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TitleArchitectural Acoustics
PublisherAcademic Press
ISBN 139780124555518
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size29.8 MB
Total Pages873
Table of Contents
                            Front cover
ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS
Copyright page
Table of contents
PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chapter 1. HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION
	1.1 GREEK AND ROMAN PERIOD (650 BC - AD 400)
	1.2 EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD (AD 400–800)
	1.3 ROMANESQUE PERIOD (800–1100)
	1.4 GOTHIC PERIOD (1100–1400)
	1.5 RENAISSANCE PERIOD (1400–1600)
	1.6 BAROQUE PERIOD (1600–1750)
	1.7 ORIGINS OF SOUND THEORY
	1.8 CLASSICAL PERIOD (1750–1825)
	1.9 ROMANTIC PERIOD (1825–1900)
	1.10 BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ACOUSTICS
	1.11 TWENTIETH CENTURY
Chapter 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS
	2.1 FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH
	2.2 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
	2.3 SUPERPOSITION OF WAVES
	2.4 SOUND WAVES
	2.5 ACOUSTICAL PROPERTIES
	2.6 LEVELS
	2.7 SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION
Chapter 3. HUMAN PERCEPTION AND REACTION TO SOUND
	3.1 HUMAN HEARING MECHANISMS
	3.2 PITCH
	3.3 LOUDNESS
	3.4 INTELLIGIBILITY
	3.5 ANNOYANCE
	3.6 HEALTH AND SAFETY
	3.7 OTHER EFFECTS
Chapter 4. ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS AND NOISE METRICS
	4.1 MICROPHONES
	4.2 SOUND LEVEL METERS
	4.3 FIELD MEASUREMENTS
	4.4 BROADBAND NOISE METRICS
	4.5 BAND LIMITED NOISE METRICS
	4.6 SPECIALIZED MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
Chapter 5. ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE
	5.1 NOISE CHARACTERIZATION
	5.2 BARRIERS
	5.3 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
	5.4 TRAFFIC NOISE MODELING
	5.5 RAILROAD NOISE
	5.6 AIRCRAFT NOISE
Chapter 6. WAVE ACOUSTICS
	6.1 RESONANCE
	6.2 WAVE EQUATION
	6.3 SIMPLE SOURCES
	6.4 COHERENT PLANAR SOURCES
	6.5 LOUDSPEAKERS
Chapter 7. SOUND AND SOLID SURFACES
	7.1 PERFECTLY REFLECTING INFINITE SURFACES
	7.2 REFLECTIONS FROM FINITE OBJECTS
	7.3 ABSORPTION
	7.4 ABSORPTION MECHANISMS
	7.5 ABSORPTION BY NONPOROUS ABSORBERS
	7.6 ABSORPTION BY RESONANT ABSORBERS
Chapter 8. SOUND IN ENCLOSED SPACES
	8.1 STANDING WAVES IN PIPES AND TUBES
	8.2 SOUND PROPAGATION IN DUCTS
	8.3 SOUND IN ROOMS
	8.4 DIFFUSE-FIELD MODEL OF ROOMS
	8.5 REVERBERANT FIELD EFFECTS
Chapter 9. SOUND TRANSMISSION LOSS
	9.1 TRANSMISSION LOSS
	9.2 SINGLE PANEL TRANSMISSION LOSS THEORY
	9.3 DOUBLE-PANEL TRANSMISSION LOSS THEORY
	9.4 TRIPLE-PANEL TRANSMISSION LOSS THEORY
	9.5 STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS
Chapter 10. SOUND TRANSMISSION IN BUILDINGS
	10.1 DIFFUSE FIELD SOUND TRANSMISSION
	10.2 STC RATINGS OF VARIOUS WALL TYPES
	10.3 DIRECT FIELD SOUND TRANSMISSION
