Download Architectural Graphics PDF

TitleArchitectural Graphics
Author
File Size72.1 MB
Total Pages275
Table of Contents
                            Architectural Graphics
Contents
Preface
1 Drawing Tools and Materials
	Drawing Pencils
	Drawing Leads
	Drawing Pens
	Drawing Guides
	Drawing Aids
	Drawing Scales
	Drawing Surfaces
2 Architectural Drafting
	Drawing Lines
	Line Types
	Line Weights
	Line Quality
	Drafting Techniques
3 Architectural Drawing Systems
	Projection Drawing
	Pictorial Systems
	Multiview Drawings
	Paraline Drawings
	Perspective Drawings
	Communicating Design Ideas
4 Multiview Drawings
	Plans
	Floor Plans
	Ceiling Plans
	Site Plans
	Site Topography
	Site Scale and Orientation
	Site Plan Drawings
	Sections
	Building Sections
	Site Sections
	Elevations
	Building Elevations
	Interior Elevations
5 Paraline Drawings
	Paraline Drawings
	Types of Paraline Drawings
	Isometric Drawings
	Plan Obliques
	Elevation Obliques
	Constructing Paraline Drawings
	Paraline Views
	Expanded Views
	Cutaway Views
	Phantom Views
	Digital Views
	Sequential Views
6 Perspective Drawings
	Linear Perspective
	Perspective Projection
	Perspective Elements
	Pictorial Effects of Perspective
	Perspective Variables
	Types of Perspective
	One-Point Perspective
	Diagonal Point Method
	One-Point Perspective Grid
	Section Perspectives
	Two-Point Perspective
	Measuring Point Method
	Two-Point Perspective Grid
	Two-Point Perspective Drawings
	Perspective Measurements
	Inclined Lines
	Stairs
	Circles
	Reflections
7 Rendering Tonal Values
	Tonal Values
	Creating Tonal Values
	Value Scale
	Tonal Values and Texture
	Modeling Form
	Conveying Light
	Modeling and Lighting
	Tonal Values in Architectural Drawings
	Shade and Shadows
8 Rendering Context
	People
	Furniture
	Vehicles
	Landscaping
	Reflections
9 Architectural Presentations
	Architectural Presentations
	Presentation elements
	Drawing Relationships
	Forming Visual Sets
	Graphic Symbols
	Lettering
	Presentation formats
10 Freehand Drawing
	Drawing from Observation
	Drawing Subjects
	Drawing Composition
	Contour Drawing
	Analytical Drawing
	Building a Drawing
	Travel Sketching
	Diagramming
	Diagramming Elements
	Diagramming Relationships
	Diagramming Issues
	Parti
	Diagramming Principles
Index
EULA
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 137

perspect ive DrAwin Gs / 129

two-Point PersPective

The two-point perspective system assumes that the
observer’s central axis of vision (CAV) is horizontal and
the picture plane (PP) is vertical. The principal vertical
axis is parallel to PP, and all lines parallel to it remain
vertical and parallel in the perspective drawing. The two
principal horizontal axes, however, are oblique to PP. All
lines parallel to these axes therefore appear to converge
to two vanishing points on the horizon line (HL), one set
to the left and the other to the right. These are the two
points referred to in two-point perspective.

Two-point perspective is probably the most widely used
of the three types of linear perspective. Unlike one-point
perspectives, two-point perspectives tend to be neither
symmetrical nor static. A two-point perspective is par-
ticularly effective in illustrating the three-dimensional
form of objects in space ranging in scale from a chair to
the massing of a building.

• The pictorial effect of a two-point perspective varies
with the spectator’s angle of view. The orientation of
the two horizontal axes to PP determines how much we
will see of the two major sets of vertical planes and the
degree to which they are foreshortened in perspective.

• In depicting a spatial volume, such as the interior of a
room or an exterior courtyard or street, a two-point
perspective is most effective when the angle of view
approaches that of a one-point perspective.

vprvpl hl

2

3

1

horizontal horizo
ntal

ve
rt

ica
l

vpr

to vpl

hl

Page 138

130 / Arch i tectur Al GrAph ics

measuring Point methoD

The following is a method for constructing a two-point
perspective grid utilizing measuring points. As with the
construction of a one-point perspective, you should first
establish the observer’s point of view. Determine what
you wish to illustrate. Look toward the most significant
areas and try to visualize from your plan drawing what will
be seen in the foreground, middleground, and background.
Review the perspective variables on pages 115–120.

plan setup
• At a convenient scale, construct a plan diagram of the

perspective setup to determine the desired angle of
view.

• Lay out the major baselines of the space.

• Establish the station point (SP) and the observer’s
central axis of vision (CAV), being careful that most
of what you wish to illustrate lies within a 60° cone of
vision.

• Locate the picture plane (PP) perpendicular to CAV.
It is usually convenient to have PP intersect a major
vertical element of the space so that it can be used as
a vertical measuring line (VML).

• Locate the left and right vanishing points (VPL and
VPR). Remember that the vanishing point for any set of
parallel lines is that point at which a line drawn from SP,
parallel to the set, intersects PP.

vprvpl pp
par

alle
l

cA
v

c
parallel

left baseline

rig
ht b

ase
line

sp

60° cone of vision

plan setup

Page 274

INDEX

266 / Arch i tectur Al GrAph ics

tooth, 3
topography, 63–65
top view, orthographic projection, 33
tracing paper, 14, 22, 126, 133
transformations, 27
travel sketching, 243–245
trees, 194–199
trial layouts, 215
triangles (drawing guide), 7

for drawing angles, 26
for drawing shadows in perspective views,

183
for elevation obliques, 96
for hand lettering, 210
for lettering, 210
for parallel/perpendicular lines, 23
for plan obliques, 95

trimetric projection, 35
trimetric view, 31, 34
trucks, 193
T-squares, 6
2D CAD programs, 10, 45
2D drawing programs

colors and tonal values with, 154
digital templates in, 10
paraline views with, 104–105

2D vector-based drawing programs, 10, 27
two-point perspectives, 129–136

characteristics of, 31
grid construction for, 132–134
measuring point method for, 130–131
perspective variables with, 118, 121
shade and shadows in, 183–184

typefaces, 209

U
unity, in architectural presentations, 203
urban spaces, 224, 225
utility lines, 19

V
vanishing point (VP), 112, 136
vanishing point for an inclined set of lines (VPi),

140–142

vanishing trace (VT), 141
Vanna Venturi House, Philadelphia, 54
vector-based drawing programs, 10, 45
vector drawings, 43
vector images, 27
vehicles, drawings of, 193
vellum, 14
Venturi, Robert, 54
vertical limit, freehand drawing, 230
vertical measuring line (VML), 124, 130, 132
views (in paraline drawings), 100–106

cutaway, 102
digital, 104–105
expanded, 100–101
phantom, 103
sequential, 106

vision, 148
visual weight, graphic symbols, 208
VML (vertical measuring line), 124, 130, 132
VP (vanishing point), 112, 136
VPi (vanishing point for an inclined set of lines),

140–142
VT (vanishing trace), 141

W
walk-through, digital, 39
walls

edge view, 171, 174
in floor plans, 52
in interior elevations, 90

water, 200
white space, 207
windows, 53, 58
window sills, 58
wooden drawing pencils, 2
worm’s-eye view, 34, 92, 115
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 135

Page 275

WILEY END USER LICENSE
AGREEMENT

Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley�s ebook
EULA.

http://www.wiley.com/go/eula

Similer Documents