’’ to The Designs of Inigo Jones (1727)
			46. James Gibbs Introduction to A Book of Architecture (1728)
			47. Robert Morris from An Essay in Defence of Ancient Architecture (1728)
			48. Alexander Pope from Of False Taste (1731)
			49. Isaac Ware ‘‘Advertisement’’ to Andrea Palladio: The Four Books of Architecture (1737)
			50. Robert Morris from ‘‘An Essay upon Harmony’’ (1739)
	Part III: Neoclassicism and the Enlightenment
		A. Early Neoclassicism
			Introduction
			51. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach from Preface to Outline for a Historical Architecture (1721)
			52. Voltaire from Philosophic Letters on the English (1733)
			53. Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot from ‘‘Memoir on Architectural Proportions’’ (1739)
			54. Jacques-Gabriel Soufflot from ‘‘Memoir on Gothic Architecture’’ (1741)
			55. Carlo Lodoli from Notes for a projected treatise on architecture (c.1740s)
			56. Baron de Montesquieu from Preface to The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
			57. Jean-Jacques Rousseau from ‘‘Discourse on the Sciences and Arts’’ (1750)
			58. Jean Le Rond D’Alembert from ‘‘Preliminary Discourse of the Editors’’ (1751)
			59. Jacques-Franc¸ois Blondel from ‘‘Architecture’’ in Diderot’s Encyclopedia (1751)
			60. Charles-E´ tienne Briseux from Preface to Treatise on Essential Beauty in the Arts (1752)
			61. Marc-Antoine Laugier from Essay on Architecture (1753)
			62. Marc-Antoine Laugier from Essay on Architecture (1753)
			63. Isaac Ware from A Complete Body of Architecture, Chapter II (1756)
			64. Isaac Ware from A Complete Body of Architecture, Chapter IX (1756)
			65. William Chambers from A Treatise on Civil Architecture (1759)
			66. William Chambers from A Treatise on the Decorative Part of Civil Architecture (1791)
		B. Greece and the Classical Ideal
			Introduction
			67. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett from ‘‘Proposals for publishing an accurate description of the Antiquities of Athens’’ (1748)
			68. Robert Wood and James Dawkins from The Ruins of Palmyra (1753)
			69. Johann Joachim Winckelmann from Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture (1755)
			70. Allan Ramsay from ‘‘A Dialogue on Taste’’ in The Investigator (1755)
			71. Julien-David Le Roy from The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece (1758)
			72. Julien-David Le Roy from The Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece (1758)
			73. James Stuart and Nicholas Revett from Preface to The Antiquities of Athens (1762)
			74. Johann Joachim Winckelmann from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
			75. Johann Joachim Winckelmann from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
			76. Johann Joachim Winckelmann from History of the Art of Antiquity (1764)
			77. Giovanni Battista Piranesi from ‘‘Observations on the Letter of Monsieur Mariette’’ (1765)
			78. Giovanni Battista Piranesi from Opinions on Architecture (1765)
			79. Giovanni Battista Piranesi from ‘‘An Apologetical Essay in Defence of the Egyptian and Tuscan Architecture’’ (1769)
		C. Character and Expression
			Introduction
			80. Germain Boffrand from Book of Architecture (1745)
			81. E´ tienne Bonnot de Condillac from Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge (1746)
			82. Julien-David Le Roy from History of the Arrangement and Different Forms that the Christians Have Given to Their Churches (1764)
			83. Jacques-Franc¸ois Blondel from Course of Architecture (1771)
			84. Nicolas Le Camus de Me´zie`res from The Genius of Architecture (1780)
			85. Nicolas Le Camus de Me´zie`res from The Genius of Architecture (1780)
			86. Jean-Louis Viel de Saint-Maux from Letters on the Architecture of the Ancients and the Moderns (1787)
			87. A. C. Quatreme`re de Quincy from Methodical Encyclopedia (1788)
			88. E´ tienne-Louis Boulle´e from Architecture, Essay on Art (c.1794)
			89. E´ tienne-Louis Boulle´e from Architecture, Essay on Art (c.1794)
			90. Claude Nicolas Ledoux from Architecture Considered in Relation to Art, Morals, and Legislation (1804)
