Download Animation The Mechanics of Motion PDF

TitleAnimation The Mechanics of Motion
PublisherFocal Press
ISBN 139780080454474
CategoryArts - Film
Author
LanguageEnglish
File Size10.8 MB
Total Pages280
Table of Contents
                            Cover
Animation: The Mechanics of Motion
Contents
Foreword
Preface
	THE EXERCISES
	AND FINALLY
Introduction – Walking with Animators
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1 Basic Principles
	Before we begin
	Timing in animation
		Persistence of vision
		Frames per second
		Timing
		Animation Exercise 1.1 – Flip Book
		Pacing
		Phrasing
		Timing
	Laws of motion
		First law (inertia)
		Second law (constant acceleration)
		Third law (equal and opposite action)
		Cause and effect
		Gravity and its effect on a falling object
	Squash and stretch
	Pose-to-pose and straight-ahead
		Advantages of pose-to-pose animation
		Disadvantages of pose-to-pose animation
		Advantages of straight-ahead animation
		Disadvantages of straight-ahead animation
	Keys and inbetweens
		Slow out
		Slow in
		Animation Exercise 1.2 – Bouncing Balls
	Overlapping action, follow-through and drag
		What is overlapping action?
		Staggered timing
		Primary actions
		Secondary actions
		Tertiary actions
		Overlapping Action Case Study 1 – Lifting a Weight
		Overlapping Action Case Study 2 – Getting Out of a Chair
		What is follow-through?
		Costume
		What is drag?
		How does drag affect an action?
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Overlapping Action, Follow-through and Drag
	Arcs and curves, and line of action
		Arcs and curves
		Line of action
	Cycle animation
		What is cycle animation?
		Wave cycle
		Flag cycle
		Animation Exercise 1.3 – Flag Cycle
		Animation Exercise 1.4 – Aeroplane Cycle
Chapter 2 Figurative Animation
	Before we begin
	The four ‘A’s of animation
		Activity
		Action
		Animation
		Acting
	Walks and runs
		Walks
			Basic walk cycle
		Animation Exercise 2.1 – Basic Walk Cycle
		Runs
		Animation Exercise 2.2 – Basic Run Cycle
	Weight and balance
		Weight
		Balance
		Lifting
		Throwing
		Pushing
		Pulling
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Weight and Balance
	Anticipation
		Takes
		An argument in support of life drawing
Chapter 3 Acting
	Before we begin
	Characterization
		The performance is the thing
		Dialogue
		Motivation and objectives
		Empathy
		Physical acting
		Psychological acting
	Temperament and pace
		Animation Exercise 3.1 – Temperament and Pace
		Animation Exercise 3.2 – Character Types/Two Sacks
	Character interaction
		Animation Exercise 3.3 – Character Interaction
	Planning a scene
		The six stages of planning a scene
	Props and costume
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Acting in Animation
Chapter 4 Design
	Before we begin
		Production
		Style
		Audience
		Distribution
		Format and budget
	Storyboards
		Script first
		Thumbnail or rough storyboards
		Presentation storyboards
		Working storyboards
	Animatics
	Character design
		Character development
		The animation bible
		Will it animate?
		Model sheets
		Height relationship chart
		Colour models
		Construction sheets
		Action sheets
		Lip-sync guides
	Design criteria
		The morgue
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Design
Chapter 5 Animals in Motion
	Before we begin
	Four legs
		The structure and proportion
		The walk
		Animation Exercise 5.1 – Basic Walk Cycle
		The trot
		The run
		Animation Exercise 5.2 – Basic Run Cycle
		Animation Exercise 5.3 – Advanced Action
		Questions to Ask Yourself about a Four-legged Animal in Motion
	Birds in flight
		Flight cycles
		Animation Exercise 5.4 – Basic Flight Cycle
		Take-off
		Landing
		Animation Exercise 5.5 – Take-off and Landing
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Birds in Flight
Chapter 6 Sound Synchronization
	Before we begin
	Bar charts
	Delivering dialogue and carrying narrative
	Lip synchronization
		Mouth shapes
		Body-sync
		Animation Exercise 6.1 – Lip-sync
		Animation Exercise 6.2 – Sound Synchronization
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Sound Synchronization
Chapter 7 Technical
	Before we begin
	Dope sheets
		What are dope sheets and what are they for?
		Creating animation timings
		Alterations to animation timings
		Holds
		Moving holds
		Staggered doping
		Repeat animation
		Random doping
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Dope Sheets
	Line tests
	Layouts and field guides
		What are layouts?
		What are field guides and graticules?
		Camera moves
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Layouts
	Formats
		Recording formats
		Video or film?
	Production processes
		Production management
		Production charts
		Production schedules
		Production folders
		Production budgets
		Questions to Ask Yourself about Production Management
Appendices
	Appendix 1: Glossary
		A
		B
		C
		D
		F
		G
		I
		K
		L
		M
		O
		P
		R
		S
		T
		X
	Appendix 2: Further reading
		Practical guides
		Theoretical
		Historical
	Appendix 3: Further viewing
	Appendix 4: Useful contacts
		Suppliers
		Schools
		Animation studios
		Other information
Index
	A
	B
	C
	D
	E
	F
	G
	H
	I
	J
	K
	L
	M
	N
	O
	P
	Q
	R
	S
	T
	U
	V
	W
	X
                        