	10.4 EXTERIOR TO INTERIOR NOISE TRANSMISSION
Chapter 11. VIBRATION AND VIBRATION ISOLATION
	11.1 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
	11.2 SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
	11.3 VIBRATION ISOLATORS
	11.4 SUPPORT OF VIBRATING EQUIPMENT
	11.5 TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
	11.6 FLOOR VIBRATIONS
Chapter 12. NOISE TRANSMISSION IN FLOOR SYSTEMS
	12.1 TYPES OF NOISE TRANSMISSION
	12.2 AIRBORNE NOISE TRANSMISSION
	12.3 FOOTFALL NOISE
	12.4 STRUCTURAL DEFLECTION
	12.5 FLOOR SQUEAK
Chapter 13. NOISE IN MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
	13.1 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
	13.2 NOISE GENERATED BY HVAC EQUIPMENT
	13.3 NOISE GENERATION IN FANS
	13.4 NOISE GENERATION IN DUCTS
	13.5 NOISE FROM OTHER MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
Chapter 14. SOUND ATTENUATION IN DUCTS
	14.1 SOUND PROPAGATION THROUGH DUCTS
	14.2 SOUND PROPAGATION THROUGH PLENUMS
	14.3 SILENCERS
	14.4 BREAKOUT
	14.6 CONTROL OF DUCT BORNE NOISE
Chapter 15. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS
	15.1 CODES AND STANDARDS
	15.2 PARTY WALL CONSTRUCTION
	15.3 PARTY FLOOR-CEILING SEPARATIONS
	15.4 PLUMBING AND PIPING NOISE
	15.5 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
	15.6 APPLIANCES AND OTHER SOURCES OF NOISE
Chapter 16. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF OFFICE BUILDINGS
	16.1 SPEECH PRIVACY IN OPEN OFFICES
	16.2 SPEECH PRIVACY IN CLOSED OFFICES
	16.3 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
Chapter 17. DESIGN OF ROOMS FOR SPEECH
	17.1 GENERAL ACOUSTICAL REQUIREMENTS
	17.2 SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY
	17.3 DESIGN OF ROOMS FOR SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY
	17.4 MOTION PICTURE THEATERS
Chapter 18. SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEMS
	18.1 LOUDSPEAKER SYSTEMS
	18.2 SOUND SYSTEM DESIGN
	18.3 CHARACTERIZATION OF TRANSDUCERS
	18.4 COMPUTER MODELING OF SOUND SYSTEMS
Chapter 19. DESIGN OF ROOMS FOR MUSIC
	19.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
	19.2 GENERAL DESIGN PARAMETERS
	19.3 QUANTIFIABLE ACOUSTICAL ATTRIBUTES
	19.4 CONCERT HALLS
	19.5 OPERA HALLS
Chapter 20. DESIGN OF MULTIPURPOSE AUDITORIA AND SANCTUARIES
	20.1 GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
	20.2 DESIGN OF SPECIFIC ROOM TYPES
	20.3 SPECIALIZED DESIGN PROBLEMS
Chapter 21. DESIGN OF STUDIOS AND LISTENING ROOMS
	21.1 SOUND RECORDING
	21.2 PRINCIPLES OF ROOM DESIGN
	21.3 ROOMS FOR LISTENING
	21.4 ROOMS FOR RECORDING
	21.5 ROOMS FOR MIXING
	21.6 DESIGN DETAILS IN STUDIOS
Chapter 22. ACOUSTIC MODELING, RAY TRACING, AND AURALIZATION
	22.1 ACOUSTIC MODELING
	22.2 RAY TRACING
	22.3 SPECULAR REFLECTION OF RAYS FROM SURFACES
	22.4 DIFFUSE REFLECTION OF RAYS FROM SURFACES
	22.5 AURALIZATION
REFERENCES
INDEX
                        