			91. John Soane from Royal Academy Lectures on Architecture (V and XI; 1812–15)
	Part IV: Theories of the Picturesque and the Sublime
		A. Sources of the Picturesque
			Introduction
			92. John Locke from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
			93. William Temple from ‘‘Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or, of Gardening in the Year 1685’’ (1692)
			94. John Vanbrugh from Letter to the Duchess of Marlborough (1709)
			95. Anthony Ashley Cooper, Third Earl of Shaftesbury from ‘‘The Moralists’’ (1709)
			96. Joseph Addison
from The Spectator (1712)
			97. Robert Castell
from The Villas of the Ancients Illustrated (1728)
			98. Batty Langley
from New Principles of Gardening (1728)
			99. Robert Morris
from Lectures on Architecture (1736)
			100. William Chambers
from Designs of Chinese Buildings (1757)
		B. Toward a Relativist Aesthetics
			Introduction
			101. John Locke
from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, fourth edition (1700)
			102. Joseph Addison
from The Spectator (1712)
			103. Jean Baptiste du Bos
from Critical Reflections on Poetry, Painting, and Music (1719)
			104. Francis Hutcheson
from An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725)
			105. George Berkeley
from the ‘‘Third Dialogue’’ of Alciphron (1732)
			106. David Hume
from A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40)
			107. Allan Ramsey
from ‘‘A Dialogue on Taste’’ in The Investigator (1755)
			108. Alexander Gerard
from An Essay on Taste (1756)
			109. David Hume
from ‘‘Of the Standard of Taste’’ (1757)
			110. Edmund Burke
from A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime
and Beautiful (1757)
			111. Edmund Burke
from A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime
and Beautiful (1757)
			112. Lord Kames
from Elements of Criticism (1762)
			113. Robert and James Adam
from Preface to The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (1773–8)
		C. Consolidation of Picturesque Theory
			Introduction
			114. Thomas Whately
from Observations on Modern Gardening (1770)
			115. Horace Walpole
from ‘‘The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening’’ (1771)
			116. William Chambers
from A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening (1772)
			117. William Gilpin
from Observations on the River Wye (1782)
			118. Joshua Reynolds
from Discourses on Art (1786)
			119. John Soane
from Plans, Elevations, and Sections of Buildings (1788)
			120. Uvedale Price
from Essays on the Picturesque (1794)
			121. Richard Payne Knight
from ‘‘Postscript’’ to The Landscape, second edition (1795)
			122. Humphry Repton
from Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening (1795)
			123. Uvedale Price
from ‘‘An Essay on Architecture and Buildings as connected with
Scenery’’ (1798)
			124. Richard Payne Knight
from An Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste (1805)
			125. John Soane
from Royal Academy Lectures on Architecture, V, VIII, and XI (1812–15)
	Part V: The Rise of Historicism in the Nineteenth Century
		A. Challenges to Classicism in France, 1802–34
			Introduction
			126. Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand
from Pre´cis of the Lectures on Architecture (1802)
			127. A. C. Quatreme`re de Quincy
from On Egyptian Architecture (1803)
			128. Christian Ludwig Stieglitz
from Archaeology of the Architecture of the Greeks and Romans (1801)
			129. A. C. Quatreme`re de Quincy
from The Olympian Jupiter (1814)
			130. Charles Robert Cockerell
from ‘‘On the Aegina Marbles’’ (1819)
			131. William Kinnard
annotations to Stuart and Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens,
second edition (1825)
			132. Otto Magnus von Stackelberg
from The Temple of Apollo at Bassae in Arcadia (1826)
			133. Jacques Ignace Hittorff
from ‘‘Polychrome Architecture Among the Greeks’’ (1830)
			134. Gottfried Semper
from Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture and Sculpture in
Antiquity (1834)
			135. Le´on Vaudoyer
excerpts from three letters of 1829, 1830, and 1831