Document Text Contents
Page 2

Animation:
The Mechanics

of Motion

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Page 140

Acting 119

● Calm to surprise and then embarrassment. A figure walking along trips and stumbles,
then regains balance and attempts to remain dignified and act as though nothing has
happened.

● Tiredness to surprise and then anger. A figure gets out of an easy chair in which he has
been dozing. As he gets up he turns and stubs his toe; he grabs at his foot in pain,
perhaps hopping on one leg. Angrily he turns to the chair and gives it a swift kick,
causing him to stub his toe once more.

● Happy to shock and then to fear. A figure is walking along and for no apparent reason
an anvil drops into shot, narrowly missing him. Startled at this, the figure looks up in time
to see more dropping all around him. Abject terror is the result!

This exercise should have given you an insight into the possibilities of character-based
animation. It’s what all the great animated performances are built upon. Hopefully, with
practice (and a lot of it) you will just get better and better at this, and once you have gained
confidence you will be able to breathe life and personality into your own creations. All that
is left to do now is for you to practise your craft for the next 20 years or so. Simple!

ANIMATION EXERCISE 3.2 – CHARACTER TYPES/TWO SACKS

Aims

To create two distinct personalities within two inanimate objects that have the same
physical appearance. To demonstrate mood change through the varying actions of two
characters.

Objective

Once you have completed this short exercise you should be able to animate characters with
distinctive personalities that are independent of physical appearances.

1. For this animation exercise try using two flour sacks as the characters for your
animation. While in appearance they should be similar, in temperament they should
not. Each of the flour sacks should demonstrate their individuality and distinct
characteristics in all that they do, or endeavour to do.

2. The first sack should be eager, confident, bright and energetic, while his companion,
the second sack, lacks confidence, demonstrates apprehensive behaviour, and is
generally somewhat less enthusiastic and dynamic.

3. Animate them making their way across the screen together. The exact nature of their
movement is left to your discretion.

4. They stop as they find their way barred by a narrow, although very deep and perilous,
chasm.

5. They assess how they are to proceed and finally attempt to jump across.

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120 Animation: The Mechanics of Motion

6. You should undertake to animate this sequence demonstrating both physical and
emotional interaction between the sacks.

7. The final outcome of the sequence is left to the discretion of the animator.

8. The animation sequence should not be dependent upon dialogue or soundtrack.

Figure 3.3 The separate sacks display differences in characterization and personality, not through their
physical appearance but in the manner they behave.

