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TitleArchitectural Engineering Design: Mechanical Systems
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Table of Contents
                            Cover
INTRODUCTION
CLIMATIC FORCES
CLIMATE CONTROL
PLUMBING
ELECTRICAL
ILLUMINATION
ACOUSTICS
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

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1.A. GENERAL
This publication includes two Æ (architectural engineering) hand-

books, this one dealing with the design of mechanical systems and related
components, the other doing the same with structural systems. Each vol-
ume also contains an interactive CD-ROM of its algebraic formulas that
enables each equation to be solved quickly and accurately by computer.

These handbooks and their accompanying disks contain architec-
tural engineering information and algebraic equations for conceptualiz-
ing, selecting, and sizing virtually every functional component in any kind
of building, from shed to skyscraper, anywhere in the world. With these ref-
erences, an Æ designer can quickly determine whether a functional compo-
nent is large enough to be safe for its intended purpose, yet not so large
that money is wasted. Certainly these volume-cum-disks are thorough com-
pilations of technical knowledge acquired from academic study, official
research, and established office practice. But they also contain countless
practical, insightful, and even a few horrifying anecdotes gleaned from
construction experiences, water-cooler dissertations, trade magazine edi-
fications, and numerous other in-the-field events as they relate to our
species’ ongoing need for safe and comfortable shelter.

These publications also emphasize the latest computerized controls
being incorporated into every functional aspect of today’s buildings.
Today’s Æ designers cannot claim to be up with the times if they do not
understand TBM systems. This includes the incredible production and
energy savings they can bring, the problems they create, and the solutions
today’s engineers are evolving to eliminate the latter.

These volumes also stress that a vital aspect of any functional com-
ponent’s design involves adequate access for maintaining it after con-
struction; because it can be said that no matter how good any part is, it
always fails eventually. Architects may think, and rightfully so, that main-
tenance is not their problem; but accessing maintenance is no one else’s
problem. More than ever before, occupants of modern buildings are pris-
oners of maintenance; and today’s Æ designers should be an ally to these

1

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INTRODUCTION

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Source: ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING DESIGN: MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

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B. Butler (Morgan & Morgan, Dobbs Ferry, NY, 1981); p. 88. • Much of the infor-

Fig. 4-41. Anatomy of a graywater recycling system. •

ROOF

GREYWATER

PLUMBING

FIXTURES

INCOMING

GRAYWATERFLOW

3-WAY DIVERTOR W/

DIGITALLY CONTROLLED

WATER PURITY SENSORS

VENT

STACK

ACCESS

COVER

BACKFLOW

VALVE REQ.

AT PIPES-IN-

COMMON

OVERFLOW

PIPE FROM

COLLECTOR

TANK

WATER FLOAT

SWITCH

OPERATES

PUMP

DISCHARGE PIPE

ACCESS

COVER

FILTER BED

OVERFLOW

PIPE FROM

FILTER BED

BACKFLOW

VALVE W/

VIEWING

PORT

TO SEWER

FROM KITCHEN

FIXTURES

FROM TOILET

FIXTURES

GREYWATER COLLECTION TANK

HAIR FILTER BAG

PUMP REQUIRED IF FILTER

BED IS ABOVE LEVEL OF

COLLECTION TANK

SUPPLEMENTAL

FRESHWATER

SUPPLY WHEN

GREYWATER FLOW

IS INADEQUATE

3-WAY VALVE W/

DIGITAL CONTROLS

CHLORINATOR OR

OTHER CHEMICAL

TREATMENT

IRRIGATION TOILET FLUSHING BATHING CLOTHES WASHING

AIRFLOW THRO’

RADIATOR COIL, OR

SIMILAR APPARATUS,

IF RECAPTURE OF

GREYWATER HEAT IS

DESIRED

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PLUMBING

Page 352

entered, drainage piping that allowed the tank to be emptied for periodic
cleaning, and a manhole-like access cover that penetrated above the
ground through which a person could climb down a ladder inside to clean
its floor and walls of collected debris. The cistern’s retained water was
used for irrigation, toilet flushing, clothes washing, and even bathing. This
was high technology in the days before the Rural Electrification Act.

But then electricity came, and spawned the submersible well pump.
Then in an era of plentiful watts and water, the cistern became a figment of
history.

But then computers came, and spawned digital controls. Then in an
era of scanty watts and water, the cistern returned. At least this may be
said a few decades hence, by a future historian who assesses the then-
most recent proliferations in water reuse technology. This is because
recently a system methodology based on computerized controls has been
developed that enables water draining from certain plumbing fixtures,
roofs, and outdoor pavements to be recycled after minor treatment for
operating fire sprinklers, flushing toilets, irrigating plants, and running
industrial operations in today’s buildings —and such digital manipula-
tions may very quickly become very popular due to the kind of water and
electricity shortages that are beginning to plague California today, with
more than a few other localities inevitably following close on their heels.
Such water reuse has acquired the name of greywater retainage or grey-
water recycling. These systems allow the reuse of water that is already
onsite and has been paid for, and they can retain warmer-than-indoor-tem-
perature greywater until its excess Btus have entered indoor spaces
instead of flowing out the building. Greywater recycling is also highly effi-
cient —in most applications nearly 100 percent— and its energy savings
may be especially achievable in residences, which often have the optimal
combination of plumbing fixtures that can produce and reuse greywater.
Its economies are also feasible in any commercial occupancy that has a
large roof, parking areas, a swimming pool, a lot of greywater producers
such as bathtubs, showers, or drinking fountains (e.g. hotels and gymna-
siums), or a lot of greywater reusers such as toilets, fire sprinklers, and
plants needing watering. Thanks to digital controls, such systems are now
viable for almost every building in America: not only in Western states
where water is scarce, but also in the rainfall-rich Northeast (remember
New York’s three-year drought in the Mid-1960s?), throughout the South
where average annual rainfall approaches 50 in. but where droughts occur
with maddening frequency, and even in the Pacific Northwest where a
region may receive 90 in. of rain a year but often none during the summer
and early fall. Indeed, the cost-benefits of graywater recycling can only
increase in the future, as burgeoning populations impose ever-increasing
demands on the nation’s water and energy resources.

A graywater recycling system’s design begins with defining exactly

PLUMBING 351

mation in this figure was obtained from Stephen Bilson’s “How Greywater Sys- ¸

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PLUMBING

Page 702

07. MECH acous 627-702 2/15/02 3:31 PM Page 701

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ACOUSTICS

Page 703

702 ¯¸˛ÂçÂ˙Â∏´ÂÒÂÅÂ¿Â˘

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ACOUSTICS

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