			136. E´ mile Barrault
from To Artists (1830)
			137. Victor Hugo
from The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1832)
			138. Gottfried Semper
from Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture and Sculpture in
Antiquity (1834)
			139. Le´once Reynaud
from ‘‘Architecture’’ in the New Encyclopedia (1834)
		B. The Gothic Revival in Britain, Germany, and France
			Introduction
			140. Horace Walpole
from Letter to H. Zouch (1759)
			141. Horace Walpole
from A Description of the Villa of Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill (1774)
			142. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
from ‘‘On German Architecture’’ (1772)
			143. Franc¸ois Rene´ Chateaubriand
from The Genius of Christianity (1802)
			144. Friedrich von Schlegel
from Notes on a Trip through the Netherlands (1806)
			145. Joseph Go¨rres
from ‘‘The Cathedral in Cologne’’ (1814)
			146. Georg Moller
from Monuments of German Architecture (1815–21)
			147. Thomas Rickman
from An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (1817)
			148. William Whewell
from Architectural Notes on German Churches (1830)
			149. Robert Willis
from Remarks on the Architecture of the Middle Ages (1835)
			150. A. W. N. Pugin
from Contrasts (1836)
			151. A. W. N. Pugin
from The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841)
			152. John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb
from The Ecclesiologist (1841)
			153. Victor Hugo
from The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1832)
			154. Le´once Reynaud
from ‘‘Architecture’’ in the New Encyclopedia (1834)
			155. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from ‘‘On the Construction of Religious Buildings in France’’ (1844)
		C. The German Style Debate
			Introduction
			156. Immanuel Kant
from Critique of Judgment (1790)
			157. August Schlegel
from Lectures on Literature and the Fine Arts (1801–2)
			158. Friedrich Gilly
from ‘‘Some Thoughts on the Necessity of Endeavoring to Unify the
Various Departments of Architecture . . . ’’ (1799)
			159. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Literary fragments (c.1805)
			160. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
from The Philosophy of Fine Art (1820s)
			161. Friedrich von Ga¨rtner
from Letter to Johann Martin von Wagner (1828)
			162. Heinrich Hu¨bsch
from In What Style Should We Build? (1828)
			163. Rudolf Wiegmann
from ‘‘Remarks on the Book: In What Style Should We Build?’’ (1829)
			164. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
from Notes for a textbook on architecture (c.1830)
			165. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
from Notes for a textbook on architecture (c.1835)
			166. Rudolf Wiegmann
from ‘‘Thoughts on the Development of a National Architectural Style
for the Present’’ (1841)
			167. Johann Heinrich Wolff
from ‘‘Remarks on the Architectural Questions Broached by Professor
Stier. . . ’’ (1845)
			168. Eduard Metzger
from ‘‘Contribution to the Contemporary Question: In What Style Should
One Build!’’ (1845)
			169. Carl Bo¨tticher
from ‘‘The Principles of the Hellenic and Germanic Ways of Building’’ (1846)
		D. The Rise of American Theory
			Introduction
			170. Thomas Jefferson
Letters (1787, 1791, 1805, 1810)
			171. Benjamin Latrobe
from Letter to Thomas Jefferson (1807)
			172. George Tucker
from ‘‘On Architecture’’ (1814)
			173. William Strickland
from Introductory lecture on architecture (1824)
			174. Thomas U. Walter
from ‘‘Of Modern Architecture’’ (1841)
			175. Arthur Delavan Gilman
from ‘‘Architecture in the United States’’ (1844)
			176. Thomas Alexander Tefft
from ‘‘The Cultivation of True Taste’’ (1851)
			177. Ralph Waldo Emerson
from ‘‘Self-Reliance’’ (1841)
			178. Ralph Waldo Emerson
from ‘‘Thoughts on Art’’ (1841)
			179. Horatio Greenough
from Letter to Washington Allston (1831)
			180. Horatio Greenough
from ‘‘American Architecture’’ (1843)
			181. Horatio Greenough
from ‘‘Structure and Organization’’ (1852)
			182. Henry David Thoreau
from his journal ( January 11, 1852)