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Page 279

Scripts, 135–6
storyboard, 134
versus performance, 110

SECAM system, 227–8
Second-hand equipment, 227
Secondary actions, 38–9, 40
Shadow puppets, 181
Shaw, Susannah, 227
Shots, 206
Silent characters, 112
Silent movies, 181
Silly Symphonies, 182
The Simpsons, 149
Slapstick, 114
‘Slow in’/‘slow out’ actions,

28–9, 31–2
Slow motion, 5–6
Snow White, 115, 182
The Snowman, 219
Software:

animatics, 141
choosing, 227
classical animation, 228
editing, 184, 228–9
paint and trace, 146–7
recording, 228
soundtrack synchronisation,

183–4
stop-frame animation, 228

Sound effects, 184–5
Sound synchronisation, 179–99

bar charts, 182–8
dialogue and narrative, 189
exercise, 198–9
lip-sync, 189–98

Soundtrack see Music; Voice
track

Spacing of images, 7, 8, 28
Speeded up action, 5–6
Sprinting, 88

see also Running
Squash and stretch, 18, 22–4
Staggered doping, 212, 214,

215
Staggered timing, 36–7
Standing up, 44
Steamboat Willie, 182
Steenbeck editing machine, 183
Stock animation, 231–2

Stop-frame animation:
concept art, 150
design criteria, 152–3
equipment and materials, 3
layers of action, 41
line tests, 221
lines of action, 52
model construction, 160, 161
model sheets, 145, 151
recording, 228

Stop Motion Pro software, 228
Story reels see Storyboards
Storyboards, 133–9

pace, 115
presentation, 137–9
scene planning, 124
thumbnail/rough, 136–7
working, 139, 140

Storylines see Scripts
Straight-ahead animation, 24–7
Stretching, 212

see also Squash and stretch
Stride, 75–8, 85–9
Structural models, 158–61, 173

see also Model sheets
Studios, 251–2
Style:

consistency, 132, 142
design implications, 132

Subcontracting, 232
Suppliers, 251
‘Sweatboxes’, 220
Synchronisation:

animal motion, 162–7
lip-sync guides, 150, 152
soundtrack, 141, 179–99

Take-off, 172, 174
exercise, 176–7

Takes, 100–1, 102
Technical issues, 201–36

dope sheets, 203–19
formats, 226–9
layouts and field guides,

221–6
line tests, 220–1
production processes,

229–36
Telecine process, 228

258 Index

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Page 280

Television series, 149
Tell Tale Heart, 132
Temperament, 115–19

exercise, 117–19
Terminator II, 7
Tertiary actions, 39–40
Test animation, 143
Theoretical texts, 247–8
Throwing, 25, 51, 93, 95–7,

100
Thumbnail storyboards, 136–7
Timing, 4–14

alterations, 209
computer games, 131
design, 131
dialogue, 195–6
dope sheets, 205–7
flight cycle, 169, 172
frames per drawing, 208
lifting, 94
psychological acting,

114–15
recording, 208–9
running, 86
staggered, 36–7
variable, 28–32
walking, 77

Tom and Jerry, 22
Toon Boom software, 228
Toy Story, 111
Trade press, 227
Trotting, 165–7
Turning:

body, 37
head, 52, 53

Unbalance, 75
UPA (United Productions of

America), 131–2

Variable timing, 28–32
see also Drag; Follow-through;

Overlapping action
Video:

formats, 227
frames per second, 5
versus film, 226–9

Villains, 115
Vision, persistence of, 4
Voice artists, 111–12, 189
Voice track:

pace, 115
scene planning, 124
synchronising, 141

Walking, 13–14
arm swing, 51
drag, 49
exercise, 78–85, 163–5
figurative animation,

72–85
front view, 77
horses, 162–3
keys and inbetweens, 76
perspective, 63
primary action, 37–8
repeat animation, 214
timing, 77

Walking With Dinosaurs, 109
Walley, Clive, 152, 181
Wave cycle, 55, 57
Weight, 89–98
Williams, Richard, 45
Winder, Catherine, 236
Wings see Birds
Working storyboards, 139, 140

X-sheets see Dope sheets

Index 259

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