Document Text Contents
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A R C H I T E C T U R A L A C O U S T I C S

Page 436

Vibration and Vibration Isolation 407

relevant floor area, are hung between the ceiling and the slab. It is not advisable to use the
ceiling itself as the dynamic absorber, since mass damping works to minimize floor motion
by maximizing the motion of the suspended mass. If the ceiling motion is maximized, it will
radiate a high level of noise at the floor resonance.

Mass absorbers have also been used to damp the natural swaying motion of large towers
such as the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, using a dynamic pendulum. The double pendulum
is another two degree of freedom system whose behavior is similar to that of a double spring
mass. In this example the tower is encircled with a donut-shaped mass that is suspended as a
pendulum. The mass is located at the point of maximum displacement of the normal modes
of the structure. In the case of tall towers, the second and third modes are usually damped.
The maximum displacement of the first mode occurs at the top of the tower and practical
considerations prevent the suspension of a pendulum from this point. Two donut-shaped
pendulums were used at the 1/3 and 1/2 points of the structure where they counter the second
and third modes of vibration.

11.6 FLOOR VIBRATIONS

The vibration of floors due to motions induced by walking or mechanical equipment can be
a source of complaints in modern building structures, particularly where lightweight con-
struction such as concrete on steel deck, steel joists, or concrete on wood joist construction
is used. Usually the vibration is a transient flexural motion of the floor system in response
to impact loading from human activity (Allen and Swallow, 1975), which can be walking,
jumping, or continuous mechanical excitation. The induced amplitudes are seldom enough
to be of structural consequence; however, in extreme cases they may cause movement in
light fixtures or other suspended items. The effects of floor vibrations are not limited to
receivers located immediately below. With the advent of fitness centers, which feature aer-
obics, induced vibrations can be felt laterally 100 feet away on the same slab as well as up
to 10 stories below (Allen, 1997).

Sensitivity to Steady Floor Vibrations

People, equipment, and sophisticated manufacturing processes, such as computer chip pro-
duction, are sensitive to floor vibrations. The degree of sensitivity varies with the process
and various authors have published recommendations. One of the earliest was documented
by Reiher and Meister (1931) and is shown in Fig. 11.21. These were human responses
determined by standing subjects on a shaker table and subjecting them to continuous ver-
tical motion. Subjects react more vigorously to higher velocities, and for high amplitudes,
awareness increases with frequency. Also shown are the Rausch (1943) limits for machines
and machine foundations and the US Bureau of Mines criteria for structural safety against
damage from blasting.

Sensitivity to Transient Floor Vibrations

Vibrational excitation of floor systems may be steady or transient; however, it is usually
the case that steady sources of vibration can be isolated. Transient vibrations due to footfall
or other impulsive loads are absorbed principally by the damping of the floor. Damping
provides a function somewhat akin to absorption in the control of reverberant sound in a
room. People react, not only to the initial amplitude of the vibration, but also to its duration.

Page 437

408 Architectural Acoustics

Figure 11.21 Response Spectra for Continuous Vibration (Richart et al., 1970; Reiher
and Meister, 1931)

Investigators use tapping machines, walking at a normal pace (about 2 steps per second),
and a heel drop test, where a subject raises up on his toes and drops his full weight back on
his heels, as impulsive sources. This latter test represents a nearly worst-case scenario for
human induced vibration, with aerobic studios and judo dojos being the exception.

After studying a number of steel-joist concrete-slab structures, Lenzen (1966) suggested
that the original Reiher-Meister scale could be applied to floor systems having less than 5%
of critical damping, if the amplitude scale were increased by a factor of 10. This means that
we are less sensitive to floor vibration when it is sufficiently damped, in this case when only
20% of the initial amplitude remains after five cycles. He further suggested that if a vibration
persists 12 cycles in reaching 20% of the initial amplitude, human response is the same as
to steady vibration. Allen (1974), using his own experimental data along with observations
of Goldman, suggested a series of annoyance thresholds for different levels of damping.
This work, along with that of Allen and Rainer (1976), was adopted as a Canadian National
Standard, which is shown in Fig. 11.22.