			183. Andrew Jackson Downing
from A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841)
			184. Andrew Jackson Downing
from Cottage Residences (1842)
			185. Andrew Jackson Downing
from Hints to Persons about Building in the Country (1847)
			186. Andrew Jackson Downing
from The Architecture of Country Houses (1850)
			187. Calvert Vaux
from Villas and Cottages (1857)
			188. James Jackson Jarves
from The Art-Idea (1864)
	Part VI: Historicism in the Industrial Age
		A. The Battle of the Styles in Britain
			Introduction
			189. Thomas Hope
from Observations on the Plans and Elevations Designed by James Wyatt (1804)
			190. Thomas Hope
from An Historical Essay on Architecture (1835)
			191. Thomas Leverton Donaldson
from ‘‘Preliminary Discourse before the University College of London’’ (1842)
			192. John Ruskin
from The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849)
			193. James Fergusson, A. W. N. Pugin, Edward Lacy Garbett, and Robert Kerr
from The Builder (1850)
			194. Edward Lacy Garbett
from Rudimentary Treatise on the Principles of Design in Architecture (1850)
			195. John Ruskin
from ‘‘The Nature of Gothic’’ (1851–3)
			196. Matthew Digby Wyatt
from The Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century (1851)
			197. Richard Redgrave
from ‘‘Supplementary Report on Design’’ (1852)
			198. Owen Jones
from The Grammar of Ornament (1856)
			199. John Ruskin
from ‘‘The Deteriorative Power of Conventional Art over Nations’’ (1859)
			200. Robert Kerr
‘‘The Battle of the Styles,’’ from The Builder (1860)
			201. James Fergusson
from History of the Modern Styles of Architecture (1862)
			202. William Morris
Prospectus for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company (1861)
		B. Rationalism, Eclecticism, and Realism in France
			Introduction
			203. Albert Lenoir and Le´on Vaudoyer
from ‘‘Studies of Architecture in France’’ (1844)
			204. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from ‘‘On the Construction of Religious Building in France’’ (1845)
			205. Ce´sar Daly
from ‘‘On Liberty in Art’’ (1847)
			206. Le´once Reynaud
from Treatise on Architecture (1850)
			207. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from ‘‘Architecture’’ in Reasoned Dictionary (1854)
			208. Gustave Courbet
from ‘‘Statement on Realism’’ (1855)
			209. Charles Baudelaire
from ‘‘The Painter of Modern Life’’ (1859)
			210. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from Lectures on Architecture, Lecture VI (1859)
			211. Ce´sar Daly
from Revue ge´ne´rale, Vol. 21 (1863)
			212. Ce´sar Daly
from Revue ge´ne´rale, Vol. 23 (1866)
			213. Bourgeois de Lagny
from ‘‘Salon of 1866’’
			214. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from ‘‘Style’’ in Reasoned Dictionary (1866)
			215. Euge`ne-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
from Lectures on Architecture, Lecture XII (1866)
			216. E´ mile Zola
from The Covered Market of Paris (1872)
		C. Tectonics and Style in Germany
			Introduction
			217. Karl von Schnaase
from Dutch Letters (1834)
			218. Karl Bo¨tticher
from Greek Tectonics (1843)
			219. Eduard van der Nu¨ ll
from ‘‘Suggestions on the Skillful Relation of Ornament to Untreated
Form’’ (1845)
			220. Heinrich Leibnitz
from The Structural Element in Architecture (1849)
			221. Gottfried Semper
from The Four Elements of Architecture (1851)
			222. Gottfried Semper
from Science, Industry, and Art (1852)
			223. Jacob Burckhardt
from The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
			224. Jacob Burckhardt
from The History of the Italian Renaissance (1867)
			225. Gottfried Semper
from Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts (1860)
			226. Gottfried Semper
from Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts (1860)
			227. Rudolf Hermann Lotze
from History of German Aesthetics (1868)
			228. Gottfried Semper
from On Architectural Style (1869)
			229. Richard Lucae
from ‘‘On the Meaning and Power of Space in Architecture’’ (1869)
	Additional Recommended Readings
	Acknowledgments
	Index
                        
Document Text Contents
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As full of spirit as the month of May,

And gorgeous as the sun in Midsummer,

Wanton as youthful goats, wild as young bulls.

I saw young Harry with his beaver on

Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury;

And vaulted with such ease into his seat,

As if an angel dropped from the clouds

To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus.

In that excellent book, so remarkable for the vivacity of its descriptions, as well as the

solidity and penetration of its sentences, the Wisdom of the Son of Sirach, there is a noble

panegyric on the high priest Simon the son of Onias; and it is a very fine example of the

point before us:

How was he honoured in the midst of the people, in his coming out of the sanctuary! He was as the

morning star in the midst of a cloud, and as the moon at the full; as the sun shining upon the temple

of the Most High, and as the rainbow giving light in the bright clouds: and as the flower of roses in

the spring of the year, as lilies by the rivers of waters, and as the frankincense tree in summer; as fire

and incense in the censer, and as a vessel of gold set with precious stones; as a fair olive tree budding

forth fruit, and as a cypress which groweth up to the clouds. When he put on the robe of honour, and

was clothed with the perfection of glory, when he went up to the holy altar, he made the garment of

holiness honourable. He himself stood by the hearth of the altar, compassed with his brethren round

about; as a young cedar in Libanus, and as palm trees compassed they him about. So were all the sons

of Aaron in their glory, and the oblations of the Lord in their hands, &c.

Light

Having considered extension, so far as it is capable of raising ideas of greatness; colour comes

next under consideration. All colours depend on light. Light therefore ought previously to be

examined; and with its opposite, darkness. With regard to light, to make it a cause capable of

producing the sublime, it must be attended with some circumstances, besides its bare faculty

of showing other objects. Mere light is too common a thing to make a strong impression on

the mind, and without a strong impression nothing can be sublime. But such a light as that

of the sun, immediately exerted on the eye, as it overpowers the sense, is a very great idea.

Light of an inferior strength to this, if it moves with great celerity, has the same power; for

lightning is certainly productive of grandeur, which it owes chiefly to the extreme velocity of

its motion. A quick transition from light to darkness, or from darkness to light, has yet a

greater effect. But darkness is more productive of sublime ideas than light. Our great poet

was convinced of this; and indeed so full was he of this idea, so entirely possessed with the

power of a well-managed darkness, that in describing the appearance of the Deity, amidst

that profusion of magnificent images, which the grandeur of his subject provokes him to

pour out upon every side, he is far from forgetting the obscurity which surrounds the most

incomprehensible of all beings, but

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– With majesty of darkness round

Circles his throne. –

And what is no less remarkable, our author had the secret of preserving this idea, even when

he seemed to depart the farthest from it, when he describes the light and glory which flows

from the Divine presence; a light which by its very excess is converted into a species of

darkness.

Dark with excessive light thy skirts appear.

Here is an idea not only poetical in a high degree, but strictly and philosophically just.

Extreme light, by overcoming the organs of sight, obliterates all objects, so as in its effect

exactly to resemble darkness. After looking for some time at the sun, two black spots, the

impression which it leaves, seem to dance before our eyes. Thus are two ideas as opposite as

can be imagined reconciled in the extremes of both; and both, in spite of their opposite

nature, brought to concur in producing the sublime. And this is not the only instance

wherein the opposite extremes operate equally in favour of the sublime, which in all things

abhors mediocrity.

Light in Building

As the management of light is a matter of importance in architecture, it is worth inquiring,

how far this remark is applicable to building. I think then, that all edifices calculated to

produce an idea of the sublime, ought rather to be dark and gloomy, and this for two

reasons; the first is, that darkness itself on other occasions is known by experience to have a

greater effect on the passions than light. The second is, that to make an object very striking,

we should make it as different as possible from the objects with which we have been

immediately conversant; when therefore you enter a building, you cannot pass into a greater

light than you had in the open air; to go into one some few degrees less luminous, can make

only a trifling change; but to make the transition thoroughly striking, you ought to pass

from the greatest light, to as much darkness as is consistent with the uses of architecture. At

night the contrary rule will hold, but for the very same reason; and the more highly a room

is then illuminated, the grander will the passion be.

NOTE

1 Mr. Addison, in the Spectators concerning the pleasures of imagination, thinks it is because in the

rotund at one glance you see half the building. This I do not imagine to be the real cause.

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Sainte Chapelle, church of, 85