Page 872

Index 843

Toccata 16, 19
Toole, Floyd 109, 111, 749, 750, 751, 756, 765, 780
Townhouse 509, 540
Traffic 90, 91, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 136, 183, 184,

186, 188, 189, 378, 379, 515, 590, 606, 769
distribution 131, 132
noise

index (TNI) 136
standard deviation 135, 136, 159, 169, 185, 188, 619,

622
Transducers 31, 76, 115, 124, 146, 217, 222, 612, 616, 621,

636, 744, 766
Transfer function 627, 629, 408, 810
Transfer gain 627
Transformer 74, 477, 478, 617
Transient vibrations 407
Transmissibility 389, 390, 392, 406
Transmission 285, 303, 304, 308, 331, 337

coefficient 355, 357
loss 270, 293, 294, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321,

322, 323, 325–349, 351–364, 366, 367, 369, 370,
371, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 462, 486, 488,
494–495, 497–504, 510, 515–516, 519–520, 553,
555, 562–564, 567, 569, 571, 574, 610, 759

composite 353, 354
direct field 325, 357, 365–366, 544, 549
field-incidence 321–322, 326

Transmissivity 276, 320–321, 333, 365, 493
Trash chute 541
Tremolo 79
Triple-panel 342–344, 364, 517, 779
Troubadours 13
Trouveres 13
Tube 20–21, 52, 56, 64, 73–74, 76, 114, 120, 203–204, 225,

229, 247, 250–252, 255, 274–275, 277, 279–282,
285–289, 294, 334, 349, 386, 451, 458–461, 463,
541, 741–742, 745, 756

closed-closed 287, 745–746
closed-open 289, 746
open-open tube 288, 349

Turnhill, William B. 32
Two degrees of freedom 342, 404–407
Tympanic membrane (ear drum) 73

U
Ungar, Eric 323, 412–415
Uniform Building Code (UBC) 427, 510, 700
Upper gallery (scala vestibuli) 76
Ureda, Mark 231
Uris, 338
Useful-to-Detrimental Energy Ratio (U� ) 592, 600, 602
Useful-to-Late Energy Ratio (C� ) 592, 600
Useful-to-late signal-to-noise ratio 620
Utriculus 76

V
Valeria 4
Van Gendt, A. L. 29
Van Houten, John 102, 529–531
Variable volume 729
Vehicular traffic noise data
Velocity 4, 20, 37–38, 51–54, 56, 58–59, 81, 115–116, 127,

129, 148–149, 157, 170–171, 177–183, 191,

194–195, 197, 200, 207–208, 219, 225, 237,
239–240, 252–253, 262–265, 267, 272–275, 279,
291, 304, 306, 319, 323, 341, 345, 366, 381–384,
401, 410, 427–428, 430, 432, 434, 438, 441, 459,
464, 467–470, 472–473, 474–475, 482–483, 485,
490, 497, 508, 529, 531–532, 536, 748, 797

Vena contrata 203
Ver, Istan 54, 60–61, 175, 181, 262, 323, 366, 382, 434,

435–437, 439–443, 469, 498, 500, 504
Vermuelen, R. 736
Vibration

acceleration 381–382, 384, 390, 415
displacement 381–384, 387–388, 392, 399, 404, 407,

410, 412, 415
isolation 202, 381, 387, 389–390, 392, 394–399,

401–403, 405–406, 418, 420, 440, 479, 522,
533–534, 539–540, 571, 637, 763

efficiency 390–391, 399
isolator 357, 389–390, 392–393, 395, 401–402, 423,

525, 536, 637, 763
pads 392–393, 395, 520, 533, 535, 537, 539, 574
neoprene 392–394, 535
spring 420, 574
hanger 394, 401
air spring 201–203, 228, 272, 334, 360, 420

jerk 381
velocity 381–384, 401, 410

Vibron Ltd. 395–399, 403
Video projection 700, 765–766
Vinokur, Roman Y. 339–342, 344
Vitaphone 742
Vitruvius Pollio 5
Vivaldi, Antonio 19
Voice

directivity 1, 544
over 773–774
spectrum (VS) 545–546, 548, 552
spectrum rating (VSR) 548

Volume per seat 580, 658, 660, 662, 678, 701
von Bekesy, G. 77
von Gierke, H. 101–102, 106
Vorlander, M. 798

W
Wagner, Richard 25, 657
Wakuri, T. 782
Walking 407–409, 413–414, 417, 427, 440, 446, 523, 528,