Sanmicheli, Michele, 46

Sansovino, Jacopo, 46

Scamozzi, Vincenzo, 27, 60, 89, 153

Schelling, Friedrich von, 370, 402, 406, 555

Schiller, Friedrich, 395

Schinkel, Karl Friedrich, 407, 421, 531

Literary fragments, 401�3

Notes for a textbook on architecture, 412�15

��error of pure radical abstraction,�� 414�15

Synthesis of Greek and Gothic styles, 406

Schlegel, August, 399, 402

Lectures on Literature and the Fine Arts, 398

Schlegel, Friedrich von

Notes on a Trip, 370�3

Schnaase, Karl von, Dutch Letters, 530�1

Schuyler, Montgomery, 468

Scott, G. G., 483

Semper, Gottfried, 502, 545, 555, 558

��On Architectural Styles,�� 556�7

The Four Elements of Architecture, 536�9

��Preliminary Remarks on Polychrome Architecture

and Sculpture in Antiquity,�� 348�50, 357�9

Science, Industry, and Art, 540�4

Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts, 547�54

architectural space, 552�3, 557

��dressing�� thesis (Bekleidung), 536�9

on historicism, 358

iron in architecture, 553�4

��masking of reality�� in the arts, 550�1

Serlio, Sebastiano, 27, 44, 46, 55, 60, 78, 89

The Complete Works on Architecture and Perspective,

42�3

Sforza, Francesco, 36

Shakespeare, William, 89

Shaw, Edward, 440

Shute, John, The First and Chief Groundes of Architecture,

89

Siccard von Siccardsburg, August, 533

Sidonius Apollinarius, 5

Smith, Adam, 267

Soane, John, 290, 476

Designs in Architecture, 305

Plans, Elevations, and Sections of Buildings, 305�7

Royal Academy Lectures, 218�20, 325�9

on eclecticism, 327

on Gothic architecture, 306, 326�7

on John Vanbrugh, 325�6, 328

theory of character, 218�20

Solger, Wilhelm Ferdinand, 401

Solomon, 15�17, 55

Soufflot, Jacques-Gabriel, 135, 144, 190, 210, 363, 388

��Memoir on Architectural Proportions,�� 125�6

��Memoir on Gothic Architecture,�� 126�7

Sainte-Genevie‘ve (Panthe·on), 125, 127, 144, 195,

426

space, architectural conception of, 530�1, 546�7, 552�3,

557, 558�60

Spon, Jacob, 155

Stackelberg, O. M., Baron von, 342, 347

The Temple of Apollo at Bassae, 345�6

Strawberry Hill, 363, 364�6

Steele, Richard, 234

Stendhal, Henri, 391

Stieglitz, Christian Ludwig, Archaeology of the Architecture

of the Greeks and Romans, 340�1

Stier, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig, 417

Strickland, William, Introductory lecture on

architecture, 437�9

Street, Goerge, 503

Stuart, James and Revett, Nicholas, 165, 172, 178, 340,

341, 438, 474

Antiquities of Athens, 155�7, 169�72, 442

sublime, concept of, 201, 236�8, 253�6, 269�70,

277�83

Suger, Abbot, 22�3

Sullivan, Louis, 444, 454

Swift, Joinathan, 229

tectonics, definition of, 531, 533

Tefft, Thomas Alexander, ��The Cultivation of True

Taste,�� 443

Temple, William, 234, 296

��Upon the Gardens of Epicurus; or, of Gardening, in

the Year 1685,�� 229�30

Temple of Solomon, 15�20, 49�50

Temple of Theseus, Athens, 159, 341

Tesse·, Countess de, 427

Thibault, Jean-Thomas, 335

Thoreau, Henry David, 456�7

From his journal, 456�7

Thornton, William, 427, 432

Thorwaldsen, Berthel, 343

Thurah, Laurids Lauridsen, Den Danske Vitruvius, 27

Thynne, John, 89

Tiffany, Louis, 468

Town, Ithiel, 460

Trissino, Giangiorgio, 42, 46

Tucker, George, ��On Architecture,�� 435�7

Udine, Giovanni da, 54

Upjohn, Richard, 443

Val-de-Grace, church of, 86, 87

Vanbrugh, John, 89, 101, 218, 219, 232, 241, 288, 303�5,

319�20, 325, 325�8

Blenheim Palace, 98, 231

Letter to the Duchess of Marlborough, 230�2

Van der Null, Eduard, ��Suggestions on the Skillful

Relation of Ornament to Untreated Form,�� 533�4

Varro, 4

Vasari, Georgio

��Life of Michelangelo,�� 53

Lives of the Most Eminent Italian Architects, 50�5

view of art history, 51�3

Vaudoyer, Antoine-Laurent-Thomas, 351, 352

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INDEX 589