552, 558, 660, 742, 773
Wall 4, 15, 30, 107, 146, 161–163, 165, 204, 210, 218–219,

231, 233–234, 237, 240, 249, 256, 261, 263,
265–268, 271, 278, 280–281, 286, 301, 306–310,
315, 330, 333, 337–339, 344, 351–353, 355,
357–358, 360–364, 368–370, 375–378, 386, 399,
403, 422, 449, 478, 482, 486, 491, 500–501, 511,
513, 515–522, 526–529, 531–533, 540–541, 544,
560, 563–569, 572, 574, 585, 587, 608, 615, 656,
659, 663–666, 682, 684–685, 688, 693, 699, 703,
706–707, 710, 712, 719–720, 722, 725–727, 730,
734, 746, 749, 752–753, 756, 759, 761, 764–767,
769–770, 773, 775, 777–780, 783–784

Wall penetration 376, 402–403, 521, 531, 770
Water hammer 529, 534–535, 537, 540
Waterhouse, Richard 237–238, 240, 307
Watters, B. G. 245, 282, 663, 759, 761

Page 873

844 Architectural Acoustics

Wave
equation one-dimensional 205–206
equation three-dimensional 207, 294
number 51, 206, 209, 265, 289–290, 294, 296, 333,

493, 797
plane 57–59, 148, 161, 205–206, 208, 236–238, 250,

265, 285–287, 291–293, 304, 319–320, 333, 347,
365, 367, 427, 492–493, 495

propagation 38, 50, 177–178, 179, 285–287, 290
standing 250–251, 286, 295, 478, 746
table 781

Wave motion 55, 262, 333
longitudinal 50, 54–55, 436, 441–442
shear 55, 326, 328, 418
torsion 55
bending 55–56, 163, 240, 323, 326, 332, 341, 345, 430,

433–434, 440
Rayleigh 55–56

Wavelength 37–38, 51–52, 73, 118, 127, 162, 172, 182, 188,
199, 203, 209, 211–212, 214, 217, 220, 222, 230,
233–234, 239–240, 247, 249, 265, 273, 279–283,
285–286, 289–291, 293–294, 322, 326, 332, 334,
345, 349, 355, 467, 483, 488, 492–493, 583, 615,
635–636, 681, 728, 748–749, 782, 787, 802–803

Wave
acoustics 199, 205
plane 57–59, 148, 161, 205–206, 208, 236–238, 250,

265, 285–287, 291–293, 304, 319–320, 333, 347,
365, 367, 427, 492–493, 495

Wegel, R. L. 92
Weighting Curves, A, B, C, D, E 85
Weighting factor (WF) 142, 545–546, 601
Wells, R. J. 98, 495
Wenger Corp. 764
Wente, E. C. 741

West Angeles Cathedral 718
Whispering gallery 249
White, Robert W. 412–415
White noise 40
Whittle, L. S. 141
Wilfrid Laurier University 722–723
Willaert, Adrian 11
Wilson, C. P. 347–348
Wilson, Ihrig & Associates 532
Wind 126–127, 157, 163, 165, 168, 177–178, 180–181,

183, 663
Window 257, 338–341, 353, 355, 366, 369, 371–372,

378–379, 557, 567, 618, 707, 736, 772, 774–775,
778–779

dual-paned 341
Wood 4, 22, 29–30, 115, 166, 257–259, 261, 269, 279, 274,

330–331, 339, 345, 357–358, 361, 363, 369,
373–378, 383, 386, 402, 407, 418, 420, 427, 429,
442, 445–449, 514–519, 522–529, 531, 535, 537,
541, 660, 664–665, 679–680, 684–685, 691–692,
695, 701, 707, 710, 724–726, 756, 761, 772–774,
782, 797

Wood floor 339, 386, 427, 445–446, 449, 522, 526
Wood stud 357, 361, 516
Wyle Laboratories 130–131, 196–198

Y
Yamamoto, K. 782
Young, Warren C. 443

Z
Zwicker, E. 84

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