Page 616

Vaudoyer, Le·on, 353, 359, 506�8, 510

excerpts from three letters of 1829, 1830, and 1831,

351�3

Vaux, Calvert, 464

Villas and Cottages, 465�8

Vernet, Horace, 351

Vicenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, 55

Viel, Charles-Franc‚ois, 204

Viel de Saint-Maux, Jean-Louis, Letters on the Architecture

of the Ancients and Moderns, 204�5

Vignola, Giacomo, 27, 55, 60, 150�1, 153

Rules of the Five Orders of Architecture, 44�5

Villalpando, Juan Bautista, 61

Ezekiel Commentaries, 48�50

on proportions of Temple of Solomon, 49�50

Vataut, Jean, 388

Vinci, Leonardo da, 51, 60

Viollet-le-Duc, Euge‘ne-Emmanuel, 359, 363, 505, 506,

524

��Architecture,�� Reasoned Dictionary, 513�15

Entretiens sur l’architecture, 518�20, 526�7

��On the Construction of Religious Edifices in

France,�� 391�4, 508�10

��Style,�� 525�6

on iron, 526�7

locomotive as symbol of industrial age, 518�20

Virgil, 40

Vitet, Ludovic, 388, 391, 510

Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio), 27, 30�1, 36, 38, 42,

43, 44, 46, 48, 55, 60, 74�5, 78, 84, 89, 90, 93, 113,

126, 127, 140, 142, 185, 186, 210, 288, 335

On Architecture, 4�14

departments of architecture, 8

education of architect, 6

origin of the dwelling, 9�11

origin of orders, 12�14

principles of architecture, 5�8

on proportions, 11�12

Voltaire, 127, 135, 249

Philosophical Letters on the English, 123�4

Vries, Vredeman de, 55, 89

Wagner, Otto, 533

Wailly, Charles De, 210

Walpole, Horace, 319

A Description of the Villa of Horace Walpole at

Strawberry Hill, 364�6

��The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening,��

295�8

Letter to H. Zouch, 363�4

Walter, Thomus U., 433

��Of Modern Architecture,�� 439�40

Ware, Isaac

A Complete Body of Architecture, 147�9

Andrea Palladio: The Four Books of Architecture, 114

on proportions, 147�8

Washington, George, 426, 427, 432

Watteau, Jean-Antoine, 307

Watalet, Claude-Henri

Essai sur les jardins, 201

Webb, John, 94

Webb, Philip, 503

Weinbrenner, Friedrich, 407

Whately, Thomas

Observations on Modern Gardening, 201, 291�5

on picturesque beauty, 293�5

Wheeler, George, 155

Whewell, William, 381

Architectural Notes on German Churches, 378�81

Wiegmann, Rudolf

��Remarks on the Book: In What Style Should We

Build?��, 410�12

��Thoughts on the Development of a National

Architectural Style for the Present,�� 415�17

Wightwick, George, 462

Wilkins, William, 341, 475

Willis, Robert, Remarks on the Architecture of the Middle

Ages, 381

Winckelmann, Johann, Joachim, 155, 178, 224, 340, 342,

349, 367

History of the Art of Antiquity, 172�9

on Laocoon, 162�3

Reflections on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting

and Sculpture, 159�63

historical framework for style, 176�8

on the nature of the Greek people, 172�4

theory of absolute beauty, 174�6

Wordsworth, William, 444

Wolff, Johann Heinrich, ��Remarks on

the . . . Architectural Questions Broached by

Professor Stier at the Architects� Congress in

Bamberg,�� 417�19

Wood, Robert and Dawkins, James, 163

The Ruins of Palmyra, 158�9

Wotton, Henry, 6, 89

The Elements of Architecture, 89�90

Wren, Christopher, 89, 109, 112, 219, 231, 232, 325,

363

Tract I on architecture, 91�2

Tracts II and IV on architecture, 93�4

on Gothic architecture, 94

on natural and customary beauty, 91�2

Royal Naval Hospital, Greenwich, 91

Saint Paul�s Cathedral, 91

Tom Tower, Oxford, 93

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 444

Wyatt, James, 364, 474�5, 493

Wyatt, Matthew Digby, The Industrial Arts of the

Nineteenth Century, 493�4

Zola, E· mile, The Covered Market of Paris, 527�8

Zweckmässigkeit, meaning of, 396�403, 407

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590 I NDEX

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